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452

ACTION IS ELOQUENCE “ Action is eloquence, and the eyes “Question was asked of Demosof the ignorant

thenes, 'what was the chief part of More learned than the ears.” an orator ?' he answered, "action.' Coriolanus, iii. 2 (1623). What next ? “action. What next

again ? 'action.'" — Essay of Boldness (1625).

453 DEATH, BEING INEVITABLE, MUST BE ENDURED “ With meditating that she must “I mourn not for that end which die once,

must be."— Essay of Death (postI have the patience to endure it humous). now."

Julius Cæsar, iv. 3 (1623).

454

UNSUSPECTING NATURES “The Moor is of a free and open “He who thinks no evil is easily nature,

deceived." --- Promus (1594-96). That thinks men honest that but

seem to be so, And will as tenderly be led by the

nose As asses are.”

Othello, i. 3 (1622).

“ A brother noble, Whose nature is so far from doing

harms,

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ARIEL A SPIRIT, COMPOUNDED OF FLAME AND AIR "Ariel. I boarded the king's ship; “Let us now proceed to the now on the beak,

doctrine which concerns the human Now in the waist, the deck, in soul. The parts thereof are two : every cabin,

the one treats of the rational I flam'd amazement; sometimes I'd soul, which is divine; the other divide,

of the sensible, which is common And burn in many places ; on the with brutes. The latter is itself topmast,

only the instrument of the rational The yard and bowsprit, would I soul, and may be fitly termed not flame distinctly.

soul, but spirit. It is compounded Tempest, i. 2 (1623). of flame and air.De AugAriel. If you now beheld them, mentis (1622).

your affections Would become tender. Prospero. Dost thou think so,

spirit ? Ari. Mine would, sir, were I hu

man. Pros.

And mine shall. Hast thou, which art but air, a touch,

a feeling Of their affections ? "

Ib. v. 1.

In the play Ariel is an invisible creature that confesses himself to be the “instrument” of Prospero. He is said at one time (as the name implies) to be “air;" when he visited the ship, he was "flame;" at all times, therefore, he was a "compound of air and flame.” Prospero frequently addresses him as “spirit.” It would be difficult to conceive of more perfect embodiments, according to Bacon's conception, of the two souls, taken separately, that exist in every human being than these in the 'Tempest.'

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From Shake-speare Parolles. Sir, for a quart d'écu he will sell the fee-simple of his salvation, the inheritance of it; and cut the entail from all remainders.” – All's Well, iv. 3 (1623).

From Bacon “The last and greatest estate in land is fee-simple, and beyond this there is none. He that maketh a lease for life to one, or a gift in tail, may appoint a remainder to another for life, or in tail after that estate, or to a third in feesimple; but after a fee-simple he can limit no other estate. And if a man do not dispose of the fee. simple by way of remainder when he maketh the gift in tail or for lives, then the fee-simple resteth in him as a reversion. ... This slight was first invented when entails fell out to be so inconvenient that men made no conscience to cut them off, if they could find law for it.” – Use of the Law (date uncertain).

The ownership of land in fee-simple was doubtless well understood in Shake-speare's time; but this cunning use of it, to bar entails, was then a comparatively recent invention, and known only to lawyers. Chief Justice Campbell says (“The Law in Shakespeare') that “Parolles, the bragging

cowardly soldier, is made to talk like a conveyancer in Lincoln's Inn.”

458
KING BESTOWING WARDS IN MARRIAGE
From Shake-speare

From Bacon King. It is in us to plant thine “The grief was, that every man's honor where

eldest son or heir was, by PrerogaWe please to have it grow. Check tive, to be in ward to the king for thy contempt.

his body and lands; [the king] to Obey our will, which travails to imitate and approach, as near as thy good.

may be, to the duties and offices .... Take her by the hand, of a natural father, in the good And tell her she is thine."

education, and well bestowing AU's Well, ii. 3 (1623). in marriage.” – On Wardships

(1612).

The scene of 'All's Well' is laid in France, but Bacon knew (as pointed out by the late Mr. T. S. E. Dixon) that the same law prevailed there as in England, conferring upon the king the right to dispose of his wards in marriage. This appears in his ‘History of Henry VII.' where he says that King Charles of France had the power, “according to his right of seigniory and tutelage, to dispose of the marriage of the young Duchess of Britain [his ward] as he should think

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459 FELONY AND BENEFIT OF CLERGY “Thou hast appointed justices “For the scarcity of men that of the peace, to call poor men be. could read, and the multitude reqfore them about matters they were uisite in the clergy of the realm to not able to answer. Moreover, be disposed unto religious houses, thou hast put them in prison, and priests, deacons, and clerks of because they could not read, thou parishes, there was a prerogative hast hanged them, when indeed allowed to the clergy that if any only for that cause they have been man that could read as a clerk most worthy to live.” – 2 Henry were to be condemned to death, the VI., iv. 7 (1594).

bishop of the diocese might, if he would, claim him; but if either the bishop would not demand him, or that the prisoner could not read, then he was to be put to death.” — Use of the Law (date uncertain).

“How acquired I know not, but it is quite certain that the drawer of this indictment must have had some acquaintance with • The Crown Circuit Companion,' and must have had a full and accurate knowledge of that rather obscure and intricate subject — *Felony and Benefit of Clergy.'" – CHIEF JUSTICE CAMPBELL, in his · Law in Shakespeare.'

460
OFFICE OF TIME, TO DISCLOSE TRUTH
From Shake-speare

From Bacon “ Time's glory is . . . “The inseparable property of To unmask falsehood, and bring Time, which is ever more and truth to light.”

more to disclose truth.” The AdLucrece (1594). vancement of Learning (1603–5).

“ Truth is rightly called the Daughter of Time.” – Novum Organum (1620).

461

WITCHCRAFT IN LOVE “I will a round unvarnish'd tale “For witchcraft, by the former deliver

law it was not death; . . . but Of my whole course of love; what now by an act of his Majesty's drugs, what charms,

times, charms and sorceries in What conjuration, and what certain cases of procuring unlawmighty magic

ful love or bodily hurt, and some (For such proceedings I am charged others, are made felony the secwithal)

ond offence.” — Speech in Court I won his daughter with.

(1611).

This only is the witchcraft I have us'd."

Othello, i. 3 (1623).

462 FALSE WEIGHTS AND MEASURES " Sly. Bring our lady hither to “There have been many addiour sight;

tions of power and authority given

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