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Degrees in schools, and brother

hoods in cities, Peaceful commerce from dividable

shores, The primogenitive and due of

birth, Prerogative of age, crowns, scep

tres, laurels, But by degree, stand in authentic

place ? Take but degree away, untune that

string, And, hark! what discord follows!” Troilus and Cressida, i. 3 (1609).

In the second edition of the 'Advancement,' Bacon, who was a nobleman and who had a contempt for the political abilities of the commonalty, inserted the word “ ranks ” in the sentence quoted above, so as to make his meaning still clearer. It reads there:

“Nothing derogates from the dignity of a state more than confusion of ranks and degrees.”

Mr. E. S. Alderson, an excellent critic, to whom we are indebted for this and the next following parallelisms, says:

“The political wisdom and insight displayed in Troilus and Cressida' have been a standing puzzle to all writers on Shakespeare. How came he so well versed in state mysteries and policies? ... Bacon had been brought up among statesmen. At the age of seventeen he formed one of the suite of Sir Amyas Paulet, the Ambassador to the French Court, and before he was nineteen had begun the study of European politics, so that, by the time the plays were written, the ways and policies of kings and states were quite familiar to him. How they became so to Shakspere we can find no

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YOUTH AND OLD AGE
“ Youth is full of pleasance, age is full of care ;

Youth like summer morn, age like winter weather;

Youth like summer brave, age like winter bare ;
Youth is full of sport, age's breath is short;

Youth is nimble, age is lame;
Youth is hot and bold, age is weak and cold;

Youth is wild, and age is tame.
Age, I do abhor thee; youth, I adore thee."

Shake-speare's Passionate Pilgrim (1599). “A young man's skin is even and smooth, an old man's dry and

wrinkled ; A young man's flesh is soft and tender, an old man's hard ; Youth has strength and activity, old age decay of strength and slow

ness of motion ;
Youth has a strong, old age a weak digestion ;
In youth the body is erect, in old age bent into a curve ;
A young man's limbs are firm, an old man's weak and trembling;
In youth the juices of the body are more roscid, in old age more crude

and watery;
In youth the spirit is plentiful, in old age poor and scanty;
In youth the senses are quick, in old age dull ;
A young man's teeth are strong, an old man's worn;
A young man's hair is colored, an old man's white ;
Youth has hair, an old man is bald ;
In youth the pulse beats strong, in old age weak;
In youth wounds heal fast, in old age slowly ;
A young man's cheeks are fresh-colored, an old man's pale."

Bacon's History of Life and Death (compressed), 1623.

Besides an elaborate contrast (of which we have given above a part only) between youth and old age in respect of the body, Bacon made another, equally elaborate, between them in respect of the mind. The two occupy several pages in the printed edition of his works.

381
MARK ANTHONY AND LOVE
From Shake-speare

From Bacon “Look! where they come. “You may observe that amongst [Enter Anthony and Cleopatra. all the great and worthy persons Take but good note, and you shall (whereof the memory remaineth, see in him

ancient or modern) there is not The triple pillar of the world trans- one that hath been transported to form'a

the mad degree of love ; which Into a strumpet's fool.”

shows that great spirits and great Anthony and Cleopatra, i. 1 (1623). business do keep out this weak

passion. You must except, nevertheless, Mark Anthony, the half partner of the Empire of Rome!”

Essay of Love (1612). “Nothing is more certain,” says Mr. Wigston, “ than that the play of 'Anthony and Cleopatra' was composed with an entirely ethical purpose of portraying the calamities and disasters that accompany inordinate and irregular love."

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383

CÆSAR'S STAR “A far more glorious star thy “ This work, which is for the soul will make

bettering of men's bread and wine, Than Julius Cæsar's.”

I hope by God's holy providence 1 Henry VI., i. 1 (1623). will be ripened by Cæsar's star.”

Letter to the King (1620). A brilliant comet, which is said to have made its appearance at the time of Julius Caesar's death, was in popular belief the soul of Cæsar himself, received up into heaven. Virgil (Eclog. 9. 46) calls this comet “ Cæsar's Star.” Bacon and Shake-speare both refer to it under the same name, the former hoping that its influence on the great work, Novum

Organum, would be favorable, and the latter declaring that at Henry the Fifth's death the English warrior's star would be even more glorious than was Cæsar's. Bacon quoted Virgil's lines.

384
WINNOWING WITH A FAN
From Shake-speare

From Bacon “ In the wind and tempest of her “Your Majesty will discern frown,

what things are intermingled, like Distinction, with a broad and the tares amongst the wheat, as powerful fan,

the one cannot be pulled up withPuffing at all, winnows the light out endangering the other; and away ;

what are mingled but as the chaff And what hath mass or matter, by and the corn, which need but a itself

fan to sift and sever them.” — Lies, rich in virtue and unmingled.” Pacification of the Church (1603). Troilus and Cressida, i. 3 (1609).

See Donnelly's 'The Great Cryptogram,' p. 368.

385

SUPPRESSED ANGER “ Give sorrow words; the grief “Suppressed anger is likewise that will not speak,

a kind of vexation, and makes the Whispers the o'erfraught heart spirit to prey upon the juices of and bids it break.”

the body. But anger indulged Macbeth, iv. 3 (1623). and let loose is beneficial.” —

History of Life and Death (1623). The Great Cryptogram,' p. 372.

386 MIND, A MIRROR HELD UP TO NATURE “ To hold, as 't were, the mirror “God hath framed the mind of up to nature.”

man as a glass capable of the image Hamlet, üi. 2 (1604). of the universal world.” – Of the

Interpretation of Nature (c. 1603).

“ The mind of a wise man is compared to a glass wherein images of all kinds in nature and custom are represented.” – Advancement of Learning (1603-5).

Bacon explained the existence of error in the world as an imperfection in the mind as a glass, “which” (he says), “receiving rays irregularly, distorts and discolors the nature of things” (Novum Organum). On one occasion he even reversed the imagery, calling Nature herself a “mirror (speculum) of art.”

387

SILENCE
From Shake-speare

From Bacon “Be check'd for silence, “Silence gives to words both But never tax'd for speech." grace and authority."

All's Well, i. 1 (1623). “Silence is the sleep that nour“ Give every man thine ear, but ishes wisdom.” few thy voice."

“Silence aspires after truth.” Hamlet, i. 3 (1604).

De Augmentis (1622). “ Men of few words are the best

men."
King Henry V., iii. 2 (1623).

388

BROKEN MUSIC “ Is there any else longs to see this “All concords and discords of

broken music in his sides ?” music may be aptly called the

As You Like It, i. 2 (1623). sympathies and antipathies of “Come, your answer in broken sounds; so in that music termed music.”

Broken or Consort Music.” Henry V., v. 2 (1623). Natural History (1622–25). “Fair prince, here is good broken

music.” Troilus and Cressida, iii. 1 (1609).

Of all writers on music known to us, Mr. Chappel is the only one who has undertaken to explain what was meant in Bacon's time by “ broken music.” He defined it, in his

Popular Music of the Olden Time,' as the “music of wind instruments,” but subsequently intimated, in a private letter to Mr. Aldis A. Wright, that on further consideration he had discarded that opinion and adopted another, the latter, however (as it appears to us), still less tenable. It is a pity

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