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for making incursions on the empire, as for the empire in repressing those incursions. But other less creditable motives have been attributed to Hadrian for its destruction, one of them the envy he had of the name of its founder. There are still partial remains of an ancient Roman bridge over the Tagus near Alcantara. This consisted of six arches, each 80 ft. span, extending altogether 800 ft. in length, and some of them 200 ft. high above the river. We do not, in closing our brief view of the bridges of the Romans, more than mention the extraordinary temporary bridge which Caesar threw over the Rhine. 223. Aqueducts. – It is obvious that of all the requisites for a city, the supply of wholesome water is only equalled by that of discharging it, which latter we have before seen was well provided for in the Eternal City. The aqueducts by which the Romans supplied their cities with this necessary element, are among the largest and most magmificent of their works. Their ruins alone, without other testimony, supply the means of estimating their extraordinary power, skill, and industry. They are works which sink into nothingness all other remnants of antiquity, not even excluding the amphitheatres, which we shall soon have to notice, because they were for the comfort, not the pastime, of the people. The earliest aqueduct was that of Appius Claudius, which we have above noticed as constructed in the 442d year of the city. It conveyed the Aqua Appia to Rome, from a distance of between seven and eight miles, by a deep subterraneous channel upwards of eleven miles in length. We shall here digress for a moment, by observing that upon the discovery of good water at a distance from the city at a much higher level than the service therein indicated, it was the practice to supply by means of a channel raised at any height as the case needed, through a stone-formed trough raised on the tops of arches as the course of it required over valleys, and otherwise became necessary from the nature of the face of the country, such a quantity as the source would afford. Hence the arcades raised to carry this simple trough of supply were often of stupendous height, and their length was no less surprising. In the present day, the power of steam has afforded other means of supplying a great city with water; but we much question whether the supply afforded by all the concealed pipes of this vast metropolis can compete in refreshment and general utility to its inhabitants with those at the present day poured into Rome, without becoming a burthen to the respective inhabitants, and this principally from the means which their predecessors provided. 224. The aqueduct of Quintus Martius, erected 312 years before Christ, is among the most extraordinary of the Roman aqueducts. Commencing at a spring thirty-three miles distant from Rome, it made a circuit of three miles, and then, after being conveyed through a vault or tunnel of 16 ft. in diameter, continued for thirty-eight miles along a series of arcades 70 ft. in height. It was formed with three distinct channels, one above the other, conveying the water from three different sources. In the upper one was the Aqua Julia, in the next the Aqua Tepula, and in the lowest the Aqua Martia. The Aqua Virginia was constructed by Agrippa, and in its course passed through a tunnel 800 paces in length. The Aqua Claudia, begun by Nero, and finished by Claudius, of which fig. 125. shows several arches, conveyed water to Rome from a distance of thirty-eight miles; thirty miles of this length was subterraneous, and seven miles on arcades, and it still affords a supply of water to the city. The Anio was conveyed to Rome by two different channels: the first was carried over a length of forty-three miles, and the latter of sixty-three, whereof six miles and a half formed a continued series of arches, many of them upwards of 100 ft. in height above the ground on which they stood. At the beginning of the reign of Nerva, there were nine great aqueducts at Rome. That emperor, under the superintendence of Julius Frontinus, constructed five others, and at a later period there were as many as twenty. According to Frontinus (de Aquaeductibus) the nine earlier aqueducts supplied 14,018 quinaria daily, which are equal to 27,743,100 cubic ft. ; and it has been computed that when all the aqueducts were in delivery, the surprising quantity of 50,000,000 of cubic ft. of water was afforded to the inhabitants of Rome, so that, reckoning the population at one million, which it probably never exceeded, 50 cubic ft. of water were allowed for the consumption of each inhabitant. More magnificent Roman aqueducts are, however, to be found in the provinces than those that supplied the city. That of Metz, whereof many of the arcades remain, is one of the most remarkable; extending across the Moselle, a river of considerable breadth where it crosses it, it conveyed the water of the Gorse to the city of Metz. From the reservoir in which the water was received, it was conducted through subterranean channels of hewn stone, so spacious that in them a man might stand upright. The arches appear to have been about fifty in number, and about 50 ft. in height. Those in the middle of the river have been swept away by the ice, those at the extremities remaining entire. In a still more perfect state than that at Metz is the aqueduct of Segovia.

Fig.125. ----------

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of which one hundred and fifty of the arches remain, all formed of large blocks unconnected by cement, in two ranks of arcades one above the other. 225. It has been conjectured that the causes for not carrying these aqueducts in straight lines were first to avoid excessive height, where low grounds were crossed, and, secondly, to diminish the velocity of the water, so that it might not be delivered to the city in a turbid state. Along the line of an aqueduct, according to Montfaucon, at certain intervals, reservoirs called Castella were formed, in which the water might deposit its silt; these were round towers of masonry raised of course as high as the aqueduct itself, and sometimes highly ornamented. The same author observes that below the general bed of the channel, pits were sunk for the reception and deposit of the earthy particles which the water contained. Vitruvius directs the channels to be covered over to protect the water from the sun's rays, and (lib. viii. chap. 7.) he moreover directs that when water-pipes are passed across a valley, a center should be formed, which is a subterranean reservoir wherein the water may be collected, and by which its expansion may be diminished, so that the hydrostatical pressure will not burst the joints. He also recommends that open vertical pipes should be raised for the escape of the air which accompanies the water, a practice which the moderns have found it necessary to adopt wherever it is necessary to bend pipes upwards, and thus permit the escape of air, which would impede, and even stop altogether, the movement of the water in them. 226. Theatres.—The earliest stone theatre of Rome, as we have before stated (185. ), was that of Pompey; but it must be recollected that as there are notices in history of this theatre having been more than once consumed by fire, there can be little doubt that a portion, probably the seats and scenes, were of wood. The second theatre of stone was raised by Julius Caesar, after which Augustus reared one in honour of Marcellus, the son of his sister. The scanty ruins of this last enable one to do little more than trace its elevation, and from their curve to compute its extent. There was no essential difference between the form of the Roman and Greek Theatre, of which latter we have given a diagram in fig. 106. We nevertheless think it right here to present the reader with one of the Roman Theatre fig. 126.), as nearly as it can be made out from the description of Vitruvius. (Book v. Chap. 6. “The form of a theatre," according to that author, “is to be adjusted so, that from the centre of the dimension allotted to the base of the perimeter, a circle is to be described, in which are inscribed, at equal distances from each other, four equilateral triangles whose points must touch the circumference of the circle.” – “Of these triangles the side of that which is nearest the scene determines the face of it, in that part where it cuts the circumference of the circle. A line drawn parallel to it through the centre will separate the pulpitum of the proscenium from the orchestra. Thus the pulpitum becomes more spacious and convenient that that of the Greeks, because our actors remain chiefly on the scena. In the orchestra are assigned seats to the senators: the height of its pulpitum must not exceed 5 ft., so that the spectators in the orchestra may have a clear view of the motions of the actors. The portions between the staircases (cunei) of the theatre are to be so divided that the vertices of the triangles, that touch the circumference, may point to the directions of the ascents and steps between the cunei on the first pracinction or story. Above these the steps are placed alternately and form the upper cunei in the middle of those below. The angles thus pointing to staircases will be seven in number, and the remaining five will indicate certain points on the scene. That in the centre, for instance, is the situation for the royal door, those on the right and left the doors of the guests, and those at the extremities the points at which the road diverges. The seats (gradus) for the spectators are not to be less than 20 in. in height nor more than 22. Their width is not to be more than 24 ft. nor less than 2 ft.” Besides the theatres named, that of Cornelius Balbus, built by him in honour of Augustus, was on a scale of considerable magnificence.

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227. The large theatre at Pompeii, as was frequently the case, was formed upon the slope of a hill, the corridor being the highest part, whence the audience descended to their seats, and staircases were saved. The gradus at this theatre were about 1 ft. 3 in. high, and 2 ft. 4 in. wide, and from a part which is divided and numbered off, 1 ft. 34 in. appear to have been allotted to each spectator. There still remain some of the iron rings, for the reception of the masts from which the velarium or awning was suspended.

228. Amphitheatres. – The amphitheatre was unknown to the Greeks. At an early period, however, in Rome, human beings were compelled to fight for the amusement of spectators. The taste for such spectacles increased with its indulgence; but it was nevertheless not until the time of the emperors, that buildings were erected solely for exhibition of gladiatorial shows. The principal amphitheatres, of which remains ; still exist, are one at Alba, * a small city of Latium; another near the Tiber at Otricoli ; one of brick near the banks of the Garigliano; one at Puzzuoli, wherein parts of the arcades and caves for wild beasts still remain; one at Capua; another at Verona; a very fine one at Pola in Istria (fig. 127.). In France, Arles, Saintes Autun, Nismes, and Nice possessed amphitheatres. In short, wherever the Romans went, they erected those extraordinary monuments of their power and skill. But all that we have enumerated were far surpassed by the Coliseum, which has been already briefly mentioned by us at page 79. The form of this building on the plan is an ellipse, whose transverse exterior axis is 615 ft. and its conjugate 510 ft., covering therefore nearly six English acres of ground. The whole mass is placed on an ascent of six stages, which encircle its whole circumference. In the centre is the arena, a name which it received from being strewed with sand, the transverse and conjugate axes whereof are 281 and 176 ft. respectively. Round the arena was a wall on which was the podium or fence; and immediately behind this wall all round was a row of cells in which the beasts were placed preparatory to their entrance into the arena. In the rear of the cells was a corridor from which vaults radiated in directions perpendicular or nearly so to the curve of the ellipse, and serving to support the first manianum or interior range of seats. In some of these vaults were steps leading to the podium ; others were merely passages between the first corridor and the next towards the interior. The second corridor was lighted by apertures cut through its vault to the pracinctio which separated the first and second horizontal division of the seats. In rear of the second corridor, vaults again radiated, in some whereof were steps leading to the second division of the seats, and in others were galleries which led from the corridor to the double arcade, surrounding the whole edifice. The description will be better comprehended by reference to figs. 128. and 129., in the latter whereof a portion of the exterior side is removed, to exhibit the section.

229. About the whole exterior of the building, there are three orders of columns rising above each other, and one of pilasters crowning the whole. The columns are of equal diameter, and are filled in between with eighty arcades in each story. The arches of these arcades have all archivolt mouldings round them. Four of the arcades in the lower tier were reserved for the admission of distinguished personages, the remainder for the populace; these last were called vomitoria, serving both for ingress and egress to and from the places of the spectators, by means of steps under the vaults that supported the seats. The piers which support the arches are 7 ft. 4. in. wide; on each is a half column projecting from the general face of the wall. The opening between the piers is 17 ft. 3; in. Impost mouldings are placed at the springing of the arches, and encircle the building except where interrupted by the columns and openings. The lower order resembles the Doric, except that the frieze is without triglyphs and the cornice without mutules. Desgodetz makes the height of the columns 27-63 ft., and their lower diameter 2.91 ft. Their diminution is very small. The height of the entablature is 6-64 ft., and the height, therefore, of the whole order above the pavement is 34-27 ft. The second order is Ionic, and stands on a dado 6 ft. high, broken under the columns to receive their projection from the wall. The columns are 25-73 ft. high. The volutes of the capitals are without ornament; the eye being merely marked by a circle. The entablature is 6-64 ft. high, and its subdivisions are like that in the order below. There are neither modillions nor dentils in the cornice. The height of the whole order is 38-37 ft. The third order is Corinthian, standing on a dado 6:39 ft. high. The columns are 25-58 ft. high, the entablature 6'59 ft., and the height of the entire order, including the dado, is 38-57 ft.

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The upper story is decorated with a series of Corinthian pilasters on subplinths 2.79 ft. high, placed on a dado of the height of 7 ft. The height of the pilasters, which are not

Fig. 125 PLAN or culiarum.

diminished, is 28 ft., and the height of their entablature is 7.37 ft. The frieze and architrave are broken vertically in each interpilaster over three corbels, on which it is supposed,

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running through the back part of the cornice, poles were placed for holding the velarium, which was occasionally stretched over the building to protect the spectators from the sun or rain. The whole height of the façade above the steps was 162 ft. The columns project rather more from the walls than their semidiameter; and the faces of the walls are not in the same vertical plane, but recede from it towards the interior of the building. The widths of the piers vary in the different stories, being respectively from the lower part upwards as 871, 8:38, and 7-28 ft. Between the pilasters, in the fourth order, are square windows. The velarium was attached to the poles round the circumference with a fall towards the interior, so that the rain was delivered into the arena. The following has been supposed as a method of spreading the velarium, of which Fontana gives a representation, but no description. A cable being placed round the edge, and following the curve of the podium. strong ropes were attached to it in the direction of the radiating walls on the plan, and passing through pullies in the poles at the top of the building, which were 240 in number, resting on the corbels before mentioned, so that the whole might be raised to the required height. It would follow the inclination of the seats, and the cloth, of whatever fabric or materials it might be, being formed in gores equal on the outer edges to the distance of the masts from each other, might move on the radiating ropes by rings attached to the edges of

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each gore, so as to be moved backwards and forwards by persons stationed on the parapet. Marine soldiers were employed for this purpose. The velarium was sometimes of silk, but more usually yellow or brown woollen cloth. Nero once had a purple velarium stretched across the building, representing the heavens with stars of gold on it, and a design embroidered thereon of the Chariot of the Sun. 230. It has been conjectured by some Roman antiquaries that the arena was boarded ; and, from the changes that could be made on it in a very short period, the conjecture is highly probable. Domitian covered it with water for the purpose of exhibiting marine shows and naval fights. Sometimes it was changed into the representation of a forest with wild beasts roaming about. These alterations were effected by means of machines called pegmata. In particular parts of the building, pipes were provided for the distribution of perfumes, which it was a common practice to sprinkle in showers; but, on particularly great occasions, the perfumes were allowed to flow down the steps or gradus of the amphitheatre. 23 1. The conjecture relative to the boarded floor of the arena has been corroborated by the discoveries made while the French had possession of Rome. They excavated the arena, and found vaults and passages under its whole area. It is much to be regretted that these inquiries were not carried on, owing to an accumulation of waters, for which no drainage having been provided, they became unwholesome from stagnancy, and it therefore was necessary once more to close it again by obvious means. Great care was bestowed on the drainage of this edifice, which was encircled by a large sewer for the reception of the water of the interior drains, that were all conducted into it. Another drain, 30 inches wide, was carried round under the second corridor, into which are conveyed the water from the perpendicular conduits and that from the third corridor, whose drain is 3 ft. in depth and 17 inches in width. The sides of these drains are lined with tiles. Another drain runs on the outer side of the third corridor, and is of the same size as the last named. Other drains communicate with these towards the arena in various directions. 232. Paoli thinks that amphitheatres were first used by the Etruscans, and by them introduced into Rome; that the people in question first exhibited their games in narrow valleys, and that the spectators were ranged around on the sides of the hills; that when these sports were exhibited in cities, an arena was dug into the level ground, and the earth thrown out was formed into seats; and that when the community became rich enough, or the games came to be held in greater esteem, the amphitheatre was enclosed with a wall, and the seats formed of wood or stone. It certainly appears to us that Paoli's conjecture is reasonable, and that Etruscan buildings or formations were the original type. 233. The amphitheatre at Nismes was capable of containing 17,000 persons: it was 400 ft. long and 320 ft. broad. That at Verona, upon whose age antiquaries are divided in opinion, some maintaining that it was built in the time of Augustus, and others as late as the time of Maximian, Maffei making somewhat of a mean between the two periods, is of an elliptical form, 508 ft. long and 403 ft. broad. It is in much better preservation than the Coliseum. Its exterior wall has three stories of Tuscan pilasters on the face of the wall, the two upper whereof stand on podia. Between these pilasters are arcades of semicircular-headed apertures. Maffei says, that allowing a foot and a half of room for each person, this edifice would seat 22,000 spectators. 234. Baths. – Publius Victor says that the city of Rome contained public and private baths to the amazing number of 850. Some of these we know, from their ruins, were buildings of great extent and magnificence. They were all constructed, we mean the public ones, on plans very similar; and, in order to a description of them, we give in fig. 130, a restored plan of the baths of Caracalla, at Rome. Those of Titus and Dioclesian may also be traced; the chief others being those of Agrippa, Nero, and Domitian. The baths of Antoninus Caracalla are thus described by Eustace (vol. i. p. 226.) : “Repassing the Aventine Hill, we came to the baths of Antoninus Caracalla, that occupy part of its declivity, and a considerable portion of the plain between it, Mons Caeliolus and Mons Caelius. No monument of ancient architecture is calculated to inspire such an exalted idea of Roman magnificence as the ruins of their therma, or baths. Many remain in a greater or less degree of preservation; such as those of Titus, Dioclesian, and Caracalla. To give the untravelled reader some notion of these prodigious piles, I will confine my observations to the latter, as the greatest in extent and as the best preserved; for, though it be entirely stripped of its pillars, statues, and ornaments, both internal and external, yet its walls still stand, and its constituent parts and principal apartments are evidently distinguishable. The length of the thermae was 1840 ft., its breadth 1476. At each end were two temples; one to Apollo, and another to Esculapius, as the tutelary deities (genii tutelares) of a place sacred to the improvement of the mind and the care of the body. The two other temples were dedicated to the two protecting divinities of the Antonine family, Hercules and Bacchus. In the principal building were, in the first place, a grand circular vestibule, with four halls on each side, for cold, tepid, warm, and steam baths: in the centre was an immense square for exercise, when the weather was unfavourable to it in the

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