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principles; that, in consequence, pride and ambition, the faults to which his nature was most exposed, were suffered to riot without restraint; and that hence proceeded the display of arrogance, selfishness, obstinacy, and oppression, by which it must be confessed that his career was disfigured. That nature, however, had not denied to him certain amiable qualities of the heart, and that he possessed in a considerable degree many of the social and endearing virtues, is proved beyond a doubt by the warm and steady affection with which he was regarded by his family and his intimate friends.

• Upon Bentley's literary character I have already made frequent observations, which it would be superfluous to repeat. It is now sufficient to remark, that his merits have been universally acknowledged by subsequent scholars, both in this country and on the continent: the disposition to censure the faults of his writings, which we have so frequently observed, appeared to cease with his life; and the learned of all countries have joined in assigning to him the title of Prince of Scholars. Not that they have been blind to the errors of his criticism, particularly his unnecessary and tasteless alterations in Latin poetry; but they have discovered and acknowledged the signal benefit of his productions, in the information which they convey, and the exercise which they supply to the judgment.

* The reader of the foregoing Memoirs will have observed, how greatly the literary career of Dr. Bentley was affected and influenced by the extraordinary complexion of his personal history: no one can fail to regret that so large a portion of his time should have been worse than wasted in unseemly contests; or to remark that, however great and durable the reputation which he has actually achieved, his literary performances might have been still more honourable to himself, and more beneficial to the public, had he not been engaged in an incessant struggle to retain his rank and preferment. But, putting this consideration aside, I am disposed to think that he did not correctly understand the nature of his own qualifications, and that his powers were not always exerted in the field where they were most capable of benefitting the world. At the time of composing the most learned of his works, the enlarged Dissertation on Phalaris, Bentley was in his thirty-eighth year; and although he continued his literary labours to more than double that age, yet he never produced any thing equal or similar to this admirable piece. His Remarks on Freethinking, though a hasty composition, serve as a specimen of the powerful effect which he could produce when he brought the energies of his mind, and stores of erudition, to serve in the maintenance of truth and refutation of sophistry. In such a line he would, I conceive, have exercised his learning, acuteness, and powers of application, with far more benefit to mankind, than in that conjectural criticism, which should have been rather the sport and amusement, than the serious and staple occupation of a genius like Bentley's. In this favourite pursuit he displayed his ingenuity and quickness, often at the expense of sound judgment and correct taste; and his learning was too much employed in defending his fanciful alterations of the text of a Latin poet, when it ought to have been devoted to maintain and illustrate truth. Notwithstanding this frequent abuse of his erudition, such is the power of genius, and so great the preponderance of his solid and unshaken merits, that Bentley has established a school of criticism, of which the greatest scholars since his time have been proud to consider themselves members; and, in spite of the envy and opposition of his contemporaries, has attained a more exalted reputation than has hitherto been the lot of any one in the department of ancient literature.'—pp. 661--663.

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We find few anecdotes of Bentley's private life and habits in this work. From the little that is given in this way, we collect that he relaxed his mind chiefly amongst a small and select circle of friends. Amongst these were Sir Isaac Newton, Dr. Samuel Clarke, and Dr. Mead, when in London; when in College, Ashenhurst, P. Walker, Wilton, Barnwell, and Whitfield, were his favourites. The greater part of each day he passed in his study, where he breakfasted alone ; he joined his family at the other meals, and at ten o'clock for evening prayers; after which they retired for their night's repose. He was usually habited in his study in his dressing gown, where, also, he usually wore a hat with an enormous brim, for the protection of his eyes. At the age of seventy he began to smoke tobacco, which he enjoyed very much. He was fond of port, and despised claret, which he used

“ would be port if it could.” Those who were of his familar acquaintance, he usually addressed in the Quaker style, thou and thee. His grandson, Cumberland, in the “Memoirs of his own Life," mentions several amusing recollections of Bentley, whom he knew in his old age. Dr. Monk has prefixed to this volume an indifferent portrait, which gives his hero the look of an angry pedagogue.

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ART. II.- Travels in Kamtchatka and Siberia : with a Narrative of a

Residence in China. By Peter Dobell, Counsellor of the Court of his Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia. 2 vols. 8vo. London:

Colburn and Bentley. 1830. WHETHER Mr. Dobell has written his Travels in English or Sclavonian, and consequently whether these volumes are original, or merely the version of an original, together with numerous collateral questions branching from these principal topics of inquiry, are all matters on which we are left entirely in the dark, probably because an explanation in such a case was necessary and desirable. It is lucky, however, that the intrinsic evidence to be met with in the work itself is sufficient, we should imagine, to remove all suspicions, that are not reasonable at least, of its authenticity. The whole narrative, indeed, seems to us to wear that air of truth which it is one of the most difficult of arts to mimic.

Mr. Dobell appears to be a man of information and of the world, with a good share of common sense, greatly divested of prejudices and narrow feelings, for a Russian; and, indeed, having nothing very peculiar to distinguish him from that mob of locomotive gentlemen consistino.is men of all nations, who wander from place to place, undergoing every variety of hardship, and enduring every form of privation, as a chosen delight. He directs his course as whim and curiosity

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may lead him, satisfied with the novelties which present themselves, without taxing his time or patience in searching for those that require trouble to be discovered. The wilds of Siberia, as we have been long accustomed to call that distant region, if they did not invite our traveller by the fame of their natural attractions, offered at all events a comparatively new sphere for observation; and since the object of Mr. Dobell seems to be to excite the attention of his countrymen to that neglected, though extensive and highly important part of the Russian territory, he at once awakens our best feelings in his favour.

Mr. Dobell arrived at a bay in Kamtchatka in August, 1812, and seems to have pretty well explored the habitable places of that peninsula. The moral condition of the Kamtchatdales appears to have experienced very little improvement since the time when Von Langstorff and La Perouse visited that place. The present author, indeed, dwells more on the uncommon kindness and hospitality of the inhabitants, than any other writer we are aware of; but their distance from civilization seems almost as great as it was at the time when their territory fell under the dominion of Russia. The position of a people determines very much their moral state. The Kamtchatdales have no motive to industry, fishing and the chase being the means of a sufficient supply of all that they deem necessary; and when they do aspire to such luxuries as whisky, tobacco, and tea, these they can procure at the trouble of killing a few foxes and sables in the season. It would be wonderful, indeed, that a people who have their aliment constantly heaved upon their shores --for so abundant is the fish that such is literally the case-should voluntarily exercise their patience and incur fatigue by any tedious process of procuring subsistence. The government might certainly counteract those unfortunate facilities, but its policy hitherto has been to check any little tendency of that sort discernible in the peninsula--and it has succeeded triumphantly. The climate of Kamtchatka has been always identified with a place of dreary and barren solitude. But it now turns out to belong to a very civilized class indeed. The most intense cold seldom brings down the thermometer below 22 degrees of Reaumur. Even that severe cold lasts only two or three days at a time, and never comes more than twice during the winter. But the poorgas, or snow storms, form one of the most formidable annoyances which travellers have to encounter. During the violence of one of these tempests, it is

. impossible to make any progress; and persons who have a considerable journey to perform rarely accomplish their object without being weather-bound several times on the road. In was in the course of one of these embargos which the poorgas so often inflicted on Mr. Dobell, that the following perilous adventure was related to him, by way of solace in his confinement :

• The Toynne of Malka related to me a curious adventure that occurred to him and two of his friends, which, at first, I was inclined to doubt ; but, as it has since been confirmed to me by several persons in Kamt

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chatka, I give it to my readers. Every spring, Spiridon and some of his friends were in the habit of going to the coast between Bolcherisk and Tigil, to kill hair-seals and other sea animals. Kamtchatdales use the fat of these both for oil and butter; and the skins serve to make boot soles and thongs, so that the hunting of the animals once a year is a matter of no small importance. Our Toynne, therefore, with his two friends, repaired in the latter part of April to their usual hunting-place, where they found the sea still covered with ice for a considerable extent. Each had a sledge and five dogs; and although the wind blew strongly off shore, they did not hesitate to go on the ice in search of seals, as it seemed firmly attached to the shore, and they observed some Kamtchatdales hunting on it further up the coast. They discovered some seals at a considerable distance out, and repaired thither to kill them. Already had they killed two, and were preparing to tie them with thongs on their sledges, when one of the party who staid a little behind, came to them of a sudden, crying out that the ice was moving, and that all the other Kamtchatdales had gone to the shore! This news alarmed them so much that they left the seals on the ice, and, seating themselves on their sankas, or sledges, pushed their dogs at full speed to regain the shore. Unfortunately, they arrived too late ; the ice had already separated from the land to the extent of a hundred yards; and, as it began to break into pieces, they were obliged to return to the part that appeared to be the strongest and the thickest. As the wind now blew extremely hard, they were soon driven out to sea, where the swell being very heavy, the ice began again to break all around them, leaving them at last on a solid clump from forty to fifty feet in circumference, that was of great thickness, and kept entire. They were out of sight of land, driven before a gale of wind and a heavy sea, and their icy vessel rolled so dreadfully that they had much difficulty to keep themselves on its surface. However, being all furnished with ostals,* they made holes and planted them firmly in the ice; and then tied themselves, their dogs, and sankas fast to them. Without this precaution, the Toynne said they would have been all thrown into the sea. They were sea-sick, weak and disheartened; but nevertheless, said Spiridon, "I had hopes, and I told my comrades I thought we should be thrown on some coast." It was now two days they had been at sea, and towards evening the wind had abated a little, the weather cleared off, and they saw land not far off, which one of them, who had been formerly at the Kurile Islands, knew to be Poromochir, and they now fully expected to be drifted on its shores. However, as the night approached, the wind changed to the very opposite direction, and blew even more violently than before. The clump of ice was tossed about in a most uneasy manner, and several times the ostals and the thongs were in danger of being broken by the violent concussion of the waves against the ice.

All that night and all the next day, the storm continued with unceasing violence. On the morning of the fourth day, before daylight, they found that their clump had been driven amongst other cakes of ice, and was closely surrounded on all sides. The wind had abated entirely; the waves also had subsided entirely, and all was calm and still. When the day broke, how great was their joy and astonishment to perceive themselves

* The ostal is a staff about five feet in length, crooked a little at one end, and armed with an iron point, that is thrust into the snow or ice, and held before the sanka to stop the dogs.

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near the land, and within about twenty versts of the place from whence they had been driven! They had suffered much from thirst, as they found the ice salt as well as the water. Not having eaten or drank during all the time, they found themselves so weak that they had the greatest difficulty in preparing their sledges, and in getting from the ice to the land. The moment they landed, they offered up their prayers and thanks to God. Spiridon charged his companions not to eat snow or drink much water at a time, although they were almost dying with thirst; as they could soon get to Ostrog that was only about twenty or thirty versts distant. They had not proceeded far, before Spiridon saw the tracks of some reindeer; he therefore made his companions stop, and taking his gun, walked gently round a high bluff on the coast, whither the deer had gone; and had the good fortune to shoot one of them. His companions no sooner heard the noise of the gun, than they came to him. They cut the throat of the deer immediately, and drank his blood while warm. Spiridon said that they felt their strength revived almost immediately after drinking the blood. Having given some of the meat to the dogs, they rested themselves about an hour, and then set off for Ostrog, where they arrived safely. One of them, who indulged too much in eating at first, died a short time after : the other two survived: but Spiridon said he had ever since been afflicted with a complaint in his breast, and shortness of breath.'--yol. i. pp. 56–60.

As a means in some measure of protection against so terrible an accident as the snow-storm, the Kamtchatdales possess an instinct of prognostication, which is almost beyond belief in the certainty of its anticipation; and the instances are not a few in which our author, distrusting the prophecy of his host for the time being, started on his way, only to feel and lament the effects of his incredulity. The common mode of travelling in Kamtchatka is in sledges drawn by dogs. They are yoked and harnessed in couples, and commanded by a rein attached to a collar. We were surprised to hear that they are far superior to the rein-deer as animals of burden. Both are used in Siberia, but the dogs do not require to be fed so often ; they are more to be relied on in long journeys, for the rein-deer go well only for a short time, whilst the dog will keep up

his strength unsupported for a very long time. We do not find any mention made of the custom, described by Von Langstorff to have existed amongst this people with respect to their dogs,namely, that at certain seasons they turn them adrift to shift for themselves, well knowing, from long experience, that the kind animals, with a fidelity which shamed their masters, would return each to his proper abode with unerring certainty. It is to be hoped that a practice founded on the blackest ingratitude has been abolished.' Thus then the dog may be said, much more than the rein-deer, in Kamtchatka to assume the relation to man which a horse bears to him generally in Europe. The rein-deer, along with wanting physical power, has some vices of will, and some susceptibilities of indisposition, that make him very difficult to manage. The mountain sheep is one of the most valuable peculiarities of this region.

“ The argallis is not quite as large as the rein-deer, is infinitely more

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