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in 1725, of a voyage of discovery to the Arctic Seas; discovered the straits that bear his name, and the separation between Asia and America (in second voyage of 1728), outlining and surveying the coast of Siberia. He made a third voyage in 1741, on a North Polar expedition, reaching about 69 deg. north latitude, but owing to stress of weather and sickness among his crews, was compelled to return; was wrecked on Behring Island, in 55 deg. 22 min. north latitude, 166 deg. east longitude, where he died, after going through all the hardships that could befall a castaway in the desolate Polar Seas.

Byron, John.—Born November 8th, 1723, and died April 10th, 1786. Served with Anson as midshipman; was wrecked off the Patagonian coast, and lived on a desolate island in that region for five years (1740-46); publishing a narative of his sufferings in 1768; was placed in command of an exploring expedition in 1764, making some important discoveries. As an accomplished sailor, he had few superiors, and as an author, met with success. His sons also were men of mark and ability, culminating in his grandson, Lord Byron, the poet.

Carteret, Philip.—Was captain of the Swallow, one of the vessels under Samuel Wallis, which sailed from England on a voyage of discovery to the South Seas, August 2 2d, 1766; his second voyage was on private account, discovering and naming Gower and Carteret Isles, Queen Charlotte Isles, Pitcairn, etc., rediscovering and naming the Admiralty group, and returning to England in 1769.

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Cook, Capta1n James.—Born in Yorkshire, England, October 27th, 1728, and killed at Owyhee (now Hawaii), one of the Sandwich Islands, February 14th, 1799. First served at sea in merchant line, entering the royal navy in 1755; was promoted rapidly through all the lower grades, and placed in command of the frigate Mercury, one of the squadron, co-operating with General Wolfe at Quebec. His services there, as navigator, pilot and soldier, were rewarded by a command of the flag-ship Northumberland. His surveys of the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador, with frequent publications of maps and charts, together with a minute account of his observations of an eclipse of the sun, placed him in the front rank, as a man of high attainments. In 1768, he sailed in command of the Endeavor, to observe the transit of Venus, from a position in the South Sea, selecting Tahiti, of the Society group, where he arrived April 13th, 1769. After successfully accomplishing the main object of the voyage, he set sail on a general voyage of discovery, re-locating New Zealand, taking possession of the Australian coast, near Botany Bay, surveying and charting some thirteen hundred miles of coast line, and establishing Australia as an island, as well as its separation from Papua. After many adventures and escapes, he returned to England in June 11, 1771, having sailed around the globe. In July 13th, 1772, he again sailed in command of the Resolution, and Adventure, to "circumnavigate the whole globe, in high southern latitudes, making traverses, from time to time, into every part of the Pacific Ocean, which had not undergone previous investigation, and to use his best endeavors to resolve the much agitated question of a southern continent." In this voyage, he reached 71 deg.


10 min. south latitude, in 106 deg. 54 min. west longitude. After wintering at the Society Islands, Cook made some valuable surveys of the Pacific, between Easter Island and the New Hebrides, discovering and naming New Caledonia, etc. He returned to England, by the Cape of Good Hope, July 30th, 1775, being absent something over three years. In 1776, he volunteered to conduct an expedition to discover a northwest passage to Asia, which he proposed to attempt, by way of Behring Strait. Before sailing north, he spent some time in voyaging among the islands of the Pacific, discovering (it was supposed) the Sandwich Islands, in 1778. Sailing north, along the coast of North America, determining the most westerly portion of that country, and its distance from Asia, he reached Icy Cape, August 17th, 1778, where his further passage was barred by the ice. Returning to Sandwich Islands to winter, with the view of renewing the expedition when the weather permitted, he discovered the islands of Hawaii and Maui, of the Sandwich group. Having lost one of his small boats in one of the inlets of Hawaii, stolen by the natives, he landed, with a lieutenant and nine men, to recapture it—or one of the chiefs, as hostage for its return; a fight ensued, and Cook, with several of his men, were killed, their bones being recovered a week afterwards. That Cook, and the men killed with him, were devoured by the natives, is uncertain.

Cavendish, Sir Thomas.—Born in Suffolk, England, in 1560; died at sea in 1592. His first voyage was to Virginia, in 1586; his second, was with three vessels, passing the Straits of Magellan in 1587, spending some time in surveys of the coast of South

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