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he threw himself back on the pillow, exclaiming, “It was a detestable

, action which they committed.”.

For thirty hours before death, the Empress scarcely for a moment quitted the Emperor's bed-side, and the scene was most affecting when he expired. She continued kneeling by her husband, with her eyes fixed upon him, as he was gradually becoming weaker and weaker, until all signs of life were gone, when she rose and closed his eyes, and then took a handkerchief to bind up his head, to prevent the jaw from falling. After this, she folded his arms over the breast, kissed his lifeless, cold hand, and, kneeling down by the side of the bed, continued for half an hour in prayer. The Empress was also present in an adjoining apartment when the funeral service, or masses, were performed.

"She was an excellent woman, and died soon after her husband, of disease of the heart, said to have been induced by the neglect of the Emperor in the earlier part of his life, occasioned by his attachment to another lady, Madame Nourakin.

• The body of the Emperor lay in state in the house where he lived and died. The coffin was raised

por a small platform, and covered by a canopy.

The room was hung with black; the coffin covered with a yellow cloth of gold; numbers of wax-candles burning in the apartment, and each individual in the room held a long slender taper, lighted. These were given to all present, by those who had been the personal attendants of his majesty, as is done at all funerals in Russia. A priest was placed at the head of the coffin, reading the gospels. This was continued night and day. On each side of the body a sentinel was placed, with a drawn sword : guards were stationed round the doors of the house, and also on the stairs. In the anti-room, a number of priests were occupied in putting on their robes, for the nobler service, or mass, which was performed twice a day. There was no sign of melancholy, either in their countenances, or with those who formed the crowd ; and the military officers present seemed impressed with other feelings than those of sorrow for the deceased Emperor, their attention being directed more to the ladies present than to the mournful ceremony then performing. The funeral was afterwards performed with great pomp and splendour, according to the ritual of the Greek church !'- vol. ii. pp. 335-339.

The mysterious phrase, “ It was a detestable action which they committed,” is susceptible perhaps of more than one application. Considering the time at which it was spoken, it may reasonably enough be considered as the language of the Emperor's conscience reflecting upon the violent death of his father. 'How far the son was concerned, actively or passively in that murder, or whether he was at all aware of the designs of the assassins, are matters upon which no authentic evidence has ever yet, we believe, been disclosed.


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ART. X.-Remarks on the Disease called Hydrophobia : Prophylactic and

Curative. By John Murray, F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 12mo. pp. 86. London: Longman, Rees, &c. 1830.

. The excited state of the public apprehensions upon the subject of hydrophobia, as it is called, will be our excuse for devoting a few pages to an explanation of the present condition of our knowledge concerning that disease; for although we may have nothing very new or agreeable to communicate, still all will agree with us, that in a matter of so much consequence, to know how little we do know, is a piece of information of no slight importance.


Mr. Murray (who always recommends himself to our attention by his skill in the valuable art of condensation) has furnished us with a great deal of what may be called the literature of hydrophobia. He has, indeed, gone partially into the pathology of the disease, and has offered some reflections upon its nature, which, however, are drawn more from the experience of others than from his own. What he has essayed in the way of experiment himself is very imperfect, and consequently unsatisfactory. We were never more provoked in our lives than to find that the rabid dog, which he had exposed to an atmosphere of chlorine, remained unexamined after death, in consequence of which Mr. Murray, very simply in our mind, lets loose his imagination in speculating on the causes of it. We regret very much to have so little that is novel or valuable, from the application of one who is so peculiarly competent to an investigation of this nature. The subject is worthy of his powers, and as it is now in a course of inquiry by one of the soundestheaded men that ever engaged in such pursuits, we mean Mr. Youatt, the Veterinary surgeon, it is to be hoped that the latter gentleman may at least have his labours shortened and cheered by the co-operation of others. The object of the present paper is to point out, if possible, the path of investigation which seems most likely to lead to a knowledge of the nature and laws of the disease, such knowledge being, in the ordinary course of things, an essential preliminary to the discovery of the manner of curing it.

First of all, what is the origin of the disease ? Can it begin in an animal spontaneously, or is it acquired ? Weanswer confidently that there is no positive evidence of true rabies ever having been generated spontaneously in any animal. Upon this point we shall quote the important words of Mr. Youatt, from a paper which he has published :

• There is no disease of which earlier mention is made than rabies. la the records of three thousand years ago we read of the rabid or mad dog. The malady, however, is yet confined to certain parts of the globe. It has spread where it could be conveyed by inoculation. Where there were no means, or difficult means of communication, it was not diffused. It has not yet found its way to the West Indian islands, or the Indian Archipelago, or Syria, or Egypt, or the south of Africa, or any part of the continent of South America. The unfortunate dogs are tortured with heat, and thirst, and starvation. They are exposed to every probable and every possible cause of rabies, yet the disease is unknown.

• Dr. Heineken tells us, that curs of the most wretched description abound in the island of Madeira : that they are afflicted with almost every disease, tormented by flies, and heat, and thirst, and famine, yet no rabid dog was ever seen there.

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* No one will affirm that rabies is caused by a particular state of the atmosphere. It occurs at all times of the year, and in all variations of moisture and temperature. In many countries it has long committed its destructive ravages; but in others, placed in the same latitude, with a similar temperature and climate, and where every predisposing or exciting cause has been, so far as we can judge, the same, it has never appeared.

• In 'nineteen cases out of twenty the inoculation can be proved. In almost every case the possibility of it cannot be denied. Who, under circumstances of peculiar excitement, has not possessed many times his usual strength? The dog, labouring under the dreadful excitation of rabies, and bent on the work of destruction, will overcome obstacles which would at other times be insurmountable.

During the life of the late Duchess of York, a mad dog wandered into Oatlands Park, and penetrated into divisions of the menagerie, to which it would have been thought magic alone could have conveyed him. destroyed in one of the divisions into which, the gate being closed, I should have said that it was impracticable for man or beast to have entered.

Some dogs, however, are rarely out of their owner's sight. Even in this case I can easily conceive the possibility of inoculation. There is no battle. It is, in the great majority of instances, one simple bite. The object of the animal is not to contend for victory, or to worry his antagonist. He acts from an irrepressible impulse, and, the mischief being effected, pursues his course. I can believe, that if a favourite dog has but for a moment lagged behind, the injury may be inflicted without the owner's observation ; or, that the trifling, every-day occurrence of two dogs snarling and snapping at each other, may be soon forgotten. Did the disease immediately follow the bite the short contention might be remembered ; but weeks and months intervene, and he must have a retentive memory, or nothing else to think about, who will invariably, and long afterwards, recollect circumstauces so trivial.'

Mr. Murray, however, is of a contrary opinion. We shall bestow a few words on his reasoning. He assumes that rabies may be of spontaneous origin in the dog — It must begin somewhere, and by reflex reasoning on the principles of cause and effect, we must eventually come to the source in which it originated, multiply the links of cause and effect that have supervened, as we may. Mr. Murray is a medical man, and therefore we are surprised at his reasoning: Does he mean to say that a disease which can only be propagated by inoculation or contagion cannot exist so continuously and extensively as hydrophobia bas done ? If this be his impression, we shall beg of him forthwith to tell us where syphilis comes from, where the measles—where small pox-or scarletina ? We do not, however, deny, because a malady may be propagated, and is commonly dispersed by contagion or inoculation, that therefore it cannot be self-generated in an animal. Certain, however, we are, that rabies can arise in man only from inoculation, and all the evidence to which we have had access, seems to us to go a great way in settling this point, -that not even the dog will ever be affected with this madness, called hydrophobia, unless the poison which causes it, is physically inserted into a wound of the




body.* Should subsequent experience confirm this principle, we may congratulate our species on a very important discovery,-as one which affords the certainty of a definite remedy. It behoves us, therefore, in our several stations, and with our varied opportunities, to become observers of the conduct of our domestic dogs, and being once assured that, by proper care and management, these faithful and interesting companions of man may be effectually secured from a visitation so awful in its consequences, we may then, without restraint or fear, indulge our kindest and best dispositions towards that animal, of the race of quadrupeds, which most calls forth our attachment.

If we are allowed to assume that rabies must be imparted in the way we have described, the next interesting inquiry will be, what are the laws and limits of such a process. The number of the species of animals that is susceptible of rabies has not yet been clearly defined. Those, as to which proof exists, are man, the canine race, the feline race, the horse, ass, mule, cow, sheep, and pig. Mr. Lawrence, the celebrated surgeon, adds the bear; and from some recent experiments by a distinguished physiologist at Jena, it would appear that birds, or at least the common fowl, are capable of receiving the disease. With respect to the power of communicating the disease, Mr. Youаtt tells us that the virus of every rabid animal will certainly impart it. This assertion is in the teeth of numerous experiments. The virus of rabid sheep has been introduced into the bodies of healthy sheep by inoculation, without making any impression : the same thing has been done among cows; but when either a sheep- or a cow was inoculated with the virus of a rabid dog, then they showed symptoms of madness. A great many experiments were made to ascertain if the virus of a human patient afflicted with rabies could, when communicated to dogs and other animals, affect them with the disease, and the result was, that the dogs were totally uninfluenced by the operation. These experiments seem to have been thought satisfactory for a considerable time, until Magendie had an opportunity of putting the matter to the test. A man died of hydrophobia at the Hotel Dieu; just as he was expiring, a portion of the saliva in his mouth was taken in a bit of rag by this eminent surgeon to a distance of about twenty paces from the patient's bed, where he inoculated with it two healthy dogs. One of these became rabid in thirty-seven days afterwards, and bit two others, one of which also very soon showed symptoms of rabies. We own we are inclined to Mr. Youatt's opinion, and we believe that every animal that is susceptible of the poison is also capable of communicating it. We believe there are no instances of its being imparted to man from any other animal than either a dog, a cat, a fox, or a wolf. This fact, which has

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* Mr. Youаtt is inclined to think that the virus cannot be received on a mucous surface without imminent danger.

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been taken as a proof that other animals cannot convey the rabies to man, may be explained by the circumstance of its not being the habit of those other animals to bite. The safest way, at all events, is, for the present, to assume that all animals which are mad, conmunicate their madness to man and other animals; for he must certainly be a foolish physiologist who would wait to be cured of a false theory by a fit of hydrophobia. This most interesting and important part of our subject Mr. Murray has not noticed.

The introduction of the poison by means of a wound, being admitted to be necessary to the communication of the disease, a subject of the greatest consequence presents itself to our consideration, namely, the actual process by which this poison finally gains so dreadful a triumph over the vital powers. We have no notion whatever of the nature of the poisonous agent. Mr. Madden, the traveller, extracted from the jaw of a horned viper in Egypt, just beneath the two hollow teeth in the front, a membrane containing three drops of the vehement poison of that reptile. He carefully evaporated the venom, and examined the residue with a microscope, when he observed it to consist of “sharp saline spiculæ extremely minute, and of a reticular appearance." It is curious enough that the crystalline humour of the human eye, when boiled, presents a sort of structure closely resembling this. The experiment was made by a pupil of St. Bartholomew's hospital. The venom of the horned serpent produces certain and speedy death, and we allude to its composition only for the purpose of suggesting that a clue to the nature of a poison may be sometimes discovered by the greater or less celerity with which it acts. The serpent’s venom, we at once perceive, is calculated to blend easily with the liquids of the body, and therefore no time is lost by it in creating intense local symptoms. The case is very different with the virus of canine madness; and here we come to a question on which there is a great difference of testimony, although it is one of the last importance to be decided-how long may the virus remain in an animal before its presence is manifested by the symptoms of rabies? There are cases on record, in which it is stated that the virus lay dormant for twelve and even nineteen years in the human subject, but some circumstances connected with the relation of these cases justify great suspicion of their correctness. The usual time, however, in the case of man, is, according to Mr. Youatt, from six weeks to six or seven months. Mr. Samuel Cooper, surgeon to the King's Bench prison, says, from the thirtieth to the fortieth day. Mr. Youatt states that he has never seen a case of the disease occurring in a dog in less than seventeen days, and that about five or six weeks is about the average time, concluding that in three months after the bite he should consider the dog safe. Mr. Cooper mentions the case of a Newfoundland dog belonging to a friend of his, the particulars of which he was personally acquainted with, and in which the dog did not become rabid until

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