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CHAPTER XVI.

THE BIRTH, GROWTH AND DEATH OF ISLANDS.

PAGB.

Volcanic and Earthquake Lore.—Volcanic Fire-belt of the

Western Hemisphere.—Its Flow through South Amer-

ica.—Through Central America and Mexico, and the

Pacific Coast.—Through the Islands.—Theory of Vol-

canoes and Earthquakes 243

CHAPTER XVII

COMMERCE, AND INTEROCEANIC CANALS.

The Panama Canal.—Memorandum Statement of Panama

Canal.— Nicaragua Canal.—The Eads Tehuantepec

Ship Railway.—Commercial Results Anticipated.—Po-

litical Considerations of the Canal Question 255

CHAPTER XVIII.

CURRENTS, WINDS, RAINS AND STORMS OF THE PACIFIC.

Velocity and Force of Wind.—Monsoons.—Effect of Mon-

soons.—Typhoons—Their Explanation.— Rainfall of

the Pacific Islands.—List of (with Latitude and Longi-

tude) the Principal Harbors in the Island World 270

CHAPTER XIX.

HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL.

The Merchants of the Olden Time.—The Phoenicians.—

Their Commerce.—Their Inventions and Manufactures.

As Navigators.—The Compass.— Properties of the

Magnetic Needle.—By Whom Invented.—Homer's

Knowledge of Ship Building.— Early Navigators of

the Pacific— (Anson.— Balboa.—Beechey.— Banks.—

Bougainville.—Behring.—Byron.—Carteret.—Cook.—

Cavendish.— Dampier.— Dana.— Darwin.— Drake.—

Cortez.—Fernandez.—Fitzroy.—Franklin.—Humboldt.

Kotzebue.— Krusenstern.— Magellan.— Perry.— Pizar-

ro.—La Perouse.—Polo.— Quiros.— Rogers.—Saave-

dra. — Schouten, W. C. — Schouten, G.—Tasman.—

Vancouver.—Wilkes.) 290

CHAPTER XX.

ISLAND MISCELLANY, AND DEPTHS OF THE SEA.

Norfolk Island.—The Chatam Group.—Ponape or Ascension

Island.-r-Strong Island.—Ocean Island.—The Depths

of the Ocean.—Bottom of the Sea 328

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