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But the distance between the colonies and the mother country precludes the Americans from sending representatives to the British legislature. What remains, then, but to recognize for the theory the ancient constitution and policy of this kingdom with regard to representation, and as to the practice, to return to that mode which a uniform experience has marked out to you as best, and in which you walked with security, advantage, and honor until the year 1763. My resolutions, therefore,' continued Mr. Burke, 'mean to establish the equity and justice of a taxation of America by grant, and not by imposition; to mark the legal competency of the colony assemblies for the support of their government in peace, and for the public aids in the time of war; to acknowledge that this legal competency has had a dutiful and beneficial exercise, and that experience has shown the benefit of their grants, and the futility of parliamentary taxation as a measure of supply.' After opening these points at considerable length, and with transcendent ability, Mr. Burke concluded by moving a series of resolutions in which their substance was embodied. This masterly speech, in the meditation and composition of which Mr. Burke, in the earnestness of his wish to point out to the members of the House of Commons the true line of colonial policy, seems to have chastised and checked the exuberance of his genius, was spoken to the members alone, as during the debate the standing orders for the exclusion of strangers were strictly enforced. It was answered by Mr. Jenkinson, who professed serious alarm at the proposition, that any public body, save parliament, was entitled to make grants of money to the crown. These constitutional scru
What did his resolutions aim to establish?
By whom was this masterly speech answered?
ples had their due weight, and Mr. Burke's resolutions were negatived by a majority of 270 to 78.
About this time, Dr. Franklin, in a kind of demi-official communication with ministers, endeavored to effect a conciliation between the colonies and the parent State. the discussions which took place with this view between the doctor and the agents of the ministry, most of the points in dispute were settled; but the obstinate refusal of the cabinet to restore the ancient constitution of Massachusetts broke off the conferences; and Dr. Franklin, despairing of the preservation of peace, returned to his native land, determined to share the fortunes of his countrymen, and, at all hazards, to devote his talents to the maintenance of their rights.
AFFAIR AT LEXINGTON, 19TH OF APRIL, 1775.
It has already been stated, that the Massachusetts patriots had resolved to attack the king's forces whenever they should march out of Boston. On the 19th of April, 1775, their adherence to this resolution was put to the test. With a view of seizing the military stores and provisions which the insurgents had collected at Concord, General Gage, on the night preceding that eventful day, detached from his garrison 800 picked men, under the command of Lieuten
What was the fate of Mr. Burke's resolutions?
What broke off the conferences?
What did the doctor do?
Who was the British General in Boston?
Whom did he send to Concord?
For what object?
ant-Colonel Smith. These troops made a rapid march to the place of their destination, in hopes of taking the malcontents by surprise; but notwithstanding their precautions, the alarm was given throughout the country, and the inhabitants flew to arms. Between four and five o'clock on the morning of the 19th, the advanced guard of the royal troops arrived at Lexington, where they found about 70 of the American militia under arms, whom Major Pitcairn ordered to disperse; and on their hesitating to obey his commands, that officer discharged his pistol, and ordered his soldiers to fire. By the volley which ensued three or four of the militia were killed and the rest put to flight.— Lieutenant-Colonel Smith then proceeded to Concord, where he destroyed the stores of the insurgents, and then commenced his retreat towards Boston. He was not, however, permitted to make this retrograde movement without molestation. Before he left Concord he was attacked by the American militia and minute-men, who, accumulating by degrees, harassed his rear and flanks, taking advantage of every inequality of ground, and especially availing themselves of the stone walls which skirted the road, and which served them as entrenchments. Had not the detachment been met at Lexington by a body of 900 men, which General Gage had sent out to its support, under the command of Lord Percy, it would certainly have been cut off. The united British forces arrived, wearied and exhausted, at Bunker's Hill, near Boston, a little after sunset, having
In what year did this take place?
What happened at Lexington?
What success did they meet with at Concord?
Where did they arrive?
What was their situation?
sustained a loss of 65 killed, 180 wounded, and 28 prisoners.*
When Lord Percy, on his advance, was marching through Roxbury, his military band, in derision of the Americans, played the tune of 'Yankee Doodle.' His lord
The following is a copy of a hand-bill issued immediately after the engage. ment at Concord and Lexington.
A List of the names of the Provincials who were killed and wounded in the late engagement with his majesty's troops at Concord, &c.
*Mr. Robert Munroe,
* Mr. Jonas Parker,
* Mr. Jonathan Harrington,
* Mr. Isaac Muzzy,
* Mr. John Brown,
Mr. John Raymond,
Mr. Jabez Wyman,
Mr. Jason Winship.
ship observed a youth who appeared to be amused at this circumstance, and asking him why he laughed, received this answer: "To think how you will dance by-and-by to the tune of 'Chevy Chase.'' It had been too much the habit of the British to despise and insult the Americans as cowards; but the event of the march to Concord convinced them that the Massachusetts men were not deficient either in personal courage or in individual skill in the use of
BATTLE OF BUNKER'S HILL, 16TH OF JUNE, 1775.
Blood having been thus drawn, the whole of the discontented colonies took prompt measures to resist the royal
Those distinguished with this mark [*] were killed by the first fire of the regulars.
What happened as Lord Percy marched through Roxbury?
What had been a habit with the British?
What effect had their march to Concord on them?