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he held a conference which lasted till day-break, when it was too late for him to return to the vessel.

In this extremity, unfortunately for himself, he allowed Arnold to conduct him within one of the American posts, where he lay concealed till the next night. In the meantime, the Vulture, having been incommoded by an American battery, had moved lower down the river, and the boatmen now refused to convey the stranger on board her. Being cut off from this

Andre was advised to make for New York by land; and, for this purpose, he was furnished with a disguise, and a passport signed by Arnold, designating him as John Anderson. He had advanced in safety near the British lines, when he was stopped by three New York militia-men. Instead of showing his pass to these scouts, he asked them where they belonged to?' and, on their answering to below,' meaning to New York, with singular want of judgment, he stated that he was a British officer, and begged them to let him proceed without delay. The men, now throwing off the mask, seized him; and, notwithstanding his offers of a considerable bribe if they would release him, they proceeded to search him, and found upon his person, papers which gave fatal evidence of his own culpability and of Arnold's treachery. These papers were in Arnold's hand-writing, and contained exact and detailed returns of the state of the forces, ordnance, and defences of West Point and its dependencies, with the artillery orders, critical remarks on the works, an estimate of the number of men that were ordinarily on duty to man them, and the copy of a state of matters that had, on the sixth of the month, been laid before a council of war by

way of

escape,

Why did not Andre return to the Vulture?
On his return to N. Y. by land, how was he disguised?
Describe the circumstances of his seizure?
What did the papers found on him contain?

the commander-in-chief. When Andre was conducted by his captors to the quarters of the commander of the scouting parties, still assuming the name of Anderson, he requested permission to write to Arnold, to inform him of his detention. This request was inconsiderately granted; and the traitor, being thus apprised of his peril, instantly made his escape. At this moment, Washington arriving at West Point, was made acquainted with the whole affair. Having taken the necessary precautions for the security of his post, he referred the case of the prisoner to a court-martial, consisting of fourteen general officers. Before this tribunal, Andre appeared with steady composure of mind. He voluntarily confessed all the facts of his case. Being interrogated by the board with respect to his conception of his coming on shore under the sanction of a flag, he ingenuously replied, that“ if he had landed under that protection, he might have returned under it. The court, having taken all the circumstances of his case into consideration, unanimously concurred in opinion, that he ought to be considered as a spy; and that, agreeably to the laws and usages of nations, he ought to suffer death.' Sir Henry Clinton, first by amicable negotiation, and afterwards by threats, endeavored to induce the American commander to spare the life of his friend; but Washington did not think this act of mercy compatible with his duty to his country, and Andre was ordered for execution. He had petitioned to be allowed to die a soldier's death; but this request could not be granted. Of this circumstance, however, he was kept in ignorance, till he saw the preparations for his

How was Arnold apprised of his peril?
To whom did Washington refer the case?
How did Andre behave during the trial?
What was the decision of the court?
What attempts did Sir Henry Clinton make to bave the life of Andre spared ?

final catastrophe, when finding that the bitterness of his destiny was not to be alleviated as he wished, he exclaimed, “It is but a momentary pang! and calmly submitted to his fate.

Soon after this sad occurrence, Washington, in writing to a friend, expressed himself in the following terms:• Andre has met his fate, and with that fortitude which was to be expected from an accomplished gentleman and a gallant officer; but I am mistaken if Arnold is not undergoing, at this time, the torments of a mental hell."* Whatever might be the feelings of the traitor, his treason had its reward. He was immediately appointed Brigadier-General in the service of the King of Great Britain; and, on his promotion, he had the folly and presumption to publish an address, in which he avowed, that, being dissatisfied with the alliance between the United States and France," he had retained his arms and command for an opportunity to surrender them to Great Britain. This address was exceeded in meanness and insolence by another, in which he invited his late companions in arms to follow his example. The American soldiers read these manifestos with scorn; and so odious did the character of a traitor, as exemplified

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*" Arnold received, as the reward of his treachery, the sum of 10,000 pounds, and the rank of brigadier general in the British army. . But he was deserted by his new associates, and his name will be forever synonymous with infamy and baseness. In contrast with his, how bright shines the fame of the three captors of Andre."

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* “ Congress resolved, that each of the three captors of Andre, John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Vert, should receive annually $200 in specie during life ; and that the board of war be directed to procure for each of them a silver medal, emblematic of their fidelity and patriotism, to be presented by the commander-in-chief, with the thanks of congress.”

What petition did Andre himself make?
How did he meet his fate?
How did Washington express himself to a friend after the death of Andre?
How was Arnold rewarded ?

in the conduct of Arnold, become in their estimation, that

desertion totally ceased amongst them at this remarkable period of the war."*

Circumstances, however, took place soon after the discovery of Arnold's treachery, which led that renegade to entertain delusive hopes that the army of Washington would disband itself. The Pennsylvanian troops now serving on the Hudson, had been enlisted on the ambiguous terms of serving three years, or during the continuance of the war.' As the three years from the date of their enrollment were expired, they claimed their discharge, which was refused by their officers, who maintained that the option of the two above-mentioned conditions rested with the State. Wearied out with privations, and indignant at what they deemed an attempt to impose upon them, the soldiers flew to arms, deposed their officers, and under the guidance of others whom they elected in their place, they quitted Morristown and marched to Princeton. Here they were solicited by the most tempting offers on the part of some emissaries sent to them by Sir Henry Clinton, to put themselves under the protection of the British government. But they were so far from listening to these overtures, that they arrested Sir Henry's agents, and, their grievances having been redressed by the interposition of a committee of congress, they returned to their duty, and the British spies, having been tried by a board of officers, were condemned to death and executed.

* Ramsay. t • The soldiers of the Pennsylvania line were stationed at Morristown, in New Jersey. They complained that, in addition to sustaining sufferings com

Why did desertion totally cease at this period?
What circumstances took place soon after?
Describe the particulars.
How did these soldiers receive the offers of Sir Henry Clinton?
Who were condemned to death and executed?

A similar revolt of a small body of the Jersey line was quelled by the capital punishment of two of the ring-leaders of the mutineers. The distresses which were the chief cause of this misconduct of the American soldiery, were principally occasioned by the depreciation of the continental currency; which evil, at this period, effected its own cure, as the depreciated paper was by common consent, and without any act of the legislature, put out of use; and by a seasonable loan from France, and by the revival of trade with the French and Spanish West Indies, its place was speedily supplied with hard money.

mon to all, they were retained in service contrary to the terms of their enlistments. In the night of the first of January, thirteen hundred, on a concerted signal, paraded under arms, and declared their intention of marching to Phila. delphia, and demanding of congress a redress of their grievances. The officers strove to compel them to relinquish their purpose. In the attempt, one was killed and several were wounded. General Wayne presented his pistols as if intending to fire. They held their bayonets to his breast; “We love and res. pect you," said they, “but if you fire you are a dead man. We are not going to the enemy.

On the contrary, if they were now to come out, you should see us fight under your orders with as much alacrity as ever. But we will be amused no longer; we are determined to obtain what is our just due.” They elected temporary officers, and moved off in a body towards Princeton. General Wayne, to prevent them from plundering the inhabitants, forwarded provisions for their use. The next day he followed, and requested them to appoint a man from each regiment, to state to him their complaints. The men were appointed, a conference held, but he refused to comply with their demands. They pro ceeded in good order to Princeton. Three emissaries from Sir Henry Clinton meeting them here, made them liberal offers to entice them from the service of congress. The offers were instantly rejected, and the emissaries seized and confined in strict custody. Here they were also met by a committee of con. gress, and a deputation from the State of Pennsylvania. The latter, granting a part of their demands, persuaded them to return to their duty.

The agents of Clinton were then given up, and immediately executed as spies."

What happened in the Jersey line?
What was the chief cause of these mutinies?
How did the evil cure itself?
How was hard money obtained?

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