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The French have, through the Normans, received the Korrigen of Britanny. These are females always occupied with combing their flaxen hair; an assiduity quite in charac

mans; a fact that made the "bowmen" of England so famous: the energy and embellishment of the legs through the calf-so distinctive of the Celt-is an ulterior and higher development.

The confirmation might be pushed through every detail of the body. For example, the prime criterion of the colour of the hair. The English are predominantly still a red-haired people; a fact that would be sufficient to prove their Gothic purity. In general, this fauve or predatory hue of the wild and forest is effaced in man, nay animals, by social or city life; yet it persists in the vast majority of the population of London. The Chinese, nice observers in superficial matters, denominate the English Houng-mao-jin, or the Red-hair men; precisely as the pirate Semites were by the Greeks named Phoenicians. There is also perhaps in the Irish aversion to this feature a historical impression as well as gentilitial instinct. Among the peasantry and the children it is an object of reproach, and they couple it with cunning and deceit by the word "foxy." It has undoubtedly some connection with this mental and moral character, as well as with the dominance of the muscular system. The colour, it is true, is found among the Celtic Highlanders; it seems to have been general with their British predecessors, and was a ground with Tacitus for thinking them Teutons. But the fact is an exception of the sort that proves the law. Or to speak strictly, it is not at all an exception; a real law of nature can have none; what are vulgarly so called are cases varied by new conditions. The interfering influence was here the locality; and not so much for the air, as for the modes of life and exercise. Mountaineers develope less the nervous system than the muscular, which was accordingly the other feature alleged by Tacitus in the Caledonians. Of course the multitude of various influences in subjects so complex will forbid to speak with certainty in the case of individuals, though the mark be quite infallible as to a race or nation. Yet even in the former, it is safe to aver that red hair has never covered a brain of first-class power. It may occur, though rarely, in the simpler sorts of genius; as, for instance, Alfieri, who, besides a poet, was a Piedmontese.

ter, as has been shewn, with the Gothic ladies. But what attests still better the Teutonic origin is, that they pass traditionally with the Breton peasantry for carrying a "long

The like conclusions might be drawn from the Teutonic physiognomy, or rather from the lack of what is properly so-called. The English countenance is notoriously not merely the least expressive, but even the most unsignificant among the children of men. Yet it is, like the hair and other mercantile insignia, such as the skinny lips and fleshy fingers of avarice, as distinctive as the rest, of the modes of mind and character which have conducted England to what she is really. These few closing samples will satisfy the reader that the body of the work did not exhaust the stock of proofs. The truth is rather that it kept to the mere surface of the subject. It was deemed proper in a volume designed for general readers to dispense as far as possible with all those lines of illustration which, though purely scientific, might give umbrage to the thoughtless. And if these limits have been passed in any particular juncture, the reader may observe that the occasion was of a nature which was likely to encounter a particular recalcitration, and left the author but the alternative of tendering a pretext for being considered ignorant as well as offensive.

He must, however, disclaim the insolence, though all but universal, of affecting to treat the English people with a childish management. Such an air towards individuals would be the grossest of offences; and it cannot but be aggravated in proportion towards a nation. It acts as if some vast imposture hung suspended like an avalanche, which a vigorous breath of truth might precipitate upon the country. He knows nothing of this danger, but he is very sure that the common adulation is just the way to accumulate it. Some premonitory fragments have been descending of late years, and if the warning be not taken the ruin may gather into coherence. But where, then, is the fault? Not in the English people, who are not a mere rabble requiring to be kept in heart by this perpetual inflation; whose motto, on the contrary, is frankness of pen and speech; and who assuredly brandish both so freely against others, that they must needs expect the like in even retaliation. Still less can the fault be in the writers of any character; the very essence of real intellect is conscien

leathern purse full of money." The human English at this day are thus best known upon the Continent. Another test almost as crucial is, that the Korrigen hate the priests, have a horror of soutans, bells, candles, and the Virgin Mary; whereas the fairies, on the contrary, were polite votaries of all these objects. Yet the Korrigen and dwarfs were sanctimonious, church-going people.

That the fairies were devout but in the social, Celtic sense, and not in the theological or merely sectarian, is proved to demonstration by a famous fact of history. The Albigenses proper, or people of the Alpine valleys, are proclaimed as having been the precursors of Protestantism. In truth, however, they did not at first protest against the Church; it was the Church that protested against them and their primitive religion. This religion is well distinguished by M. Michelet as follows: "Deux choses y furent dans une lutte harmonique et douce, à peine perceptible: un Christianism PEU THEOLOGIQE, ignorant si l'on veut, innocent comme la nature; et DESSOUS, un element qui ose à peine se produire, le doux genie de la contrée, LES FÉES (ou fantines) qui flottent dans les fleurs innombrables ou dans le brume du matin.” 1 Here is seen the fairy religion underlying the Christian, precisely as expounded at the outset of this discourse, and whose more congenial rivalry gave umbrage to Romanism. It was the acrid tiousness and independence. The concoctors of the mischief are the intermediate managers; the "middle-men" of literature who prey on both alike; that "dirty, creeping, twining ivy," which overspreads them with factitious verdure, while underneath devouring and darkening them to decay, and which may end, in this country, with pushing to extinction all intellect in the authors and all honesty in the public.

'Histoire de France, tom. viii. p. 346.

sectaries of Protestantism, who in their incapacity, as now evinced, to comprehend it and in their animosity against the Romish Church, distorted its true nature for controversial purposes.

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But what have the Albigenses to do with the Celts ? Only being a remnant of the ancient Helvetians, and the purest Celts remaining perhaps except the Irish. Accordingly the language had continued almost Erse; as versions of the Lord's Prayer in Chamberlayn's specimens. Here assuredly is a refined proof that the fairies were Celtic. Michelet, with the ordinary ignorance on the subject, combined with the French indifference to the antiquities of their own race, ascribes this beautiful creation to the nature of the country. He does not reflect that several other populations, but Italic or Teutonic, lived amidst the same scenery, without having ever had the slightest trace of the belief. It was peculiar to this spot, which he styles the "Israel of the Alps," with that democratic rhetoric with which he outrages the French language. Had he only said their Ireland, the metaphor might have a meaning, from the analogy of history as well as fable and blood: the Papal butcher of the Albigenses also was an Englishman. For-English religion as well as "liberty" was always duely Swiss. fact, the heresy of the Albigenses was but the Celtic Catholicism, as broached already in the early Church by their own Vigilantius,1 by Pelagius the Briton, Celestinus the Irishman,


1 M. Michelet so says, without giving authorities, though the country of Vigilantius is held in general to be unknown. But this is commonly the case with men of celebrity who spring from petty and obscure populations. The mother people have no means of maintaining

by Scotus-Erigena, Abelard, etc.; and as long practised in the Irish and in the Scottish churches, and formally established at this day in the Gallican: a Catholicity that regards religion as a national and social agency; not like the Roman, as a medium of political despotism; nor like the Teuton, as a sanction to selfish isolation.

In fine, these contrasts are confirmed in the subject of the fairies, in addition to the graduation of their border mixture with the Gothic dwarfs,-by the testimony still more pointed, although negative, of primitive history. The Helden book and Niebelungen, the oldest records of the Teutons-although reaching back no farther than some five or six centuriesmake common mention of the dwarfs, and none whatever of the fairies. On the contrary, with the Irish and other Celtic records, they never name the dwarfs before the Teutonic irruptions, while the earliest Irish legends are familiar with the fairies. So true is this indeed, that a son of Milesius himself, who was lost upon the voyage from Iberia to Erin, has been constituted by the bards a sort of chieftain

their claim, and the great offspring is apt to "cut" them, more especially if a Celt. That this has been at least the race of this great heresi arch of the second century, there will now be little doubt, from his cast of mind and doctrine. The latter is described by Migne to be a "philosophic system applied to the Christian religion ”—un système philosophique appliqué à la religion chrétienne. It was, in fact, of all the heresies the most intellectual, and much more so than the orthodox Roman doctrine. It made God a pure intelligence without passion or affection, and conceived the human soul to be essentially so too, its beatitude consisting in purgation from the dross of earth. The writer cited remarks, that the attacks of the Fathers upon this the first in date of their troublesome Celts-y font voir une metaphisique profonde et une GRANDE FORCE

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