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with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus," Rev. xvii. 6. Now, we have only to turn our attention to the church of Rome, and the kingdoms and states in league with her, to find this system in perfection. It cannot, indeed, be restricted to that church; for, wherever the same system prevails, the system of church government supported by secular authority, let it pass under whatever name it may, we are bound to regard it as a branch of Anti-christ, and, as such, an object of the divine indignation.'--pp. 471, 472.
We have seen Mr. Jones rise upon himself in every succeeding passage, until, at last, he arrives at the following climax.
• Our own country, at the time of the Reformation, broke off her connection with the church of Rome; the Pope ceased to be acknow ledged here as the head of the church; but what then? the honour was transferred to the reigning prince, king or queen, who was still permitted to occupy that station in the national church, that Christ alone occupies in his own churches, which are his kingdomn. Now, as all such human institutions are at variance with the nature of his kingdom, and contrary to his revealed will, they must inevitably fall in the ruin which is impending over mystical Babylon; and, consequently, it is the duty of all who fear the Lord, and value their own souls, to “ Come out” from such anti-scriptural establishments, that they partake not of the sins, and receive not of the plagues which await them.
thou that dwellest upon many waters, abundant in treasures, thine end is come, and the measure of thy covetousness," Jer. li. 13. “Go out of the midst of her, my people, and deliver every one his own soul from the fierce anger of the Lord,” ver. 45. --pp. 518, 519.
We beg leave humbly to inquire if there be in any record connected with the Church of Rome, such specimens of arroganceof overbearing pride and ruthless intolerance as this? It is worthy of the darkest era of spiritual blindness. Many faults may be excused in a church which can boast of such a number of followers in all parts of the world, and such a duration of her existence, as the Church of Rome; and those at all events do not form a very great majority of the inhabitants of the world, whom she excludes from salvation, if indeed it be her doctrine to do so. But to hear the little organ of a little club of human beings--a mere handful even in this city, stretching himself forth, and with all the mock
, importance of a messenger from on High, uttering his sentence of condemnation against nineteen twentieths of the world, presents us with such an idea of the insignificance of the man, that we almost forget his presumption, and only think of the ridiculous situation in which he is placed. Nor is it alone against bodies that Mr. Jones launches his impotent thunderbolt. There is scarcely a writer on the Apocalypse that differs from his views, whom he does not dispose of in the same summary manner.
This writer, he contends, all but blasphemes,-the next, is a supporter of Antichrist; and all of them, from Calvin to the learned Faber, laboured under a radical defect,' (Mr. Jones's own words) 'which must ever disqualify those who are the unhappy subjects of it from
doing justice to the undertaking,--namely, a scriptural illustration of the Apocalypse.' Does any man doubt, who reads the language of this fiery bigot, but that the want of power alone prevents him from carrying his doctrine at the point of the sword, and from striving to establish his church by persecution ?
We have now nearly done with Mr. Jones for the present, and that, too, without exposing the very silly attempt of his, to explain the literal mystery of the letters which are commonly supposed to mean the number 666. But as we should be giving an imperfect view of his powers of exposition, did we not shew his method of fulfilling the prophecies of St. John, we shall give a short extract for that purpose.
• As the prophecy is yet unfulfilled, it is quite impossible for us to answer a variety of questions that may be started, respecting the time when, the place where, and the particular means by which this work of remunerative justice shall be effected. There is no necessity for supposing that Christ will marshal armies of his disciples, who will have literally to fight against those of the beast, and the kings of the earth who support him ; but, while they are following him in spreading the everlasting gospel, he, as King of kings, and Lord of Lords, may work the complete overthrow of their adversaries, hy placing them in collision with one another. Cast your eye for a moment on the proceedings which have taken place on the European continent during the last forty years, and mark how the powers, which have been so long supporting Antichrist, have been quarrelling among themselves, and weakening one another's strength. France, and Austria, and Russia, and Prussia, and Spain, and Portugal, Naples and Sardinia, not forgetting the “chair of St. Peter," also. Now, that which we have already seen to take place, we can readily conceive may take place again at the appointed time; and, as has been well re, marked,
may be the progress of things, till, like two furious beasts of prey, they effect their mutual destruction.'-pp. 535, 536.
And if we do cast our eyes back, and contemplate the events of the last forty years, what in reality do we see? We behold, indeed, the elements of contention occasionally breaking out between the powers which have been most ardently attached to the “Chair of St. Peter."--We see those powers weakened, and sometimes collectively and individually reduced to the utmost straits. We see in France a gigantic influence arise and consolidate itself, threatening not merely the powers of Europe, which are friendly to popery, buť the popedom itself: for who will deny that the most formidable enemy which the church of Rome ever encountered, was Buonaparte ? We see that anti-catholic power put down, and we see the pro-catholic power set up. By whom? By England, the right arm of the reformed religion. The blood and treasures of the great champion of protestantism are exhausted for the purpose of clearing the way for the church of Rome; for the purpose of restoring one of its most valuable supporters in the Bourbon dynasty: and even at this moment, we see this very England using all her enegies, to preserve, upon- the Continent,
that state of repose which will most surely enable the church of Rome to repair her wings, and recruit her strength. This is what we see; and how far it agrees with Mr. Jones's notions of the prophet's anticipations, it is for that gentleman to decide.
We have never been called almost to the consideration of the Apocalypse, without finding fresh reasons for believing that we ourselves have really got a clue to the meaning of St. John. They may talk of the Church of Rome, and the Church of England; of the French Revolution, and the English debt, as having been aimed at in the visions which broke upon the Saint of Patmos; but in our opinion, nearly the whole of the allegorical descriptions and epithets--the man of sin--the mother of abomination-the Scarlet Lady—and the Lady of Babylon, which we find in the Apocalypse, are very fairly realized in the mass of nonsense, absurdity, extravagance, raving, if not downright blasphemy and immorality, which bad or weak men have continued to raise up on the foundation of the sacred book of the Revelations itself. At all events, by interpreting this book in the usual way, we must be forced to admit that there is no allusion made by St. John to the vast nuisance of which we have been speaking; and to suppose, that in foretelling the misfortunes which were to befall the human race, St. John could have omitted so signal an infliction as we see has been made, in reference to his own revelations, would, in our humble opinion, be only fancying a very great inconsistency.
ART. IX.- Levi and Sarah: or the Jewish Lovers. A Polish Tale.
By Julius Ursinus Niemcewicz. Translated from the German Edition, with a Preface and Notes by the Editor. 8vo. pp. 346. London:
Murray. 1830. SINCE our last number, the claims of the Jews to be placed upon an equality with the rest of the King's subjects as to civil rights, have been rejected by one branch of the Legislature, and we feel that sort of satisfaction at the result which springs from the contemplation of an act of strict justice executed at the expense of some private feelings. Our principles must have been very much misunderstood indeed, if we have not satisfied our readers that it was solely upon political and civil grounds that we opposed those claims; but we confess that, if there be a shadow of truth in the details which the work now before us unfolds, the obstacles to Jewish emancipation which arise upon religious grounds, throw the former objections altogether into the shade.
The author of the original work is a Pole, who, though not generally known to the literary circles in this country, is, it seems, a distinguished ornament to the literature of his own. He is now far advanced in life, and writes, of course, with all the deliberation of old age. He has had very extensive opportunities for becoming
acquainted with the Jewish population which forms so large a proportion of the inhabitants of Poland ; and, in the present work, he professes to convey a view of the manners, morals, prejudices, and superstitions of the people to which it relates, which' view is very strikingly illustrated by several extracts from the Jewish Talmudic writers. How the translation of the work came to be undertaken, the editor must be allowed to state for himself.
In his journey through Poland, the editor was much struck with the numbers and the appearance of the Jews. He had been aware that they were a numerous body; but did not expect to see the difference betwixt them and the other inhabitants to be so distinctly marked as he found them. As none of them are engaged in agriculture, they are but rarely to be found in the villages, and being thus assembled in the towns and cities, which are but few, they seem in most of them to form a very large majority of their population. The men have, for the most part, much finer countenances than the other Poles; their forms are better, as well as their attitudes and paces; and the long flowing black dresses which they commonly wear, form altogether a striking contrast with the appearance of their slouching, loitering, idle neighbours. Their eastern countenances and complexions, and the waving beards of many, especially of those ad. vanced to middle age, presented a new and striking feature. They seemed to be always in motion, and yet doing nothing, and it was natural to inquire how such numbers of them could procure the means of subsistence, especially as their wives and daughters seemed to be decorated with jewels or ornaments much more expensive than were to be seen among the inhabitants of the same class in the neighbouring provinces of the Prussian dominions which had just been passed through. It appeared extraordinary in a country where the laws prohibited them from possessing land, where their own indisposition to a rural life prevented them from renting and cultivating that of others, that they should not address themselves to some manufacturing or handicraft pursuits; but such the Editor had reason to believe was the case; and all of them subsist by being the retail distributors of the labour of their neighbours in some way or other. They have in their hands all the intermediate operations of the commerce of the country to such an extent, that every one who wants either to buy or to sell any commodity performs the operation, however minute, through the instrumentality of his Jew. A lady of the highest rank in Poland affirmed, that if she wanted to purchase household linen, clothes, or furniture, she was obliged to employ her own Jew, or she was sure to be cheated. This kind of trafficking habit, though it leads to great wealth with some few individuals of the nation, leaves a great part in the most miserable state of poverty, a state which can only be encountered by the extreme of frugality, approaching to a kind of half starvation ; whilst the rags and filth which cover their persons are hid from the eye of the observer by the long dresses of black stuff, which composes their principal but cheap garment.
• The distress among the numerous pour Jews is felt by the government as one of the evils requiring some remedy. A law had been promulgated, by which they were ordered to apply themselves to the cultivation of the soil within a specified time. But arbitrary as the power of a Russian autocrat may be, this was beyond the limits of his authority; for the
period had passed over, and none of them had exchanged their town habits for rural occupations.
“At the time the Editor was in Warsaw, a commission was sitting there, under the authority of the Emperor Alexander, to inquire into the circumstances of those people, to point out the evils, and to suggest some appropriate remedy. What measures have been adopted in consequence of the examination of these commissioners, is not known.'-pp. xiii.-Xv.
The letters principally consist of communications between Sarah and Levi, two lovers of the Jewish persuasion, who, though they adhere to the better principles of Judaism, reject many of its tenets, which, however contrary to human nature, appear to be extensively acted on by the Polish Jews. Old Moses, Sarah's father, who is a firm adherent to the vulgar creed, takes a strong dislike against Levi, on account of the difference of opinion between them; and the proceedings which he adopts in order to hinder the union of the young people, give rise to that series of circumstances and incidents which constitutes whatever of plot there is to be found in the work. We shall, without reference to the very meagre story itself, select such passages as are best calculated to exhibit the peculiarities of the Jewish belief, at least as it governs the consciences and the conduct of the Jews of Poland.
Sarah, during a journey which the family make from Warsaw to Radziwilow, has the boldness, under the pressure of fatigue and thirst, to accept a draught of water from a Christian girl. Her father rebukes her thus, after having first invited her attention by a sound blow of a stick on the back :
5"Ah! thou wretch! unworthy of the name of an Israelite! Darest thou drink out of a vessel that has been touched by the unclean mouth of the Gojim? Dost thou not know that, according to our books, especially the Talmud, only the Jews have originated from God, and have souls; and that all others have sprung from Sitra Acdra, the enemy of God; they have no souls, and are as leprous as the worms that crawl upon the earth?” '--p. 8.
. Of marriage amongst the Jews, Sarah writes:
They marry without love, without having known, or even seen each other. Their union is neither founded on affection, on mutual confidence, nor similar feelings, nor even on esteem. Two fathers negociate the match, or rather bargain about the fortunes. One sells to a son a bride he has never seen; the other sells a daughter, who is, perhaps, equally unacquainted with the bridegroom. On the day fixed they are brought together for the first time; a few ceremonies take place, and from that moment they pass the whole of their lives together.'--p. 10.
The following account, which is found in a note of the Talmud, and other books much prized by the Jews, will prove interesting:
. The Talmud is a theological work, highly valued by all Jews, and by the Polish Jews estimated beyond the Old Testament. It consists of two divisions, called the Mischna and the Gemara. The Mischra is a collection of the writings of the rabbins in former ages, made in the second cen