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their opinion, it is not an unlikely one to be entertained by men living among merely the wrecks of institutions which, from their childhood, they had been in the habit of regarding as sacred.--vol. i. pp. 250–254.

After making a tour round the island, the consul returned to his cottage near Port-au-Prince. We have already alluded to his opinion as to the state of the Haitian police. He mentions with great naiveté a little circumstance connected with this subject, that proves the singular discretion with which he conducted himself as the representative of England. Some bullocks belonging to the Government happened to be grazing near the grounds attached to his residence. They sometimes, it seems, trespassed upon his domain, and treated his fences and his grass with no very courtly ceremony. Having made in vain complaints to the authorities, he decided on taking the law into his hands, and shot the offending animals! And this behaviour he has the courage to say gave vo offence! Assuredly it were much better that we should cease to be represented in Haiti, if we fail to find candidates for such an office, who can devise no more dignified mode of redressing a slight inconvenience, than openly violating the municipal regulations of the country, as well as the general maximis of humanity.

Mr. Mackenzie confirms all that Mr. Harvey had told us, of the strenuous exertions which are made by the Government of Haiti, in order to promote education in every part of the island. To the results of those exertions however, our author does not look forward with any very sanguine hopes, for what reason we are quite at a loss to discover. For the present he thinks that tranquillity is in no great danger of being disturbed, as every party is satiated with blood. The only occasion on which the peace of the island was lately menaced, occurred shortly after his return from his tour.

Very soon after my arrival, rumours prevailed of a dissatisfied spirit being at work, on account of the arrangements with France, but no overt act, occurred or was said to occur, before my return from my journey. At this time the boldness of the discussions excited the attention of the government, and on the 26th June, three black officers were arrested on a charge of having tampered with a soldier, to join them in assassinating the president. The ostensible prime mover of the plan, Captain Bellegrade, also a negro, escaped. In the course of a few days afterwards several arrests took place, and disclosures of importance were reported to have been made as to the extent of the dissatisfaction. The trial of the three accused was first fixed for the 2nd July; but the subsequent arrest of a fourth black officer produced a delay until the 3d of the same month, when, the four accused, Captain Jean François, Lieutenant Michel, Lieutenant Lion, and Serjeant Lion Courchois, were brought before a court-martial, consisting of nine members, seven of whom were blacks. The prisoners were charged with conspiring to murder the president, to expel or murder all Europeans, and to alter the government. They denied the intention to murder the president, or any of the foreigners; but avowed their wish to put an end to the existing systein of government, which they treated as oppressive, and to break off all connexion with France—a con

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nexion which they considered to be maintained merely to extort the last of their miserable pittànce.

• I was not in court, but I was told that this style of defence was soon stopped; nor were the counsel permitted to discuss the inapplicability of the law under which the trial was going on, to the particular cases; or to adduce evidence of their innocence. It was even asserted that, on one of the advocates urging his right to be heard, he was stopped by the president's holding out his watch, and remarking, as he pointed to it," le tems presse."

• The accused were convicted and sentenced to death. They called for a court of revision, which was refused; and in two or three hours the unfortunate men were at the place of execution.

• The place of execution is a large open space close to the principal burying-ground, called “La Cimetiere. On my riding there I found a considerable body of people assembled, and some women, clothed in white, close to the ditch that surrounds the place of interment, uttering wild cries, and exhibiting frantic gesticulations. They were the wives and female relatives of the unhappy convicts.

The ground was guarded by the civic militia, whose apprehensions had been strongly excited by rumours of pillage meditated by the sufferers. A considerable body of troops, said to have been disaffected, remained in quarters; and the artillery, under the command of one of the most devoted of the president's adherents, were drawn up, during the time of the execution, at no very remote distance.

I had not been long on the ground before the bustle announced the approach of the four convicts. Each was tied, by the arms behind his back, to a rope in the hands of a police-soldier, who walked after him,

ach too was dressed in a white jacket and trousers, and smoked a cigar. A strong guard surrounded the whole of the prisoners, and the melancholy procession was closed by the shooting-party, which consisted, as well as I can recollect, of about five-and-twenty men.

"I shall never forget the firm intrepidity with which these poor fellows advanced to meet their fate. They moved on without the slightest hesitation, until they arrived at the fatal spot, close to a dead wall, at the extremity of the open space already referred to. On reaching it they still remained pinioned; but the policemen retired, and the shooting-party advanced with evident reluctance. At the word being given the firing commenced, and instead of the wretched scene being closed by one, or at most two well-directed fires, there was absolutely a succession of discharges resembling a feu-de-joie. I am sure that not less than one hundred discharges must have taken place before the execution was ended.

On reaching the ground, the whole four refused to be bandaged, threw off their hats, and exclaimed to their executioners, “ Ne craignez pas !" The first volley only slightly wounded Captain François, who stood at the extreme left:' a second brought him down, though still alive. Michel was shot through the body in several places, and had both his arms broken before he feil. Lieutenant Lion fell next, after having been severely wounded. During the whole of this revolting exhibition, Serjeant Lion Courchois was standing on the extreme right of the party, calmly smoking a cigar, without moving a limb or a muscle of his face. A ball through his body brought him to the ground, and as he touched it, he spat the

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cigar from his mouth, and calmly discharged the volume of smoke from his lungs. The firing party then advanced, and putting the muzzles of their pieces to the bodies of these unhappy men, ended their sufferings by blowing them literally to pieces. At this part of the exhibition I gladly rode off, for it was the most revolting I had ever witnessed; and strongly as I felt the disgusting, cruelty of the proceeding, I was more strongly impressed with admiration of the cool, resolute, and unpretending intrepidity of these poor fellows, who had no strong stimulus to maintain their energy. They dreamt not of future immortality, nor that a record should ever be made of a firmness and courage which would have done honour to any Roman. Whether admiration for the conduct of the dead, or disbelief of the charges against them, operated most, I cannot pretend to say, but there was certainly a general gloom after the execution, such as I never before witnessed in Haiti.'—vol. i. pp. 327–331.

The story is a tragical one, but it proves the strength of Boyer's government, and it exhibits, in a striking point of view, the firmness of character which the much abused negro can display--under circumstances naturally calculated to call it forth.

Mr. Mackenzie remained altogether no more than about fifteen months, either in his cottage, or journeying round the island of Haiti ; yet he writes upon every subject connected with its resources, with as much confidence as if he had spent a whole life there, and had had personal experience sufficient to enable him to take the soundest and most comprehensive views of its agricultural and commercial condition. He represents it to be in a rapidly declining state, as to produce, and wholly unable to discharge the balance of the large indemnity which has been required by France.

With respect to the question of this indemnity, it is not improbable that the French minister who fixed its amount, clearly foresaw that the island of Haiti never could pay so large a sum, and that the whole transaction was merely a device, enabling France to assert, and, perhaps, upon a favourable occasion, to resume, her sovereignty over the territory which formerly acknowledged her sway. The inability of Haiti to meet so enormous a demand is placed by Mr. Mackenzie in a very conspicuous point of view; and with his returns and calculations and reasonings upon this point, we should not be disposed to quarrel, if, with an inconsistency for which we cannot account, he did not go much farther in his comments upon the universal degeneracy, which he represents as affecting almost every article of produce, since the period when the French were masters of a portion of the island.' This decay he imputes to the idleness of the inhabitants, and that idleness he traces to the maxims of equality which are professed to be established by the constitution of the republic.

In the appendix to his second volume the author has inserted several tables, which, if they be correct, undoubtedly shew that in clayed and muscovado sugar, in coffee, cotton, and cocoa, and

molasses, there has been a very extensive falling off indeed since the French regime was subverted. On the other hand, he acknowledges that in dye woods, tobacco, and mahogany, there has been a marvellous increase, but this admission he accompanies with a caveat against any conclusions to be drawn therefrom in favour of negro industry, for he maintains that in all those branches of occupation which require systematic care and perseverance, ruin has become general, while those which demand mere desultory labour are alone in a state of prosperity.

We think that even if we were to concede the accuracy of the author's facts, we might, if time and space permitted, and that the subject were worth pursuing, point out may inconsistencies, many false conclusions, in his reasonings upon his own data. Referring to the period of French authority in Haiti as its golden age, he makes no allowance for the effects of the savage wars which so long raged in that territory during and after the revolution, which necessarily drove away many of the capitalists, desolated their establishments, and, for a long time, placed property of every description in a state of insecurity. Thus we might easily account for the total discontinuance of the export of sugar,-an article the cultivation of which in the cane, and the preparation of which for the markets of Europe, especially in a country where slavery no longer exists, cannot possibly be carried on by persons of ordinary

We are not at all surprised that most of the great sugar factories have been abandoned, and that the cane has nearly ceased to be cultivated in Haiti under the circumstances, the more so as we believe that her sugars are, or rather were generally of a coarser description than the European markets are now accustomed to receive from other quarters. The production of coffee may have varied for the same reasons, though the falling off in this article has not been so extensive as in sugar. But tobacco, which was not cultivated at all under the French, if Mr. Mackenzie's tables be correct, has been introduced and forms an article of valuable export; and mahogany and dye woods, which require little expenditure, finding a genial soil in the island, may have been found, in many instances, more productive of benefit to the land owners than speculations in sugar.


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Art. II.-Literary Recollections. By the Rev. Richard Warner, F.A.S.,

&c., &c. 2 vols. 8vo. London : Longman, Rees and Co. 1830. No one could be more welcome to our hearts at this moment than Parr's “dear Richard Warner, some time curate in Bath, a courtier of the Muses, author of some sound practical sermons, and an exceedingly amusing topographer,—welcome, even in his old age, with all his varied and comical reminiscences.

It is now just forty years ago, since the name of Richard Warner, junr. was first introduced, by the Monthly Review,' to the notice of the literary world, and having supported the timid candidate in his maiden essay, how is it that we should be insensible to his merits, in the maturity of that fame which, we flatter ourselves, we had some hand in rearing for him?


But since the man has been neither a strolling player, nor yet a black-leg, we suppose that his autobiography stands but an indifferent chance of success. Now-a-days, a self-historian, to become interesting, must long have ceased to be moral; and under the influence of some such law as that which prevails in the vegetable kingdom, his character must rot before it can rise. Having no recollections of youthful profligacy to revive for the edification of the world, totally unconscious as he was, during his long career, of the haunts, and the ways, and the conversation of thieves and demireps, we wonder that Mr. Warner had the fortitude to face the public of this country with such homely provender for their morbid appetites, as the tranquil revolution of an innocent life can supply. He should have waited for another and a better generation; he should have trusted his volumes to his executors, who, perchance, may live to witness the close of this iron age of literature. Then, indeed, might we count on seeing the innocuous gaiety, the jest without a sting of our reverend friend, adequately relished; then, should we expect to hear that there were excellent men who envied, with that better sort of envy, which arises from a preference of what is good and virtuous-envied him for his perennial cheerfulness, but, more than all, for the source of that cheerfulness-a conscience unstained. Even in these degenerate times, we are not without our hopes that wit, humour, whim, odd contrasts of character, and acute developments of eccentricity, will meet with some attention from the public, although they should be unaccompanied by any thing that is offensive to innocence, or injurious to virtue.

The great prerogative, if we may call it so, with which Richard Warner seems to have come into the world, was that of penetrating into, and enjoying, the ridiculous traits of men's minds. No matter where he was, the oddest creatures on earth were sure to be in his company. Now, it will be found very true that these curiously constituted persons do not appear the same in different circumstances. They require suitable objects for the rays, as it were, of their minds to fall on, in order that the peculiar colours of which they are composed should become sensible. There never was a man that detected, more quickly than Mr. Warner, the oddities of those with whom he came in contact: no man could laugh at them with more zeal, except when he had to turn them to the account of his moral purposes.

Not in the hope, we presume, of leaving a bone of contention for subsequent antiquaries, Mr. Warner is silent as to the place of his birth. The boarding school, in the suburbs of London, where he passed many miserable hours, is alike hidden from fame; and, indeed, the first time we find our author disposed to be particular, is

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