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no part in the presentation of the play, but he was not even present. He was at Greenwich, with the company of players to which he was attached.

489
QUEEN ELIZABETH AND LOVE
From Shake-speare

From Bacon “Cupid all arm'd; a certain aim “Your Majesty shall first see he took

your own invaluable value, and At a fair vestal thron'd by the west; thereby discern that the favors you And loos’d his love shaft smartly vouchsafe are pure gifts and no exfrom his bow,

changes. And if any be so happy As it should pierce a hundred as to have his affection accepted, thousand hearts;

yet your prerogative is such as But I might see young Cupid's fiery they stand bound, and your Mashaft

jesty is free.” Device of the InQuench'd in the chaste beams of dian Prince (1595).

the watry moon, And the imperial vot'ress passed

on, In maiden meditation fancy-free."

A Midsummer-Night's Dream,

ii. 1 (1600).

Both authors assert that Queen Elizabeth was capable of inspiring the passion of love in others while she herself was always free from it, - Shake-speare in ‘Midsummer-Night's Dream,' written in or about 1595–6, and Bacon in his ‘Device of an Indian Prince,' a masque performed before the Queen in 1595.

490

WITCHES' CAULDRON First Witch. Round about the “ There be many things that cauldron go ;

work upon the spirits of men hy In the poison'd entrails throw.” secret sympathy and antipathy."

Macbeth iv. 1 (1623). - Natural History (1622–25).

In the incantation scene in ‘Macbeth'the witches throw into the cauldron certain ingredients that were deemed to possess occult properties, and cause spirits or apparitions to appear at call. Bacon also in his Natural History enumerates many objects that possess the same secret properties, some of them being identical with those used for the same purpose by the witches. The following are examples from each :

From Shake-speare
Brinded cat hath mewd.
Hedge-pig whin'd.
Fillet of a fenny snake.
Tongue of dog.
Toad, under coldest stone.

From Bacon
Tail or leg of a cat.
Hedge-hog.
Spoil of a snake.
Head of a dog.
Toad [that] loveth shade and cool-

ness.
Venom drawn from the spirits.
Mummy.
Hemlock.
Heart of an ape.
Skin of a wolf.
Rings of sea-horse teeth.

Swelter'd venom.
Witches' mummy.
Root of hemlock.
Baboon's blood.
Tooth of wolf.
Maw of the salt-sea shark.

The two lists agree in another important particular: each consists, generally speaking, of portions only of the animals mentioned. This is explained by Bacon:

“The writers of natural magic do attribute much to the virtues that come from the parts of living creatures ; 80 as they be taken from them, the creatures remaining still alive; as if the creature, still living, did infuse some immateriate virtue or vigor into the part severed.”

Incantations, of the kind we find described in Bacon and acted in Shake-speare, abound in ancient authors, as in Æschylus, Homer, Ovid, Lucan, Seneca, and Virgil. Prebendary Upton says:

“There is such a cast of antiquity, and something so horridly solemn in this infernal ceremony of the witches (in Macbeth'], that I never consider it without admiring our poets improvement of every hint he receives from the ancients or moderns." — Critical Observations, p. 36.

491

TO DIVIDE AND DEFINE
From Shake-speare

From Bacon “ Sir, his definement suffers no “Plato casteth his burden and perdition in you ; though, I know, saith, that he will revere him as a to divide him inventorily would God who can truly divide and dizzy the arithmetic of memory." define.” Interpretation of Nature - Hamlet, v. 2 (1604).

(c. 1603).

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In the above passage from “Troilus and Cressida,' Mr. Richard Grant White, following some others, substitutes the word mirror'd for “married,” and says that “the emendation needs no defence ;” but the late Judge Holmes, having the advantage of a correct point of view, defended the original text as entirely consistent with the profound metaphysical meaning of Bacon's marriage of the mind to external nature. This becomes evident when we consider what follows in the play:

“No man is lord of anything,
Though in and of him there be much consisting,
Till he communicate his parts to others."

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Bacon regarded all nature as in a "perpetual flux,” in accordance with the classical derivation of the word natura, meaning the about-to-be. The present, he says in effect, is continually rushing into the past and into forgetfulness. Shake-speare expresses this thought in three different ways: first, in the passage quoted above, where Time is represented as an ungrateful monster, devouring all deeds as they come to him ; secondly, in the following lines, —

“... to have done is to hang Quite out of fashion, like a rusty nail

In monumental mockery," – showing that deeds past are not only obliterated, but also useless; thirdly, to illustrate how soon even good deeds are forgotten,

“ Time is like a fashionable host
That slightly shakes his parting guest by the hand,

And with his arms outstretch'd, as he would fly, . Grasps in the comer.”

Judge Holmes comments eloquently: “This marriage of mind to the universe, this deep river of Lethe, running as well above ground as below, this perpetual flux of remembrance and oblivion, in which all that appears is like the

foam on the roaring waterfall, every instant born, and every instant dead, living only in the flow, — these subtle riddles running under. neath the two writings, — will marry to nothing but the truth of Nature, or to the prose and verse of Francis Bacon." — Authorship of Shake-speare, 464.

494

WRONG IN HIGH PLACES
From Shake-speare

From Bacon “ Thieves for their robbery have “When the judgment-seat takes authority,

the part of injustice, there succeeds When judges steal themselves.” a state of general robbery." — De Measure for Measure, ii. 2 (1623). Augmentis (1622).

495 MOON'S INFLUENCE ON VEGETATION “ As true as . . . plantage to the “The opinion received is that moon."

seeds will grow soonest . . . in Troilus and Cressida, iii. 2 (1623). the increase of the moon." -- Nat

ural History (1622–25).

“We see that in planting and sowing and grafting, observation of the age of the moon is a thing not altogether frivolous.” — De Augmentis (1622).

496

PREMATURE OLD AGE “ That time of year thou mayst in “I wax now somewhat ancient; me behold

one and thirty years is a great deal When yellow leaves, or none, or of sand in the hour glass.” Letter few, do hang

to Burghley (1592). Upon those boughs which shake “Her Majesty's being begun in against the cold,

my first years, I would be sorry she Bare ruin'd choirs, where late the should estrange in my last years, – sweet birds sang.

for so I account them, reckoning In me thou see'st the twilight of by health, not by age.” Letter to such day

Cecil (1599).
As after sunset fadeth in the west,
Which by and by black night doth

take away,

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