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land, but nearly twice the length. With these they scourged his back with great force. When he had received a good beating, the king was requested to be satisfied. He immediately desisted, and ordered his servaut to cease beating also. The young man, on rising, began to say something, no doubt on his own behalf; but he was instantly and severely struck by one of those who had assisted to punish him: on attempting to speak a second time, he received the same treatment as before, on which he went quietly and put on his cloak." "The king retained his ordinary placid countenance the whole time: he appeared to be performing merely an act of justice. The crime was stealing a goat. It must have been a summary business, for the king was at the waggons only a short time before it happened. He had heard the case, passed judgment, and put it in execution with his own hands, all in the course of a few minutes.

"These people consider it so unmanly to cry out when receiving punishment, that had this person done so, it was thought they would have thrust their spears into his body." Vol. I. pp. 182

-184.

By the custom of these tribes, it is unlawful for the husband to leave the wife during child-bed; a singular trait of humanity, which seems very inconsistent with the general complexion of their manners. Domestic slavery appears to exist among them; though Mr. Campbell informs us, that " they knew of no nation who sold men.'

"

This must relate to their ignorance of the European traffic in human beings; an abomination, compared with which all other forms of slavery, or the slave-trade, seem light and venial; for we find from Mr. Campbell himself, that parents will sometimes, in cases of extreme bunger, sell their children in exchange for food, and "the child of a servant they will part with for a trifle." It does not appear, however, that they ever make prisoners. "When the Bootshuana tribes attack a Bushman kraal, to revenge robberies of cattle, they kill men, women, and children;-women, say they, to prevent their breeding

more thieves; and children, to prevent them from becoming, thieves like their parents." Though there is horrible cruelty in their practice, there is some ingenuity in their reasoning. The Bushmen are no less wanting in humanity. They even abandon the aged among themselves to starvation, and sometimes expose them to be torn in pieces by wild beasts. A shocking story to this effect is related in Vol. II. p. 235.

"Kars, the Griqua, said that the Bushman sitting yonder (pointing to a man in the tent) had an aged mother-inlaw. During the absence of the son-inlaw from home, her own daughter, who is his wife, dragged the old woman into the field, and left her alive among the bushes, where she was torn to pieces by the wolves that same night. On asking the man if he did not think it cruel to drag the poor woman to the field to perish; with the utmost indifference he answered, that it was not he but his wife who did it.”

From Mashow, Mr. Campbell travelled to Kurreechane, the farthest point of his journey northwards. On his road, he observed vast quantities of game. In some "the whole country appearparts, ed to be a boundless forest." He passed" many old cattle inclosures, built of stone, some parts as neatly done as if they had been erected by European workmen." Mr. Campbell gives the following description of his caravan.

"Travelling in the plain without trees we had the first full view of our whole

caravan. Waggons, men, women, children, oxen, and sheep, in different companies, extended about a mile. Fortyfive loaded pack-oxen behind each other, occupied a considerable space. All the men carried assagais, and the women either children, or something else, on their backs, shoulders, or heads. On viewing them, I could not help wishing that all the Missionary Society had been present to witness so singular a scene; Hottentots, Matchappees, Tammahas, Mashows, and Marootzees, all

exhibiting something different in their persons, dress, or implements, &c." Vol. I. pp. 209, 210.

It appears, from the following extract, that something like the cairn of our forefathers, is to be found in the interior of Africa.

"At the summit of the ascent we found a large heap of small stones, which had been raised by each passenger adding a stone to the heap: it was intended as a monument of respect to the memory of a king from a remote nation who was killed in the vicinity, and whose head and hands were interred in that spot." Vol. I. pp. 217, 218.

Kurreechane is the chief town of the Marootzee nation. It is situated, if Mr. Campbell's map be correct, nearly in the 24th degree of S. lat. ten degrees lower than the Cape of Good Hope, and about 900 miles distant, in an E. N. E. direction from that settlement. Its distance from Lattakoo, the farthest point of his first journey, may be about 250 miles. Mr. Campbell supposes the population of this place to amount to no fewer than 16,000 souls. From his drawing, it appears to consist of a number of districts, composed of neat huts, of a circular form; some of them are plastered on the outside, and painted red or yellow. The interior of one house, which our author has sketched, exhibits a uniform circle of pillars supporting the roof, and has an air of neatness, regularity, and rude embellishment, which we should hardly have expected to meet with in these countries. A circular yard, bounded by a stone fence, encompasses every two or three of these respectable hovels. The inhabitants cover the ground of their * Mr. Campbell's drawings are not ill executed, with the exception of the frontispiece, which is somewhat confused. Here, amidst a crowd of wag. gous and oxen, we just manage to distinguish the figure of Mr. Campbell, with his well-known umbrella over

his head. We should almost as soon expect to meet him without his head, as without his umbrella. He appears, however, under far more moderate dimensions, than in the frontispiece to his first book of travels.

yards with soft wrought clay, which they smooth by rolling hard vessels over it. Every family has a storehouse for corn, which is preserved ed, and holding each ten or twelve in clay vessels, neatly manufacturbushels. It appears that the sugar cane of the West Indies grows here, though the natives are ignorant of the art of extracting sugar from it. The specimens which our author gives of their pottery are highly respectable; the vessels being of good forms, and regularly ornamented.

"In some houses," Mr. Campbelltells us," there were figures, pillars, &c. carved or moulded in hard clay, and painted with different colours, that would not have disgraced European workmen. They are indeed an ingenious people. We saw among them varidifferent colours, and glazed, for holdous vessels, formed of clay, painted of ing water, milk, food, and a kind of beer, made from corn. They had also pots of clay, of all sizes, and very strong. Every part of their houses and yards is kept very clean. They smelt maker took us to see one furnace, in both iron and copper. The rainbuilt of clay, almost equal in hardness which they smelted the iron. It was

to stone.

A round opening was left at the top for receiving the ore, and an excavation underneath for holding the fire, which was open behind and before, not only for admitting the fuel, but also the wind from the bellows." Vol. I. p. 228.

king dies without issue by his eldest It is a custom here, when the queen, for the brother of the deceased to marry her; and the son of such a marriage is legally viewed as a child of the deceased. This is a curious circumstance, bearing a striking resemblance to the ancient custom which prevailed among the Jews.-The traditionary knowledge of the Marootzee people, only reached through a line of eleven

monarchs.

“It is remarkable,” says Mr. Campbell," how little information can be obtained from the natives of South Africa, even of countries which they have

visited. They take notice of nothing but beads and cattle.

"The Marootzee is the seventh nation beyond the colony I had visited, and I was never once asked a single question respecting the people or country whence Beads and cattle are the only subjects which engross their attention. Selfishness is the predominant vice of savage life in every country." Vol. I. Pp. 242, 243.

I came.

There is sometimes a little inconsistency in Mr. Campbell's representations of these African tribes. They appear to have taken considerable notice of the missionaries, whom, on more than one occasion, they regarded as gods. "The curiosity of the people to see us," Mr. Campbell observes, " was great they rushed forth from their houses when we passed."

Again ;

"On returning to the waggons we found them surrounded by more people than we had yet seen. A great concourse also encircled the fire, to observe the Hottentots cooking the victuals. For the accommodation of those who were behind, the ten or twelve nearest rows sat on the ground, and some were holding up young people that they might

see over the heads of others. When dinner was put down, we extended the tent-door as wide as possible, to allow as many as we could to have a view of our manner of eating, which we knew was what they wanted. The different things before us, and our method of using them, afforded topics for animated discussion among the spectators." Vol. I. p. 229.

"A greater number of natives attended worship in the evening than on any former occasion. The singing of the Hottentots attracted much notice from them." Vol. I. p. 239.

We cannot resist the temptation of presenting our readers with an amusing account of the peetso, or general meeting of chiefs at Kurreechane, though the extract is rather long.

"In the course of my walk during the morning, I met a party of armed men marching to the outer districts of the town to summon the captains to the peetso, and in one of the streets I pass

ed Moeelway with ten or twelve men, painting each other's bodies with wet pipe-clay of a French grey colour.

"About eleven A. M. companies of twenty or thirty men began to arrive in the public inclosure where the waggons stood, marching two and two as regu larly as any trained regiment. Most of them were armed with four assagais, or spears, and had also battle-axes, and shields made of the hide of an ox. On entering the gate they immediately began to exhibit their war manœuvres in a terrific manner, now advancing, then retreating, and suddenly returning to the attack; sometimes also imitating the stabbing of an enemy. The height of Each company, after performing these their leaps into the air was surprising. evolutions, retired from the square and paraded through the town.

"At length the Regent entered at the head of a large party, who, after going through their evolutions, sat down towards the eastern corner of the square, after which the other companies soon gular rows with their faces towards the entered, and took their stations in reRegent, who presided on the occasion, himself, facing the meeting. Between The party that came with him sat, like three and four hundred persons might compose the peetso.

whole company joining in singing a "The meeting commenced by the song; after which a chief captain rose and commanded silence. He then gave three howls, and, resting upon his assagais, asked if they would hear him? This was followed by a hum expressive of their assent. He then asked if they

would give attention to what he said? The sign was repeated.

"He began by expressing his suspi. cions that it was the Boquain nation who had lately stolen some of their cattle, and insisted that a commando should

be sent against them: on saying this, he pointed his assagai to the north, the direction in which the Boquains lived, as if in the act of throwing it towards them. The meeting testified its approbation, according to the custom of the people, by whistling. He spoke favourably of the visit from the strangers.

"Moeelway (the young King of the Marootzee), was then called upon to dance before them, that they might have an opportunity of cheering him. He is a fine-looking young man, about six feet high. He wore the red nightcap I had given him, tied round with gilt tinsel

lace, which looked extremely well amid so motley a group. The Regent wore, as a breast-plate, a very large lackered bed-nail cover, which I had sent him in the morning, with some other things, in consequence of his sending me a second elephant's tusk. He wore, sometimes before and sometimes behind, one of the handsomest tiger skins I had seen, and was loaded with beads. As Moeelway was returning to his seat from the dance, he was excessively applauded by all, beating their shields and shaking their assagais, accompanied with as much noise as they could make with their tongues."

"Pelangye, the Matchappee captain who travelled with us, rose next, and commenced by giving three howls, pausing about half a minute between each. These Matchappee howls being somewhat different from those of Kurreechane, approaching nearer to yells or shrieks, highly diverted the female spectators, who burst into immoderate fits of laughter. After the howls, three or four of Pelangye's men rushed forth and danced for a few minutes in front of the assembly; one of these, when imitating an attack upon an enemy, fell flat on the ground, which raised a universal roar of laughter. Pelangye then addressed the meeting, first by taking credit to himself for having brought White men to them; he said we were men of peace, and hated theft. On his saying this, the people turned round and looked at us as if they had not seen us before undoubtedly they had never till now heard of people of that description. It was a heathen who bore this honourable testimony in our favour and in favour of the truth; and they were heathens who indicated by their conduct their approbation: thus demonstrating that they had the outlines of God's law written on their hearts, and possess excusing and accusing cousciences.

"As soon as Pelangye had concluded, the leader of the singing began a song, in which the whole assembly joined. Their singing between the speeches may be designed to give time for ano. ther speaker to come forward. While they were singing, Munameets our guide rose with his usual gravity, wearing one of my pocket handkerchiefs on his head. He began by giving three barks like a young dog, when four of his men burst forth from the ranks, and danced lustily, some of them being old,

they were rather stiff in their movements, which afforded great amusement. After these had danced a few minutes, and exhibited their mode of attacking an enemy, old Munameets, and Pelangye, a man about six feet two or three inches high, stepped out and danced a little, on which Munameets proceeded to his speech.

"He said, their rain-maker had been at Lattakoo, and had been kindly treated while there; but he was sorry that Salakootoo his relation, who was sent to protect him part of the way, had treated him ill: on which account the people of Lattakoo had considered the want of rain they had experienced as coming upon them; but when he came up the country, and found the drought had been general, he saw it was the hand of God, and exhorted them to seek rain from the Son of God, who could give it.

"With the approbation of Mateebe he had brought these White men to them he now left them to their care, and hoped they would not allow them to starve. They came as friends, and were anxious to establish a friendship with the Marootzee. He assured them the Missionaries had behaved well at Lattakoo, had acted to them as fathers, and loved peace. They had not brought beads, because they were not traders : they came to tell them of the true God, and now that the path from Kurreechane to Lattakoo was opened, he hoped that communications between the two places would be so frequent that the path would never again become invisible."

"In the time of the intervening singing, Sinosee, two of whose daughters were married to the Regent, rose and gave three shrieks, on which many of his people ran from the ranks, and danced, &c. for some time; after which he made a most warlike speech, urging them to go quickly against the nation that had stolen their cattle. I was afraid he would propose that we should accompany them with our muskets.

"Another captain said they had no king (alluding to the government by a regent) to protect the cattle. He did not like to see young kings with thick legs and corpulent bodies: they onght to be kept thin by watching and defending the cattle.

"A chief from another town, who was very black, and wore a large hairy cap, made a long speech, warmly ex

horting them to take vengeance on the Boquains. A blind chief, when exhort. ing to war, was cheered; on which he remarked, that what they had given was a weak cheer, they must clear their throats, and cheer such things with more force and heart. He laughed while he said this.

"Another chief said, they could come to the peetso all well powdered; and they could talk much about commandoes: but it was all show; they did nothing. In his young days the captains were men of far more courage and resolution than they were now.

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"The Regent Liqueling then rose, which caused considerable stir. He remarked, that much had been said about expeditions against those who had stolen their cattle. Though he was not a tall man, yet he considered himself a match for any who had stolen the cattle, and was not afraid of them, but he had his reasons for not attacking them at present. You come before me,' said he, powdered and dressed, and boast about commandoes, but I believe you are unwilling to go on them: you can talk bravely before the women, but I know you too well to take you against those nations.' He added, that he had had various conversations with the strangers; and there was no occasion to fear, and to run from them. They loved peace, he said, and came to make known to them the true God, and his Son, who had come into the world. He then explained the reason why we had no beads, which had caused so much

dissatisfaction.

"His brother concluded the meeting by a long speech, at one part of which both the Regent and Moeelway, follow ed by many, ran forward and danced for some time. On returning to their seats, he proceeded in his speech; and the instant he concluded, the whole meeting rose as one man, with tumultu

white turban, made from the skin of the wild hog, the bristles of which are as white as the whitest horse-hair. Many wore tiger's skins, and several were ornamented with eight or ten coverings resembling fur tippets, hanging from their shoulders, and others wore them depending from the middle of their bodies. There were a great variety of skin cloaks without the hair. Yet, notwithstanding all this finery, few scenes could be conceived more completely savage, almost bordering on the frightful: but the tones of voice and the actions of most of the speakers were oratorical and graceful, and they possessed great fluency of utterance. None seemed to have the smallest timidity, nor were they reluctant to express their minds with freedom. In fact, they exhibited a singular compound of barbarism and civilization. The utmost latitude of speech seems to be allowed on such occasions. The women, who stood about twenty yards distant from the assembly, sometimes cheered, by pronouncing the letter r in a loud musical tone. An elderly woman very frequently applauded in that way, while the Regent was speaking: I concluded she was his mother or sister." Vol. I. pp. 268, 269.

We cannot help thinking that these scenes, notwithstanding occasional folly and absurdity, exhibit traits of spirit, liveliness, and good humour, which do not tell amiss for the understandings and dispositions of the natives of this The liberty of part of Africa. these public speech allowed at meetings seems unbounded, and will doubtless form a subject of envy to some of our own popular orators. "Such," says Mr. Campbell," is the freedom of speech at

ous noise, and departed with such speed, these public meetings, that some

that in one minute the square was cleared. The meeting lasted about four hours." Vol. I. pp. 258-265.

Our readers may be amused with the costume and manners displayed on this occasion.

"There were a great diversity of dresses at the peetso. They all resem bled each other, however, in having their bodies painted with pipe-clay from head to foot, and in wearing a kind of CHRIST, OBSERV. No. 245.

of the Captains have said of the King, that he stupifies his mind by smoking tobacco, and is not fit to rule over them." Vol. II. p. 157.

The rain-maker, mentioned in a preceding extract, is a sort of quack, or impostor, who gains a livelihood by pretending to procure rain, through the force of certain charms which he employs. He is hired for this express purpose; and when

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