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Currency would compensate us for the money losses of the rebellion.
And this mar bo done so quietly, and will grow so gradually, that all existing banking and other business will adapt itself easily to the change. There is no uncertainty about it: the experiment has already been mado in Great Britain by means of the Bank of England. That Corporation issues 30 millions sterling of notes, secured by 15 millions of Government Stock and 15 millions of gold. We hare not, and do not need, any such gigantic Corporation to come between the Government and the people.
Fully impressed more than forty years ago with these principles, the writer saw an opportunity of reducing them to practice when the charter of the United States Bank was about to expire. Ho visited President Jackson, to show
the feasibility of introducing a National Currency by means of recliartering the Bank, with a provision that it should issue this Currency and no other. The President listened favorably; he told Congress that if applied to, he would furnish such a charter as he would be willing to approve. Congress would not ash him, and the great opportunity passed away. At the end of thirty years it is again in our powea The pressure of financial necessity crowds as into the right path j the Treasury Department has already entered upon it; the Press advocates it; the public is prepared for it, and Secretary Chase has it in his power to take rank with Alexander Hamilton.
Office of IAttell's Living Age,
This calculation, at the same rate, when extended to 1888, will show an investment of W millions, of which 350 is Principal and 657 Interest.
No. 968.—20 December, 1862.
1. Solar Chemistry, Edinburgh Review, 531
2. Mistress and Maid. Chap. 24, 25, . . . Concluded next week, 545
3. London Lyrics, . Spectator, 558
4. Archives of Simancas.—Henry VII., . . Examiner, 560
5. The Underground Railway, .... Spectator, 5G5
6. Christopher North, "568
7. Hiawatha in Latin, •." 574
Poetry.—Childless Mother, 530. Autumnal Thought, 530. A Deathless Love, 576. Rediviva, 576.
Short Articles.—A Live Yankee in China, 544. Recognition of the South hy England, 567. Discovery of a Relic in Quinn Abbey, Ireland, 567.
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THE CHILDLESS MOTHER.
BY THOMAS MILLER.
With one hand pressed against her head, This, to herself, the lady said:—
"But Sorrow cannot always weep,
Nor Grief be ever making moan!
And Memory be left alone,
With gloomy shadows overcast—
Among those pictures of the past With which it everywhere is hung,
The living mingling with the dead; And round the shifting circle swung
So quick—I look on all in dread.
"Thus ever on the past I gaze,
What was, still linked to what is now,— Like one who in a wildering mazo
Goes round about, but knows not how.
"I sleep !—but in my love awake,
Still feel about for'him in bed, Shifting my arm, as if to make
A pillow for his pretty head. And in my dreams again I fold
My darling closer to my bosom. Then wake to find the spot is cold
Where nestled once my blue-eyed blossom. His form in many a thing I see,
In many a sound I seem to hear him Calling, as he once called to me,
And start, as if I still were near him. As when I hummed some plaintive ditty,
Of Babes who in the Wood lay dead, And woke his childish tears of pity—
The only happy tears we shed. Quiet doth now the kitten lie,
Which he in turn did tease and nurse; It played about when he was by:
Still is the creaking rocking-horse, Of which J did so oft complain,
When mounted there he shook the floor: Oh! could I have thec back again,
My child! I ne'er would murmur more. That rocking sound awoke the bird,
And it would sing, and thou wouldst shout Until the very house seemed stirred.
Now—a sad silence hangs about, Made sadder if that poor bird sings.
I fix my eyes upon the door, For back another voice it brings,
Whose music I shall hear no more. Worse than a desert unto mo
My garden seems; I sit for hours, And all the while I only see
A littlo coffin filled with flowers. And then sometimes I sit and mend
The garments in thy gambols torn; And while I o'er them fondly bend,
Forget they will no more be worn ;— Think how this rent was made in play,
And that while climbing on my knee;
And clasp my hands in misery.
My folded hands enclosing thine,
I now bow down on thrice a day ;— ,
To me it is a holy shrine.
His footstep sounding on the stair:
His bnsy fingers pull my hair. And then I waken with a start,
And wonder how the inward eye Makes such a fluttering at the heart,
Then say, 'This love can never die.'
"I fondly hoped I should have seen
Thy children gathering round my knee; Pictured the comfort they'd have been
In my old age to thee and me, With her thou to thy heart wouldst fold:
But while I sat and wove the chain In fancied links of lengthening gold,
It suddenly was snapped in twain.
"I saw thee in my dreams last night,
Sitting beside a starry gate, 'Mid other children robed in light,
Who for their mothers seemed to wait, As if they feared to go alone,
Where golden pillars stretched away, Lost in the brightness of a throne.
And in my dream I heard thee say, 'My mother now will soon be here;
She is already on her way.' And then I seemed to enter there,
And thou didst lead me by the hand, And to an angel named my name,
Who by the starry gate did stand. And while I hung my head in shame,
And feared he would not let me in, I heard these pleading words from thee,—
'Angel! my mother's greatest sin, While upon earth, was loving me.' And then we both knelt at his feet,
While heavenly music 'gan to sound; And voices, for this earth too sweet,
Anthemed within, ' The lost is found!" —St. James's Magazine.
AN AUTUMNAL THOUGHT.
In the warm crystal air,
And frisks the woodland hare,
Without the wrestling and pain,
The wailing to those who remain! —Fraser's Magazine E.
From The Edinburgh Eeview.
1. Researches on the Solar Spectrum, and the
Spectra of the Chemical Elements. By G. Kirchhoff, Professor of Physics in th» University of Heidelberg. Translated by Henry E. Roscoe, B.A., Professor of Chemistry in Owens College, Manchester. Cambridge and London: 1862.
2. Chemical Analysis by Spectrum Observa
tions. By Professors Bunsen and Kirchhoff. Memoirs I. & II. PoggendorfTs Annalen (Philosophical Magazine, 4th Series, vol. xx. p. 89, vol. xxii. p. 1). I London, Dublin and Edinburgh.
'It is unnecessary to insist, at the present day, upon the incalculable value of discoveries in natural science, however abstruse they may be, or however far-distant may appear their practical application. If we put aside for the moment that highest of all intellectual gratifications afforded by the prosecution of truth in every form, the perception of which is one of the chief distinctions of human from mere brute life, and if we look to the results of scientific discovery in benefiting mankind, we find so many striking examples of the existence of truths apparently altogether foreign to our every-day wants, which suddenly become points of great interest to the material prosperity and the moral advancement of the race, that we are less apt to utter the vulgar cry of "cui bono" respecting any scientific discovery; and if we are not advanced enough to love science for the sake of her truth alone, we at least respect her for the sake of the power she bestows. Not once, but oftentimes in the annals of science, it has turned out that discoveries of the most recondite truths have ere long found their application in the physical structure of the world, and even in the common interests of men; for in the range of scientific investigation, it can never be said how near the deepest principle lies to the simplest facts.
A great discovery in natural knowledge, for which no equivalent in direct benefit to mankind has as yet been found, but which nevertheless excites our liveliest interest and admiration, has lately been made in the rapidly advancing science of Chemistry. This discovery, which is one of the grandest and most important of all the re.cent additions to science, consists in the establishment of a new system of chemical analysis—of a new power to investigate the constitution of mat
ter. This is of so delicate a nature, that, when applied to the examination of the substances composing our globe, it yields most new, interesting, and unlooked*-for information. At the same time it is of so vast an application as to enable us to ascertain with certainty the presence in the solar atmosphere—at a distance of ninety-five million miles—of metals, such as iron and magnesium, well known on this earth, and likewise to give us good hopes of obtaining similar knowledge concerning the composition of the fixed stars. Here, indeed, is a triumph of science! The weak mortal, confined within a narrow zone on the surface of our insignificant planet, stretches out his intellectual powers through unlimited space, and estimates the chemical composition of matter contained in the sun and fixed stars with as much ease and certainty as he would do if he could handle it, and prove its reactions in the test-tube.
How can this result, at first sight as marvellous and impossible as the discovery of the elixir vitae or the philosophers' stone, be arrived at? How did two German philosophers, quietly working in their laboratory in Heidelberg, obtain this inconceivable insight into the processes of creation? Are the conclusions which they have arrived at logical consequences of bond fide observations and experiments—the only true basis of reasoning in physical science—or do they not savor somewhat of that mysticism for which our German friends are famous? Such questions as these will occur to all who hear of this discovery; and it will be our present aim, in reviewing the publications which are placed at the head of this article, to answer these and similar questions, and to show that, far from being mystical, these results are as clear as noon-day, being the plain and necessary deductions from exact and laborious experiment. And here we may express our satisfaction at the change which has occurred within the last few years in the direction given to the powerful intelligence and the indefatigable industry of Germany. The labors of the Germans in physical science have far surpassed in their results those speculative researches which had rendered " German philosophy" the synonym of all that was unintelligible and perplexing: and it is impossible to overrate the services which men like Liebig and Bunsen (the chemist) and Kirchhoff have rendered to mankind. In chemistry, Germany may now be said to take the lead of England, of France, and of Italy: already she has paid an ample contribution to the common stores of human knowledge. It is a remarkable circumstance that although for several years the once productive fields of German literature have been comparatively barren, or have at least presented us with no work of the highest order, the supply of German works on natural science is immense, and the quality of these works excellent. 4
The only channel through which we on the earth can obtain information of any kind whatever concerning the sun and stars, consists in the vivifying radiance which these luminaries pour forth into surrounding space. The light and heat which we receive from the sun not only supply tho several varieties of force which we find in action upon the surface of the earth, thus rendering the whole human family truly children of the sun; but a knowledge of their nature enables us to ascertain the chemical composition of those fardistant bodies upon which the existence of our race so intimately depends. The examination of the nature of sunlight and starlight has led to the foundation of a science of stellar chemistry; and it is likewise upon the examination of the light given off by terrestrial matter, when through heat it becomes luminous, that the new method of spectrum analysis is founded—a method so delicate as to enable the analyst to detect with ease and certainty so minute a quantity as the one one hundred and eighty millionth part of a grain of substance.
The world owes to the great Newton its first knowledge of the nature of sunlight. In 1675 Newton presented to the Royal Society his ever-memorabje treatise on Optics; and amongst the numerous important discoveries there disclosed and recorded, was one demonstrating the constitution of white light. He describes what he observed when he passed a beam of sunlight, from a hole in the shutter of a darkened room, through a triangular piece of glass called a prism. He noticed that, instead of a spot of white light corresponding to the hole in the shutter, a bright band of variously colored lights, showing all the tints of the rainbow, was thrown on the wall of his room. Newton concluded
that these colors were no peculiar effect of the prism, because a second prism did not produce a fresh alteration of the light. He showed that the white light is thus split up into its various constituent parts; and by bringing all these colored rays together in the eye, and again obtaining the white image of the hole in the shutter, he proved that the kind of light which produces on the eye the sensation we term whiteness, is in reality made up of an infinite number of differently colored rays.
The colored band thus obtained by Nejrton did not, however, reveal to him all the characteristic beauties of solar light, because in his spectrum the tints were created by the partial superposition of an infinite number of differently colored images of the round hole through which the light came. It was not until the year 1802 that Dr. Wollaston, by preventing the different colored lights from overlapping, and thus interfering with each other, discovered that great peculiarity in solar light which has led to such startling discoveries in the composition of the sun itself. Dr. Wollaston noticed, when he allowed the sunlight to fall through a narrow slit upon the prism, that a number of dark lines cutting up the colored portions of the spectrum, made their appearance. These dark lines, or spaces, of which Wollaston counted only seven, indicate the absence of certain distinct kinds of rays in the sunlight; they are, as it were, shadows on the bright background.
It is, however, to the celebrated German optician Fraunhofer, that we owe the first accurate examination of these singular lines. By a great improvement in the optical arrangements employed, Fraunhofer, rediscovering these lines, was able to detect a far larger number of them in the solar spectrum than had been observed by Wollaston. He counted no less than five hundred and ninety of these dark lines, stretching throughout the length of the spectrum from red to violet, and in the year 1815 drew a very beautiful map of them, some of the most important of which he designated by the letters of the alphabet. Fraunhofer carefully measured the relative distances between these lines, and found that they did not vary in sunlight examined at different times. He also saw these same dark fixed lines in reflected as well as in direct solar-light; for