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he did not consult Bacon, perhaps the best authority of that age on the musical art; for if he had, he would have found no mystery in the phrase. The author of the Plays was so familiar with the expression that he made a pun on it in 'Henry V.'

"King Henry. Come, your answer in broken music; for thy voice is music, and thy English broken; therefore, queen of all, Katharine, break thy mind to me in broken English: wilt thou have me?"—v. 2.

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From the beginning until late in the seventeenth century, and in a few instances, even in the eighteenth, these two words, council and counsel, were used interchangeably in our language. For examples: council (council-board) was written counsel by Marbeck in 1581; by Sir R. Williams in 1590; by

Captain John Smith in 1606; by Cotgrave in 1611; and by the 'London Gazette' in 1697. In like manner the word counsel (advice) was written council by Wyclif in 1380; by Mallory in 1470; by Caxton in 1474; by Coverdale in 1535; by Udall in 1548; by Heywood in 1562; by Ford in 1633; by Perkins in 1642; by Ward in 1647; by Nicholas in 1654; by Steele in 1709; and by Cibber in 1739. On the other hand, the author of the Plays used the word council 42 times, and counsel 180 times without confusing them in a single instance. He even makes a pun on them (as above) in the Merry Wives of Windsor.' Bacon, though proverb careless in matters of detail, observed this distinction with great care in his prose writings, except in one or two instances in which he is supposed to have employed

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393

PLUTO AND PLUTUS

From Shake-speare

"Dearer than Pluto's mine, richer
than gold."

Julius Cæsar, iv. 3 (1623).
"Plutus, the god of gold,

Is but his steward."

Timon of Athens, i. 1 (1623).

From Bacon

"Pluto was better to him than Pallas."- History of Henry VII. (1621).

Both authors carefully distinguished between Pluto, god of mines, and Plutus, god of gold. Bacon certainly could not have made a mistake of this kind, for he probably was the most thorough student of ancient mythology that ever lived. He expounded some of the prominent myths of Greece and Rome in a book entitled De Sapientiâ Veterum and published in 1609. In the passage from his 'History of Henry VII.,' quoted above, he means that King Ferdinand of Spain was more fortunate, after the death of Isabella, as owner of mines than as civil governor. It is, to say the least, remarkable that classical scholars, editing the drama of Julius Cæsar, should have changed the name of the god from Pluto, as it was plainly printed in the folios, to Plutus, on the ground that Shake-speare had blundered. Mrs. C. F. A. Windle, of San Francisco, was the first to point out this singular misconception.

394

A MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS

"Falstaff. Sirrah, you giant, what says the doctor to my water?

Page. He said, sir, the water itself was a good healthy water; but for the party that ow'd it, he might have more diseases than he knew for."-2 Henry IV., i. 2 (1600).

"These advertisements which your lordship imparted to me, and the like, I hold to be no more certain to make judgment upon than a patient's water to a physician; therefore for me upon one water to make a judgment were, indeed, like a foolish bold mountebank or Doctor Birket." - Letter to Essex (1598).

395

A FOOL'S BOLT

From Shake-speare "A fool's bolt is soon shot."

Henry V., iii. 7 (1623). "According to the fool's bolt, sir." As You Like It, v. 4 (1623).

"Harp not on that string, madam." Richard III., iv. 4 (1597).

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396

HARPING ON A STRING

From Bacon

"I will shoot my fool's bolt." Letter of Advice to Essex (1598). "A fool's bolt is soon shot." Promus (1594-96).

"This string you cannot upon every apt occasion harp upon too much."- Ibid.

397

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY

"Knock at his study, where (they say) he keeps."

"I remember in Trinity College in Cambridge there was an upper Titus Andronicus, v. 2 (1600). chamber, which, being thought

weak in the roof of it, was supported by a pillar of iron of the bigness of one's arm, in the midst of the chamber; which if you had struck, it would make a little flat noise in the room where it was struck, but it would make a great bomb in the chamber beneath.". Natural History (1622-25).

Bacon was educated at Cambridge University; so also, we have good reason to believe, was the author of the Plays. Under the latter head, we make the following points:

1. In a book printed at Cambridge and published anonymously in 1595, the author (that is, the true author) of Venus and Adonis' is said to have been matriculated at Cambridge, Oxford, or at one of the Inns of Court in London.1

1 See 'Bacon vs. Shakspere,' 8th ed.

2. The author of the Merry Wives of Windsor' held up to ridicule a notorious character attached to a college at Cambridge.1

3. The author of Titus Andronicus' was familiar (as shown above) with a dialectical expression peculiar to Cambridge University.2

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