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speaks in the following anecdote. If we have been rightly informed, the treasure was brought to this country, but the discovery of the trick that was played upon the owner very soon put an end to his exhibition.

"“ No tricks upon travellers,” is an ancient and wise injunction, but, like many others of equal antiquity and pith it is often disregarded, to the delight of those who cry “ for shame!” at an excellent joke. Not the least amusing among such instances is the following, which can be authenticated by several living witnesses, and by one of the number of the departed, who is, or will shortly be, in England, to give evidence, if required. Let not the reader imagine that any attack on his nervous system is contemplated. Though the following anecdote relates to the tomb, it will be found to possess no very lugubrious character.

' An English traveller in Egypt, who had rendered himself conspicuous for his cupidity and meanness in his search for antiquities, of which, by the

way, he understood nothing—had repeatedly pressed an Italian gentleman, then employed in excavating for the Swedish consul, to give him sundry of the specimens which he happened to discover. But this gentleman, Signor Piccinini, understood matters too well to give what might be sold: still, to pacify the persevering applicant, he occasionally presented him with trifling subjects, till, at length, wearied with importunities, he resolved on the following method of sending the Englishman home in triumph :

"A short time before this mendicant traveller's arrival at Thebes, a Doctor Bonavilla, who was in the service of the Pacha, at Hordofan, finding himself incapacitated by illness for the duties of his office, had obtained leave of absence; but on reaching Thebes, was unable to proceed, and gladly accepted the hospitable offers of his countryman Piccinini. In his house the doctor was attended, till, worn to the bone by disease, he expired. Among the vast number of surrounding sepulchres, there could be no lack of a burying place, but wood being less abundant, Signor Piccinini was at a loss how to procure a coffin for his departed friend. To supply this want, he bethought him of a mummy case, and, having dislodged the ancient tenant, he deposited Dr. Bonavilla in its stead, and placed him in a tomb near the house. Finding, as has been already said, that small presents to the English traveller only increased the cravings of his antiquarian appetite, and that nothing short of a mummy would satisfy him, Signor ini decided that Doctor Bonavilla should serve his turnAccordingly, he sent for the traveller, and, with due mysteriousness, informed him that he had in his possession one of the most singular mummies which it had ever been his good fortune to meet with; and that for the great regard entertained by him for the English nation generally, and for the said traveller in particular, he begged to present it to him. Overwhelmed by such apparent generosity, our countryman poured forth grateful acknowledgments on his own behalf, and that of all Englishmen, assuring the Signor that his name should be honourably mentioned to the antiquarians of Britain. It should be here observed, that Doctor Bonavilla having adopted the Turkish costume, had worn his beard long, and thus the supposed mummy presented the additional and rare attraction of a flowing white beard. To account for the absence of the bandages by which mummies are usually enveloped, the Italian stated that they had been

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removed in searching for papyri, and he further affirmed that, from general appearances, the mummy in question could have been no less a person than one of the high priests of Jupiter Ammon. The bait was eagerly taken; our traveller wished to have immediate possession of so invaluable a treasure, but Piccinini represented that should the consul hear of his having parted with it, he would in all probability discharge him. The removal was, therefore, deferred till night, when Doctor Bonavilla was safely lodged in the cangia of the traveller, from whose importunities Piccinini was thus effectually released. However, he could not forbear the gratification of giving publicity to the joke: it was served up to every traveller who visited him, and many a bon voyage has been wished to the antiquary and the high priest of Jupiter Ammon, who, ere this, have, in all probability, arrived in England.'-vol. ii., pp. 216–219.

The following laughable anecdote contains a more extensive application than the author appears to have imagined. How many men leave their comfortable homes in England, and undergo all kind of inconveniences, privation, and even perils in foreign lands, merely that they may on that account be entitled to some notice after their return! The Scotchman had a substantial object in view in going to Jerusalem. He was contented to purchase a good dinner for his fame. We hope with all our hearts that his anticipations have not been disappointed ; although travellers are so numerous in these days, that they can hardly hope to obtain even the Scotchman's desired reward of distinction.

* People travel from “divers, sundry, and various," motives, many of which seem strange enough to those not actuated by them. But the inducement which led a young gentleman belonging to “Modern Athens" to visit antient Jerusalem, is indisputably droll. Jerusalem is usually sought by the learned, the devout, or the curious, in neither of which classes the Caledonian in question can be ranked. He would visit the holy city, though he recked not of its memories, its sanctity, or singularity. He had no thought of writing a book, of saying a prayer, or of exploring an unknown spot. No: yet was he undismayed by the difficulties of the journey, and the probabilities of the plague, for his soul was hungering and thirsting-after justice? not a bit of it; but after a regular succession of substantial Scotch dinners. “I will go to Jerusalem," he exclaimed, “ for having seen it, I shall, on my return to Edinburgh, be asked to dinner every day in the week. For Jerusalem, therefore, he set out, but on arriving at Gaza, a frontier dividing the two Pachalics, he was detained, and as he had no firman, the authorities put him under arrest, while a despatch was forwarded to the Pacha at Acre. Till the answer should arrive, he was confined to a room, and given to understand that strong suspicions existed of his being a Russian spy; and, as he was unable to make himself understood either in Turkish or Arabic, he had no means of expressing his wishes but through a servant, who was occasionally allowed to visit him. During this perplexing confinement, he was occasionally favoured with a “ look in,” by Turks, who

a very significantly indicated what punishment they thought to be awaiting him. One of these true believers was particularly punctual in such visits. Daily would he enter the room, and stand before the prisoner, grinning

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and drawing his fore-finger from ear to ear, till he supposed the Englishman fully sensible of his meaning. After four days, an answer arrived from the Pacha at Acre, permitting him to return without further molestation, but forbidding his proceeding on his intended journey. To this, however, he would not consent, but persisted in going to Acre, accompanied by an escort; and there he obtained leave to visit Jerusalem, still under an escort, which so diligently attended him, that he was unable to see the principal attractions of the place, and also prevented from travelling in Syria. He returned to Cairo, and gave a full account of the issue of his attempt from which he had been dissuaded by his friends. But he was content; he had seen Jerusalem, and Edina's dinners were secured. One circumstance of his trip, however, he could not think on with patience. Indeed, he declared, that of all the annoyances he had endured, none gave him an uneasy reflection, excepting the diurnal visits of the d-Turk, with his ominous digit.'-vol. ii. pp. 219–221.

We find in the Appendix a long and interesting account of the late Russian conspiracy, which seems on the whole to have been but imperfectly organized. It proves however one point, to which it may be of importance hereafter to refer, namely, that the contact of Russian officers with those of other nations in the latter campaigns of the war, was sufficient to create serious thoughts in their minds upon the political condition of their country. It can scarcely be doubted that the advancing illumination of the age will produce similar effects; that at no distant period, unless concessions be seasonably made, the voice of liberty will be again and again heard in the dominions of the autocrat, and that he, or his immediate successor, will be compelled to listen to its just demands.

There is also in the Appendix a section relating to the illness and death of the late Emperor, containing some particulars with which we had not been previously acquainted. We shall present them to the reader.

At the period when the Emperor appeared in the Crimea, a short time before his death, viz. in the month of November, he was in the highest state of health, and took the greatest delight in viewing the magnificent scenery along the southern shores of the Crimea, and in seeing the native Tartars, to whom he was extremely attached. One day he was seen standing on the flat roof of a Tartar house, with upwards of one hundred of the natives, in their oriental costume, around him, whom he was eagerly regarding through his eye-glass, with much regard and affection, when, gratified with the sight, he exclaimed—“ What magnificent countenances, and what a fine race of men they are ! they must not be expelled from the country;" alluding to what most Russians ardently desired, in order to introduce people of their own race. On leaving the cottage he distributed money to the crowd, and allowed them to kiss his hands and feet, which they did with enthusiasm, and he treated them as a father would his children.

"At Taganrog, the Emperor went much out, was very active in examin. ing the country, and giving directions relative to the construction of a great public garden, then forming under the superintendence of an Eng

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Jishman, brought from St. Petersburgh for the purpose : le usually dined at two o'clock, and slept in his camp-bed, which had a leathern pillow; the same on which he died.

He took very little care of his health, and was frequently out walking in the mud, up to the ankles; whilst the common means of counteracting illness were neglected, and, as he refused all kind of medicine, every cause of disease had its action on his system; for he had as much horror of physic as his ancestor, Peter the Great, entertained of water.

• The peaceful state hitherto apparent in the country was sadly interrupted by the arrival of a courier, in the middle of the night which the Emperor spent at Alupka, informing him of the existence of a plot to take away his own life and to subvert the Government. During the night Ge. neral Diebitch, then sleeping in an adjoining Tartar-house, was twice súm. moned to the Emperor, who was very restless, and walked about his room; they spent several hours together in deep conversation, and, before morning, a courier was dispatched to the head-quarters of the conspirators, the information of whose plot was this night first communicated to the Emperor, he being previously quite ignorant of it; on the contrary, he had thought himself universally beloved by all ranks of his subjects.'-vol. ii. pp. 333-334.

The report of the conspiracy appears to have produced a serious effect upon the mind of the Emperor; if it did not originate, it tended greatly to accelerate the symptoms of the fever by which he was soon after attacked. As to the rumour that he was poisoned, it was a mere invention, for which there was not the slightest ground whatever. The progress of the fever, and its results, are thus related :

*5th November (old style) Alexander arrived at Taganrog. The paroxysis of the fever occurred daily, till the 8th; and as the emperor, during this time, refused to take medicine, or to submit to any treatment whatever, whilst the symptoms became more alarming, Sir James Wylie, the personal physician of the Emperor, called into consultation the empress's physician, Dr. Stophregen. At this period the Emperor had frequent attacks of syncope, but the affection of the head did not manifest itself till several days after. On the 13th, Sir James Wylie proposed to bleed his patient, but he would not, on any account, submit to the operation ; again on the morning of the 14th, both physicians, and also the Empress, earnestly entreated the Emperor to have some leeches applied, but he still rejected the proposition with the greatest obstinacy and violence.

• When Dr. Stophregen, on his first visit, told the Emperor that he was distressed to see him so ill, he replied hastily, "Say nothing of my indisposition, only tell me how the Empress is,” (she being then affected with a disease of the heart, of which she died some months afterwards). The Emperor at the same time said to Dr. Stophregen,“ Sir James Wylie believes me to be very ill, and therefore wishes some other physician to consult with him ; and, as I am always very glad to see you, you may consult on my case together ; but do not trouble me with physic.

During the progress of the disease, the Emperor obstinately refused all kind of medicine, with the exception of a single dose of calomel; and in the whole period of the case, notwithstanding all the entreaties of the two

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physicians, and the prayers of the Empress, he would take nothing further. In consequence of which, and as he was in great danger, from all the symptoms rapidly getting worse, the priest was now proposed to him, and accordingly was brought late on the 14th. On this occasion Sir James Wylie was called into the sick room by the Empress, for the purpose of informing his majesty that he was in a dangerous state; and since he would not on any account submit to medical treatment, the Emperor was therefore urged to think seriously about employing spiritual aid, so long as he retained his senses.

• No objection was made to this proposition, and, at five o'clock in the morning of the 15th, he was confessed. At this melancholy ceremony, his majesty requested the priest "to confess him as a simple individual, and not to consider him as an Emperor;" after this he took the sacrament; and the confessor, like a sensible man and a christian, urged him strongly to employ medical aid, saying that, unless he did so, he had not entirely fulfilled his whole christian duty. The illustrious patient, through this reasoning, now consented to the application of leeches to the head; but it was too late, and, the following morning, the Emperor became completely insensible. At this hopeless point of the disease, it was accidently mentioned to Sir James Wylie, by General Diebitch, who was then chief of the staff of the emperor, that an old man named Alexandrowick, a practitioner of surgery at Taganrog, bad cured some one affected with the same complaint as his majesty; upon which Alexandrowick was inmediately summoned in order to answer inquiry into the fact. On his arrival, he seemed thunderstruck at the desperate state of the Emperor, and said the case alluded to was quite different from his majesty's, for whom, he was compelled to confess, there was no remedy; and the fatal result soon followed.

Sir James Wylie observed, if a case of lèse majesté was ever lawful, it would be on an occasion like the present, where a medical man would be perfectly justified in compeling his sovereign to act contrary to his own express commands, and to submit to what was for his benefit, and restoration to health.

• After death the body of the Emperor was examined. The only appearances found were two ounces of fluid in the ventricles of the brain, save that the veins and arteries of the head were gorged with blood ; and an adhesion existed between the membranes of the brain at the posterior part, which appearance had resulted from inflammation at some remote period. Nothing farther was observed, excepting in the abdomen, where the spleen was soft and enlarged, which is a very common occurrence in fevers of the country. It is therefore probable, had treatment been allowed, life might have been saved, as no decided morbid changes of structure had taken place.

• The Enıperor did every thing possible to augment the fever, and aggravate the disease. Nor would he even submit to have the common offices required for all sick persons performed to him, but would get out of bed when so feeble, that he could hardly make his way back again; he also talked much, and would not remain quiet.

s At one period of his disease, the Emperor appeared about to communicate some important secret to those near bim, by saying, “ Emperors suffer more than other men; my nervous system is shaken :" then, stopping,


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