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answer.

" There are some who, in order to escape this reproach, devote a part of the sittings of the Chambers to the task of correpondence. The debates go on amidst a scratching accompaniment of pens, transmitting to the constituents at a distance the answers of ministers or official men. Scarcely twenty deputies rise when the voice of the president calls for their opinion. Important resolutions pass by a majority of twelve to eight. The affairs of state are left to go on as they best may; enough that the constituent receives his letter, and can boast of having got his

The deputy has not done the business of the state, but be has settled the affair of his constituents; he has acquired a reputation for being obliging and exact, which he preserves only until the bestowal of some post renews the clamours of every disappointed candidate.

" That public opinion which is frequently merely the opinion of the journalist,—that queen of the world which frequently bas but the stones of the pavé for a throne, and an alehouse for a palace, rules tyrannically over the deputies and the people. The official controllers of the acts of ministry are themselves submitted to the daily despotism of the newspapers of the capital and the province. Within the Chamber itself, and fronting the president, is a seat filled by about twenty young redacteurs, whose employment it is to collect the words, the gestures, the interruptions of the deputies, to transmit to their subscribers the physiognomy of the legislative pandemonium ; from that quarter are derived those parliamentary reputations, wbich every man fashions as he pleases according to the views of the paper of which he is the organ. Among these each party has its instruments, or its confidants ; to them are transmitted the manuscripts of authors, whom heaven bas not endowed with the power of extemporising, or to whom the struggles of the bar or the practice of the professor's chair bave not yet taught the habit ; or who do not take the trouble of getting their speeches by heart, in order to recite them from memory, and give them out as extempore; and as there are not in the chamber more than about one hundred and fifty advocates and ten professors, the consequence is, that there are about three hundred deputies, wbo are under the necessity of writing what they are to speak on the morrow. Their manuscripts pass from hand to hand. Each redacteur takes from them what he likes. He cuts them in pieces, distorts them, changes their very nature, and, as there are but few subscribers wbose courage is equal to the perusal of the immense Moniteur, which is under the dreary obligation of admitting every thing, they judge the orator according to what be is made to say, not what he has said. Yet these interpreters are men who think they have a conscience; they will prove it to you sword in hand; only as the accounts of twenty journals are all contradictory, as it is physically impossible that a deputy could say black and white at the same

papers, that Manchester stood in need of a minister for one of its members, that wellinformed persons in the town might be in constant communication with him! Dreadful intimation! However, forewarned, forearmed, I daresay that Thomson, who is not destitute of common sense, whatever ims he may have about emigration and surplus population, has already began to think of the means by which he shall protect himself against the impertinent babble, written, as well as verbal, of this group of vulgar and conceited men.”

time, it is plain that some of those journals must have perverted the truth ; and as there is no juste milieu between truth and falsehood, it is equally plain that some, at least, of the said journalists have no conscience.

The deputies of the opposition have some advantages over their adversaries. The opposition is in fashion; it was always so in France, because there is in it more of wit than reason. Men the most pacific, the most devoted to power, have no objection to listen to the abuse of the great men of the earth. They do not deny to themselves the pleasure of laughing at an epigram, even while they pity its object. Parliamentary opposition is naturally bitter ; it requires the use of every weapon in order to overturn those who are in possession of that authority wbich it aspires to; and its attacks are always more spirited than the replies of the defenders of established power, or of the ruling opinion. This it is that explains the number and the popularity of the opposition journals, and the great disadvantages of those deputies who do not belong to this party. The government journals deal but little in eulogy; not because they belong to the ministry, but because they are mere journalists. They never become extatic over the speech of a friend, or expire with admiration at the eloquence of an orator who lends them his support. But it is the interest of the opposition journals to be extatic. It is not enough for their purpose to declare that the ministers are incapable or unfaithful; they have to demonstrate to France the ability, the knowledge, the integrity of those who are anxious to replace them; and hyperboles and superlatives, both in praise and censure, are the necessary commodities in which they deal.”

Many a legislator in our own country, who, as he takes up his Times or Morning Post, sees himself figuring as a Demosthenes, or denounced as a Cataline ;-now quoted as a model of absolute wisdom, now written down an ass, for the self same measure or speech, will recognize the correctness of the above picture. We only wish that M. Viennet, who paints the miseries of a deputy so minutely, had suggested some means of mitigating them. If poor Mr. Martin had taken the House of Commons under the protection of the Cruelty to Animals Bill, he would probably have been more popular in St. Stephen's than ever he was in Smithfield.

We have but little to say in regard to the other work, the title of which we have prefixed to this article,—the collected edition, now first published, of the Novels, Tales, and Essays of Charles Nodier. Nodier is undoubtedly a man of warm and sensitive imagination, and master of a passionate and eloquent style, which gives a certain charm even to the merest trifle from his hand.

But we cannot persuade ourselves that he is a man of that commanding talent which would justify the encoiniuins which have been lavished upon him by some friendly critics in France.

The truth is, that his mind, though plastic, and readily adapting itself to seize, re-embody or modify the ideas of others, has little of originality. Give him a hint, and he works it up with much taste and effect; but there is a want of solidity and self-reliance about all that he has written, which will prevent his name from ever being a favourite with the next generation.

This imitative turn pervades almost all his works of imagination. The Werther of Goethe strikes the first chord on his youthful fancy; and the passionate energy and wild complaints of the German are immediately reproduced in that which to us appears, after all, the most successful of his works. Therese Anbert. The dynasty of Goethe, now grown more tranquil and self-balanced, like a long established monarchy, is succeeded by the more stormy rule of Byron ;-and the spirit of the Corsair and Lara passes by a

wew metempsychosis into the bandit Jean Sbojar. This romance, not without invention and force, would perhaps have appeared to more advantage, had not a long succession of such monsters, “ with one virtue and a thousand crimes," made the public think with absolute loathing on them and their authors. From Byron lie flies to Scott—but alas, his Trilby, vu le Lutin d'Argail

, is a strange failure. Sir Walter's White Lady, with her material bodkin, was a whimsical conception, but Nodier's spirit Trilby is ten times worse.

In his Smarra, a Thessalian story, in the manner of the sorceries and diableries of the Golden Ass of Apuleius, he is more at home; he certainly does contrive to produce an unpleasant night-mare effect, -a cloud of misty phantoms, and murky and loathsome forms, moving before us in a ghastly dance, which produces the effect of an indigestion or an uneasy dream. But in this walk he must hide his diminished head beside the modern masters of the terrible, Messrs. Balzac, Janin, and Sue, the chiefs of the epileptic and anatomical school.

We really are very much disposed therefore to agree with Nodier himself, that the public would not have been great sufferers, if his works had never reached a second edition. Some of them are powerfully, and others gracefully, written, and as an essayist he is frequently very successful, but we have looked through them in vain for an ably or consistently drawn character; or an ingenious novel of incident.

Art. IX.-1. Le Duc de Reichstadt. Par M. de Montbel,

Ancien Ministre du Roi Charles X. Paris. 1832. 8vo. 2. Lettre à M. ** *, sur le Duc de Reichstadt.' Par un de ses

Amis. Traduite de l'Allemand. Par Gerson Hesse. Paris.

1832. Svo. By a strange fatality, one of the ministers of the dethroned Charles X. was driven to Vienna for shelter, where he arrived in good time to gather up the remains of the ancien Roi de Rome : one of the last ministers of the banished restoration occupies his exile with the latest souvenirs of the abdicated Empire. But a Frenchman is always a Frenchman, and no matter to what party he belongs, or by what party he has suffered-in foreign countries, la patrie, and la gloire, invariably attaching to it, are always ideas which with him sanctify every thing connected with them. Who could have expected to find an ultra-royalist minister of the Restoration occupying his leisure-or rather his time, for it is all leisure with him with the recollections of the last of the Imperial dynasty? and yet so it is, that with pious hands and reverent feelings, M. de Montbel has taken upon himself the task of recording, for the benefit of the historical world, all that he could discover of the life and character of the son of the most illegitimate of rulers. Let his politics or policy be what they may, we owe his piety grateful ibanks for having undertaken the duty, and are happy to say, that the manner in which it is executed is highly creditable both to his feelings as a man, and his abilities as an author. It redounds to the praise of M. de Montbel, that he has been so well able to divest himself of the narrow prejudices of party, and at once, as regards the interesting subject of his biography, place himself in a position of perfect impartiality, and in a most favourable point of view, for recording all that must necessarily interest the world and posterity in the history of this extraordinary graft on the ancient stock of Austrian legitimacy.

The Life, as given by M. de Montbel from the best sources, and frequently in the very words of the only persons qualified to speak, will long be a favourite text both for moralists and politicians. The influence of hereditary disposition, the effect of education generally, and the peculiar character of this youth's education, are fruitful sources of reflection and instruction; while bis anomalous position, the chances of his futu.e life, and the probable effect it might have had on France and Europe at large, are not less likely to stimulate the disquisitive faculties of historical writers. M. de Montbel's book has also the recommendation of complete povelty. The life of the son of Napoleon, since he tell into Austrian bands when an infant, has been a perfect mys

tery: the people were scarcely kept in more complete ignorance of the daily life of the man with the Iron Mask : his death was almost the first certain news of his continued existence. Now that there is no motive for farther concealment, we are let into all the details of his short career, down even to the most trivial actions of hourly existence; not without some reservation certainly, produced by a perpetual consciousness of the position of the writer-a dependant of the Court of Vienna--but still with a sufficient abundance of particulars, flowing from the mouths of his friends, tutors, and household, to satisfy us altogether as to the character and disposition of a remarkable and most interesting personage.

Mariy unworthy suspicions have been entertained of the Court of Austria respecting the treatment of this young man : these suspicions will at once vanish before the perusal of this book, while the truth of the intentions of the Emperor, or at least of his minister, will appear with tolerable plainness. It was resolved, first, that the young King of Rome should be made a German Prince ;-next, that as every man who has passions and talents must have a pursuit, it was deemed safest, and perhaps most beneficial, that he should be indulged in his enthusiasm for the military profession. The example of Prince Eugene was set before him as the one they would most desire him to follow. Prince Eugene was neither imperial nor alien, and yet one of their most valuable Generals, and in no way a dangerous subject, while he gained glory enough to satisfy the most ambitious of men. These calculations would probably have answered, had not the natural been a more complex machine than the political, and as such even beyond the ingenious management of M. de Metternich. The youth was in a moral prison, and his soul pined. It was deemed necessary that he should be cut off from all communication with the agitators and adventurers of France. To effect this object, he was kept in utter solitude ; surrounded certainly by attendants and instructors, but still, in a social sense, buried in utter solitude. His orders were obeyed, his every wish anticipated; he had his books, his horses, and his equipages for promenade or the chase; but for all that the soul or the heart holds dear, he was, with slight exceptions, a solitary prisoner. This might be practicable to some extent with an Austrian archduke; but with a child in whose veins the quick blood of the Corsican Conqueror flowed, it was a species of lingering moral torture. To outward appearance, he was like Rasselas in the Happy Valley; but, like him, he was wearying for all that was beyond the range of the mountains that separated him from his fellow-men: in the one case, these mountains were physical obstacles ; in the other,

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