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economy, which was rendered complete by the appearance of two chubby children—the younger one just learning to walk, tidily dressed in good strong linsey of home manufacture, and gazing with amazed yet delighted eyes on the groupe of gentry visitors.
· The dairy was next inspected ; it was a very little room outside the house, and with a northern aspect, just large enough for the purpose ; the small churn, and milk pail, cooler, strainer, wooden bowl and skimming dish, were each and all of them just as they should be, untainted to the smell and perfectly clean to the eye.
· The garden before the house was small but well cropped, the walks clean, fruit trees growing in the borders, and the young thorn quicks which had been planted in the breast of the surrounding fence, carefully preserved from weeds; carrots, parsnips, turnips, cabbages, onions and beans thriving well, and in a sheltered corner there stood nine or ten bee-hives.
The outside of the cottage presented a very agreeable appearance, being neatly dashed and coloured; the windows of the cottage were large, and a few hop plants and roses appeared over the front wall, nor were these plants unprofitable. Mick had sold the hops on the preceding year for five shillings, and the roses were taken by a neighbouring Apothecary in exchange for some medicines which the children required—the cow was in her shed feeding most voluptuously on vetches, secure from the attack of the gad-fly and the relaxing effects of a hot sun, and most liberally adding to the accumulations of the dung hill—there were two sheep also, confined in a little yard with a covered shed in it, fattening on the refuse of the garden vegetables and clover-a very fat pig in a dry and well littered stye, completed the stock of this improving small holder. Nor were all these matters arranged merely for the day—and then suffered to fall into disorder.
Mr. and Mrs. Bruce, who had been in the habit of unexpectedly popping in on the Kinshellas, always found them in the same state, they never embarrassed these cottagers by a visit, for in their little establishment there was time and place for every thing, and every thing was timed and in its place.
• The field, too, which three years before had been in a miserable condition, now showed the effects of skill and industry, it was divided and cropped as follows:
Acres. Roods. Perches.
0 Drilled Potatoes.
30 House, Offices, Yard and Garden. • The lower end of Mick’s field, which had been so judiciously drained, was of a moory quality and consequently inclined to grass; this was laid down for meadow; and though but half an acre in extent, it produced as much as supplied his cow in winter, aided by the turnips. According to the proposed premiums, Mick was awarded
For his House and Garden--the first prize £2 0 0 0
0 5 0
0 10 0 Turnips
0 10 0 Fences
0 5 0 Feeding a Cow in House winter and summer 1 0 0
pp. 49, 54.
Let us now pass to Dick Doyle's farm.
• On Dick Doyle's farm there was a good show of crops, but unfortunately for him joined with a large portion of weeds—there was obviously much appearance of independence and comparative wealth about his farm, but at the same time a very perceptible want of system and of cleanliness both in the house and on the exterior premises—things were evidently arranged for the occasion-Dick's wife was but half fit for receiving the judges ; in her hurry she had forgotten to throw off an abominably filthy cap, although she had a new and rather tawdry gown slipped over a flannel petticoat, the tail of which peeping below it, showed that the garment, of which it formed the lower end, had not been in a wash-tub for many months before.
• The cattle, too, instead of feeding on rich and juicy grasses in the cow house and increasing the manure, were very unprofitably standing in the middle of a running stream which bounded the farm, and weeds of every kind were growing in the pasture field. Dick had, in reality, but one objection to the large docks, and luxuriant thistles, namely, that they indicated the richness of the soil, a point which, with true Irish cunning, he studiously laboured to conceal from his landlord, who however took good care to observe them, and also to notice the irregularity of the potato drills; “your drills are very crooked, Dick;"
;" “ to be sure they are, your honour, and I can't help it,” said Dick, " for the old bound's ditch beyant, is'nt very strait, and I always plough according to the run of the ditch, but if
your honour would be after giving me the next field when Jem Cronin goes to America (and my blessing to him when he goes,) though indeed it's but a poor worn out piece all the time, I'd thry and make the ditch something straiter ; " " but in the meantime,” said Mr. Gumbleton, “ why don't you
draw a straight line for your driìls, and not follow all the windings of the boundary, year after year; don't you know that the cattle work at great disadvantage when drawing the plough in a curved line instead of a direct one;" “ why then I don't know, plaze your reverence,” replied Dick, “but I believe the horses are so used to it now that they wouldn't draw aisy in any other way, and as the ould saying is, a crooked loaf
may make a straight belly,' if the handful of corn comes up, it's all one which way the furrows run;
" where are your green crops Dick ?” enquired one of the judges ; “why then sure I have a fine field of clover forenent you there, is'nt that worthy of a premium ?" said Dick, pointing to a field in which there were certainly symptoms of clover, which had been sown the year before, and would have now afforded luxuriant soiling, had it been kept up for the purpose, but from the time that it had begun to peep up in the preceding spring, cows, sheep, horses, and pigs,
had been turned out on it, and on this day it was almost as bare and as red as the high road. Dick's house, however, was in such tolerable order, that he was adjudged the lowest rate of reward, viz. 10s. ; had he exercised care and judgment in husbandry, he might have been sure of at least half as many pounds as he now received shillings, not to take into estimation the certain profits which an improved system would have carried with it.
• Many others, however, of Mr. Bruce's tenantry proved on inspection to be much more improving than Dick, but at the same time immeasurably inferior to Michael Kinshella. The last upon the list for a cottage premium was unfortunate Nick Moran, whose house had been so recently trimmed up for the expected remuneration that there was hardly yet time for its decay; the panes of glass were still unbroken, so that there was not need for stopping up vacancies with the remnants of Nick's corderoy unmentionables, the crown of his caubeen, or the tattered fragments of Molly’s dirty petticoat.
* The little cabbage garden in front was yet untouched by the pig, because the pig bad been sold before cabbages had been planted, to support Nick in gaol ; and the neighbours' pigs and goats had not found an entrance through the little gate in front, because the bars of that gate had been torn to pieces, in lieu of better weapons, on the memorable night of the “skrimmage,” and the passage had been stopped up with stones leaving one or two projecting
ones, in the way of style for the accommodation of those who went in and out; the advantages, indeed, of this style, appeared so obvious to the judges, that they recommended Nick, whose term of confinement had some time before expired, to block up somewhat in the same way, within its stye, the next pig which he might fortunately obtain, as the surest mode of keeping him within bounds, of saving his cabbage plants, and avoiding the sundry fines which would otherwise, in all probability, be consequent on his erratic tendencies.'
Some of the most injurious habits of the Irish cottagers, such as their mis-spending their days at wakes and funerals, which usually end in drunkenness and rioting, their ill-founded complaints against tithes, when fairly assessed and exacted, their superstitious fears of ghosts, and their over-fondness for excitement of every description, are successively touched upon by the author, and illustrated in a most amusing manner. It gives us great pleasure to observe, that he takes frequent occasion to expose the unhappy consequences of religious animosity, and to inculcate a spirit of forbearance and charity, upon this subject, which has, more than any other, distracted the heart of Ireland, and impeded her civilization. Those societies which propose as their leading object, the amelioration of the lot of the Irish peasantry, cannot do any. thing more effectual for their purpose than to cause (of course with the author's consent) the whole of this little volume to be reprinted, and circulated as widely as possible.
Art. IV.-1. The Life of Reginald Heber, D. D. Lord Bishop of
Calcutta. By his Widow. With Selections from his Correspondence, unpublished Poems, and Private Papers; together with a Journal of his Tour in Norway, Sweden, Russia, Hungary and Germany, and a History of the Cossacks. In two volumes, 4to. London: Murray.
1830. 2. The Last Days of Bishop Heber. By Thomas Robinson, A.M. Archdeacon of Madras, and late Domestic Chaplain to his Lordship. 8vo. pp. 355. Madras, printed. London, reprinted : Jennings & Co.
1830. THESE are two affectionate tributes to the memory of a most amiable and accomplished individual and a truly exemplary Bishop. Since his lamented death the press has frequently re-echoed his name, but not more frequently than it deserves. Whether we view him as a student at the University, as a country pastor, as a husband in the privacy of domestic life, as a gentleman in the social circle, or as a prelate, visiting and enlightening, and almost consecrating by his presence the remotest wilds of India, we have just reason to esteem and admire bim, as in all things excelling the ordinary classes of his fellow men. With a fervid imagination Dr. Heber possessed the kindest of hearts. However he differed from others in religion, he felt cordially interested for their spiritual happiness ; nor does he appear to have admitted the idea that that happiness was endangered merely because they were not of his fold. No clergyman was ever more zealous in the support of his church ; but he disdained to have its doctrines propagated by uncharitable means. His whole life may be said to have been a sacred
poem. His thoughts constantly mingling with the elements, his feelings ever open to the influence of nature, poured themselves forth in aspirations for the welfare of those around him, Adversity lay lightly upon his mind; better fortune only seemed to remind him of his duties, and made him more indefatigable in the performance of them. No scholar will mark with blame the few traces which we sometimes meet with in his character of a disposition towards literary indolence, or rather intellectual enjoyment, among his classical recollections. Nor ought it to be said that his life had not fulfilled the promise of his early fame. For although, with the exception perhaps of the beautiful poem on Palestine, and some of his hymns, he has left nothing behind him that is likely to maintain permanent celebrity ; yet he has done enough, even in the too brief career which was allowed him, to form a halo round his name, which will long continue to distinguish him as one of the most graceful ornaments of the Protestant church.
The Heber or Hayber family is of considerable antiquity in the county of York. The subject of this biography, Reginald, was
born at Malpas, in the county of Chester, on the 21st of April, 1783: during his childhood he suffered much from inflammatory disorders, which did not, however, prevent him from disclosing, even from his most tender years, peculiar sweetness of disposition. He is said not only to have read with fluency, but to have obtained an accurate knowledge of the Bible at five years' old, and to have felt even then the necessity and importance of prayer. fond of drawing architectural designs, for which he possessed considerable talent. Natural history, so far as it consists in watching the habits of insects, animals, and birds, was also amongst his earliest pursuits. It was remarked, however, that he never imprisoned any object for his examination. He was inquisitive after knowledge, devoured books rather than read them, and preserved their substance for years afterwards in his memory. His father, who was co-rector of Malpas, and patron of the rectories of Marton in Yorkshire, and of Hodnet in the county of Salop, taught him the rudiments of classical learning. Such was his progress, that at seven years' old he had translated Phedrus into English verse. He delighted in reading and reciting poetry, and soon began to attempt Aights of his own. In 1796 he was placed under the care of Mr. Bristow, a clergyman, who took twelve pupils, at Neasdon, near London. A friendship was here commenced between him and Mr. John Thornton, eldest son of Samuel Thornton, late M.P. for Surrey, which appears to have been warmly cherished on both sides as long as Mr. Heber lived.
We have the testimony of this gentleman, that young Reginald possessed a strong memory and a lively imagination; that although not remarkable for quickness of apprehension, neither was he defective in that respect; that his prose exercises displayed great maturity of thought, and his verse originality and spirit. He was devoted to Spenser's “Faerie Queene,” which he often strolled away from his companions to read, and he was a great favourite with his schoolfellows, from his facility in remembering or inventing tales, which he used to tell them in the winter evenings. He had no taste for critical knowledge or the exact sciences, or that learning which dives into the structure of language. He was chiefly ambitious to shine in the elegant departments of literature. Sacred things he held in reverence, and was distinguished by a purity of thought amongst his schoolfellows, many of whom, we are pained to hear, though composing so small a community, were “habitually profane and licentious in their conversation.'
Young Heber was entered at Brazen Nose College, Oxford, in November, 1800. His education having been private, he had his acquaintance to make; but the introduction of his elder brother, and his talents for conversation and literature, soon led him into an extensive circle. In order to make up for the time spent in evening parties, he used to sit up during a part of the night, and would often tie a wet cloth round his head to prevent sleep. He