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played a great deal of learning. His reasonings are, however, generally speaking, too subtle to be easily followed by ordinary minds. We concur in many of his objections to the vacillating systems of religion which are but too prevalent in this country. These objections proceed with much force from a writer who has had the experience of more than one form of faith, and who appears to be a sincere believer in christianity.

Art. IX.-Travels through the Crimea, Turkey, and Egypt, performed

during the years 1825—1828, including particulars of the last illness and death of the Emperor Alexander, and of the Russian Conspiracy in 1825. By the late James Webster, Esq. of the Inner Temple. In

two vols. 8vo. London: Colburn and Co. 1380. There is a melancholy interest attached to these travels of a very young man-of one who aspired to distinction, and who, if he had lived, would most probably have gained it. He was the fifth of seven sons of a Scottish clergyman, the Rev. John Webster, and was born on the 7th of November, 1802. Traces of superior intelligence appear in every passage of his life: as a child, he was full of gentleness and sensibility; as a youth, he was active, ambitious, indefatigable in his studies. Having completed his education at St. Andrew's, he was destined for the Scottish bar. In the year 1823, he was entered of the Inner Temple, but wishing to see the world before he became tied down to a profession, and having in truth a great repugnance to the study of the law, he visited the continent. Fascinated by the charms of foreign travel, he gradually extended his peregrinations beyond the beaten routes of France, Italy, and Germany. He was at Constantinople at the period when the news of the battle of Navarino arrived there; and strange to say, though fresh from his classical studies, he strongly deprecated the treaty of the 6th of July, and the emancipation of the Greeks. On this subject he was a complete Turk. The spirit of the treaty' he observes in one of his letters, 'is fanaticism, its provisions violate the laws of nations, and but for the dignified moderation of those against whom it is framed, it might already have led to deplorable events. End may


peace, war, posterity can have but one opinion. The false lustre of the Greek name must die away in its own ashes : the film of religious blindness will, in the end, be removed ; and the philosophical historian will only have before him the long decided question of the Austrian interference with Naples, and the French occupation of Spain ! With all due respect for the memory of Mr. Webster, we must say that this is mere rhodomontade-or rather it shows how predisposed we are in all cases to judge of public events according as they affect, or are likely to affect ourselves. Had this young student not been at Constantinople when the intelligence of the affair at Navarino reached that capital, and had he not for a few nights gone to

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har bed under the most unreasonable apprehension of being exposed

with his head chopped off in the morning, he would in all probabidelity have expressed himself in very different terms with respect to what he was pleased to call the “fanaticism' of the allies.

From Alexandria, Mr. Webster proceeded to Egypt, and the Holy Land. After visiting Mount Sinai, he returned to Cairo, where, overcome by his fatigues, and by a sudden fever which was the effect of them, he died in the twenty sixth year of his age; he was interred without the city walls in the burying ground of the Greeks, and thus, by a singular fatality, were his asheş mingled with those of a nation, the false lustre' of whose name was so soon, in his opinion, to perish. The account of his last journey and death by his friend and companion Mr. Newnham, wiil be read even in an abridged form with painful interest.

We followed the route taken by the Israelites on their quitting Egypt, visiting all the interesting spots mentioned in Scripture. In eight days we arrived at the solitary convent which stands between Mounts Horeb and Sinai, and resolved to remain there five days. The first day was entirely given up to rest ; the next we ascended the mountain and descended on the other side, visiting all the sites mentioned in the Bible, which were pointed out by a friar who accompanied us. The day after we took a general view of the mountain, and, when it became cool, ascended it, and slept in a ruined Christian chapel, which stands by the side of a Turkish mosque on the summit, that we might see the sun rise. We made sketches of the interesting parts as we descended. He then complained of a slight indisposition, and left the mountain before me, saying he was afraid of the sun, while I remained behind to finish a sketch I had begun. I reached the convent two hours after him, found he had already dined, was smoking his pipe on the divan, and seemed perfectly recovered. Attributing his indisposition to fatigue, he remained within the rest of the day. The following day we completed the rest of the sketches, and on the next morning left the convent. Two days after he complained of want of sleep. The third day we stopped to visit some Egyptian ruins; the day after there was a change in the atmosphere, and the hot winds of the desert began to blow. When these winds commence, the burning heat which they bring with them does not become oppressive till after the sun has passed the meridian. On the next day we pitched our tents rather earlier than usual, resolving to start at three o'clock in the morningAbout the time agreed we left. As his dromedary was ready before mine, he took the bridle and walked forward : on overtaking him I found him still dismounted. I endeavoured to persuade him to ride fast in the cool of the morning, that he might go slowly towards the latter end of the ride, and by that means reach the springs of Moses by mid-day. His answer was. Get on yourself; I warrant my dromedary will overtake you, and pass you too.” Upon which I rode on. Our route lay along the shores of the Red Sea, clear and open over the sand, with the exception of a few small vallies. My dromedary being a very fleet one, I soon left them behind, and, at mid-day, arrived at the well. Concluding Mr. Webster's dromedary had fallen lame, as is often the case from the feet being cut by the stones, I ordered the dinner to be cooked,


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that every thing might be ready when he came up, which was in about an hour afterwards. On his arrival he complained, that, a short time after I left him, he had a return of a pain in his head, which induced him to send the servant forward with the tent, while he remained behind, intending to come on slowly with the camels bringing the luggage.

* At four o'clock, the Arabs came to us to say, that if we would go to Suez in an hour and a half, it would be necessary to arrive opposite the town before sunset, as we should have to ford the sea for about a mile, the water being in most parts up to the camels' bellies; that such a thing was impracticable by moonlight; and that if we went in the night, it would be necessary to take another route, which, instead of an hour and a half, would require five. Upon this I proposed instantly starting myself, with an Arab, for the town, and, on my arrival, to send a boat with the servant, to wait for Mr. Webster on the shore, that on his coming there in the evening, he might leave his dromedary with the caravan, which would go on by the other route, aud he would pass over direct in the boat. To this he objected, observing, it would be so interesting to cross on the dromedary the spot on which the Egyptian army was overthrown, and that we would make the time going two hours, instead of an hour and half. We accordingly ordered the things to be removed, and wrapping ourselves in our Bedouin cloaks, and tying handkerchiefs over our faces, and putting another over our mouths, we mounted and left the spot. This was the only way in which we could face the wind; it seemed to blow, as it were, from a furnace. In consequence of exposing our faces the day before, our eyes had become rather inflamed, our lips cracked, and our mouths completely parched. By clothing ourselves in this manner, we guarded against it in a great measure, and by drinking much water, I kept up a profuse perspiration. I could not prevail on Mr. Webster to do so, as the water had become so very bad and thick, that we were obliged to suck it out of the leathern bottles through our handkerchiefs. To add to our misfortunes, on our arrival at Suez, we found that our servant had received a coup de soleil, and was very ill. The next day we performed but half a day's journey, and obtained wholesome water. We went on slowly, and arrived at. Cairo in two days and a half; which distance can be done by a dromedary, with ease, in eighteen hours, On entering the house, we sat down to lunch, and Mr. Webster partook of a water melon, and some bread and cheese with me, I cannot say he was ill; perhaps indisposed would better express his state, as, when I proposed to send for Dr. Dusapp, he said it was useless then it would suffice if he came after dinner. I must here observe, that during the whole journey, but particularly towards the latter part, he ate and drank very sparingly, having always a great fear of fever. We arrived on Tuesday, the 29th of July. In the afternoon Dr. Dusapp called, but declined prescribing, thinking the indisposition probably arose from the heat and fatigue of the journey, and said he would call again in the morning. In the night Mr. Webster complained of being feverish, and of sleeplessness. In the morning Dr. Dusapp put leeches on his stomach, and also on his head, which relieved him. At mid-day he had a violent attack of fever, upon which I instantly sent for the doctor; but before he had arrived it had passed, and he felt himself perfectly well, complaining only of weakness. On Thursday morning, while sitting with him, so far from danger being apprehended, on either his part

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or mine, we were then concerting to leave Cairo in about a week for the Pyramids. At a little after two o'clock I came to dinner, leaving him without any alteration. At three next day, Dr. Dusapp said the patient was much the same. I then told him I thought he was kept on too low å diet, and that Dr. Bryce coincided in my opinion; that I had prepared some broth for him, which he had objected to take, until he had seen him (Dr. Dusappe), who said he had no objection to his eating some, provided he first look some sulphate of quinine, which we had by us. to administer it. He descended the stairs shortly after, and then, for the first time, said there was danger, leaving the room to seek for Dr. Bryce. In an instant I was up stairs, and found the patient senseless. I took his hand, begged he would speak to me, called to him, but received no answer; and tried to restore him by means of cold water on his temples. I then rushed out of the house, in a state of despair, to the inn, to request the immediate attendance of Dr. Dusappe and Dr. Bryce, and despatched messengers for another Italian physician, and also the physician of Abbas Pacha, Dr. Gong. Dr. Bryce came instantly. Every restorative was used, but it was too late. His reduced state was unable to resist the fever, which had, on a sudden, returned, and he sank under it! I have had the painful duty of following his remains to the tomb. He was interred at Old Cairo, in the Greek burial ground, the English not having a burial ground for private interments. An acacia tree overshadows his grave, and I have given orders for a plain monument to be erected, with a marble tablet, containing his name, age, day of death, &c.'-pp. 114-119.

Mr. Webster's papers appear to have been all preserved. There is a great deal of originality and spirit in his observations on the various countries which he visited. Those on the Netherlands we pass over, the subject having been long since worn out." We shall also take the liberty of treating in the same manner the notes of his journey to Vienna, which contain nothing particularly entitled to notice. It was while he was in that capital that he heard of the conclusion of the celebrated treaty of the 6th of July. Apprehending that the intelligence might create dangerous commotions at Constantinople, he resolved on repairing in the first instance to Odessa, where he might obtain such information as would determine his subsequent route. Passing through Moravia and Silesia, and the once populous and flourishing city of Cracow, which he found in a state of miserable dilapidation, he reached Odessa, where for a while he found himself exactly in the same predicament in which he had been placed at Vienna. The ambassadors had not yet quitted Constantinople, nor was it known what determination they intended to take. Meanwhile, Mr. Webster thought he could do nothing better than pay a visit to the Crimea. On arriving at the capital, Symperapol, he had the happiness to meet with a lady of his own country, placed in a situation somewhat novel for a native of Edinburgh.

As soon as we had settled ourselves at the inn, we sent our cards, to enquire if we might wait on the Sultan Kriin Gherri Katti Gherri, to present our letters of introduction. The answer returned was, that the

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sultan was from home, but that the sultana would be happy to see us, The sultana, who is a native of Edinburgh, daughter of Colonel received us with great affability and attention, quite in the English style. The history of her marriage with the sultan is curious. When about fifteen years of age, the sultan became acquainted with some missionaries, who had taken up their station near the Caucasus, on which occasion he embraced the Christian religion, left his native country, and proceeded, under their protection, to St. Petersburgh, which he shortly after quitted for Scotland, and there he soon acquired the English language, habits, and manners. It was in Edinburgh that his acquaintance commenced with his lady, and eventually ended in marriage, though against the consent of her family. As he is literally descended from the ancient Khans of the Crimea, the throne of the present sultan Mahmoud will be his on the extinction of the reigning family. He has sons, and should any of

, them hereafter ascend the Ottoman throne, the singular fact will be presented, of a prince of British descent and Christian profession, governing an empire of Turkish infidels.'-vol. i.


50-51. We meet with nothing material in Mr. Webster's account of his journey through the Crimea. The following reflections on the Mohammedan religion as compared with others, may be thought interesting.

Four times a day is the Mullah heard from each minaret sending forth a hideous howl to startle all the vale. Few, however, seem to attend. Not above eighteen were in the file just described. The worship, the form, the unceasing cry of “God is God;" must weary and cease to affect. All religions have a tendency to resolve themselves into a repetition of rites, is the case with the Catholic and the English churches. The Mahommedan rite is shorter than that of the two churches here instanced, and is, on that account, more suited to its end. The mind, dwelling continuously on one idea, is heated to enthusiasm ; but the rite, when short, has the effect of stirring the spirit as if it were music. There is no exercise of the intellect; the imagination and the passions are moved by the recurrence of the same sounds and the same gestures, and by the presence of numbers employed in the same mysterious incantation. It is a curious subject for investigation, how the mind is most awakened to piety-whether by change or repetition; by addressing the intellect, or by appealing to the passions; by promises, or by threats. Most religions have tried all these, and the character of a religion is best judged by inquiring what kind of excitement predominates. One thing must be said for the Mahommedan,-it has succeeded, and that by promises rather than threats.

Who, that has ever heard the Ave Maria slowly tolled forth in the quiet of an Italian twilight, can doubt that the effect of those sounds (their religious connexion being known), is to produce a pious and contemplative tendency in the minds of all ? Without them, day might die unheeded, and the manifold images of man's life and destiny, which sunset and the still advance of night present, would be unobserved. The mind is arrested by the sounds; they affect the stranger how much more those whose earliest associations are connected with them ! So is it with the call of the Mahommedan priest. It is indeed a ruder observance, wanting the poetic effect of the Ave Maria, but marked by the simplicity of primitive worship.


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