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HONEKEUYA. In botany, a genus of the class octandria, order monogynia. Calyx five-leaved; petals five; nectaries resembling stamens; capsule, bristly, five-celled, fourvalved, with a single seed in each. One species, a native of Guinea, with terminal flowers three together.

HO'NEST. a. (honestus, Latin) 1. Upright; true; sincere (Watts). 2. Chaste (Shakspeare), 3. Just; righteous; giving to every man his due (Tate).

HONESTLY, ad. I. Uprightly; justly (Ben Jonson). 2. With chastity; modestly. HO'NESTY. s. (honestas, Lat.) Justice; truth; virtue; purity (Temple).

The plants from which the bees have been observed to extract it, are the kalmia angustifolia and latifolia of Linneus, the kalmia hirsuta of Walter, the andromeda mariana, and some other species of this genus. The colour of the deleterious honey is not always the same; nor is this a sufficient criterion of its quality. It is experience alone that enables the hunters and others to determine whether the honey they find be poisonous or innocent. They are accustomed, therefore, to eat a small quantity before they venture to satisfy their appetite. Should this produce any disagreeable effects, they do not think it prudent to continue the use of it. But if, in a short time, it occasions no inconvenience, they think they may, with perfect safety, indulge their appetite to the full. The poisonous honey has been observed to produce the following effects: at first a dimness of sight, or vertigo, succeeded by a delirium, which is sometimes mild and pleasant, and sometimes ferocious; ebriety, pain in the stomach and intestines, convul

The meaning of the word honesty is now, however, more restricted. Honesty is the quality of a man firm and constant in respect ing the rights of others, and rendering to himself no more than what he is entitled to, according to the strict rules of justice. Inte grity is the quality of a man, firm and constant in fulfilling his duty, without the least intermission. Probity is the quality of a mansions, profuse perspiration, foaming at the firm and constant in the practice of morality, according to the rules impressed by the Deity upon the human heart. Honesty requires an upright heart; its principle is love of order and character. Integrity requires a pure heart and a scrupulous conscience; its principle is love of duty. Probity requires what is usually termed a heart naturally good; its principle is love of virtue. Honesty excludes all injustice; integrity, all corruption; probity, all evil. Honesty is the first virtue of the poor; integrity, of the citizen; probity, of the great.

HONESTY, in Botany. See LUNARIA. HONEY. (Mel.) A substance collected by bees from the nectary of flowers, perfectly resembling saccharine juices. It has a white or yellowish colour, a soft and grained consistence, and a saccharine and aromatic smell. Honey is an excellent food, and a softening and slightly aperient medicine: mixed with vinegar it forms oxymel, and is exhibited in various modes in medicine and pharmacy. See APIS, and BEE.

Honey is very soluble in water. By distillation, it afford's an acid phlegm and an oil; the residual coal is spongy and porous, like that of the vegetable mucilages. When heated with nitric acid, oxalic acid is extracted, as from sugar. Honey appears to be composed of sugar, mucilage, and an acid: the sugar may be separated by melting the honey, adding carbonat of lime in powder, and scumming the solution while hot; crystals of sugar are gradually deposited on the cooling of the liquor.

HONEY (poisonous), of North America. Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton has published in Tilloch's Philosophical Magazine, Vol. XII. and in the American Transactions, Vol. V. a on this subject. It appears that the found in a wild state, by the hunters arolina, Georgia, and the two Flomore particularly East Florida.

mouth, vomiting and purging, and, in a few instances, death. In some persons a vomiting is the first effect of the poison. Sometimes the honey has been observed to produce a temporary palsy of the limbs; an effect which we have remarked in animals that have eaten of one of those very vegetables from whose flowers the bees obtain a pernicious honey. It is, however, very seldom fatal; the disorders it occasions generally working their own cure, either by occasioning vomiting, purging, or profuse perspiration; the two former of which relieve the pain in the intestines, and the latter the fever. The efficacy of medicine in promoting the recovery of persons who have eaten this honey has not been yet ascertained.

Several of the ancient Greek and Roman writers have related instances of the deleterious properties of the honey of certain countries. Diascorides, Pliny, Diodorus Siculus, and Xenophon, have mentioned them; but their descriptions of plants, for want of a methodical nomenclature, are frequently so obscure, that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to determine precisely those to which they referred.

The proper management of bees is an object by no means of trifling importance. It is not sufficient that bees merely make honey and wax: their honey may be injurious or poisonous, and their wax may be nearly use less. To assist and direct the labours of these useful insects, the knowledge and the hand of man are required. Let him, says Dr. B. carefully remove from about the habitations of his bees every fetid or poisonous vegetable, however comely its colour or its form. In particular let him be careful to remove those vegetables which are noxious to himself. In place of these, let him spread the "marjoram and thyme," and other plants, "the love of bees." (Armstrong.) may then furnish his table with a honey


not inferior to that of Mount Hermettus, or of Athens; nor to that of Sicily, to which Virgil has so handsomely alluded in the se venth Eclogue:

Nerine Galatea, thymo mihi dulcior Hybla, Candidior cynsis, hederâ formosior albâ.

HO'NEY-COMB, a waxen structure, full of cells, framed by the bees to deposit their honey and eggs in. The construction of the honey-comb seems one of the most surprising parts of the works of insects; and the materials of which it is composed, which, though evidently collected from the flowers of plants, yet do not, that we know of, exist in them in that form, have given great cause of speculation to the curious. The regular structure of the comb is also equally wonderful. When the several cells in it are examined, it should seem that the nicest rules of geometry had been consulted for its composition, and all the advantages that could be wished or desired in a thing of that kind, are evidently found in it. Each cell consists of six plane sides, which are all trapeziums, but equal to each other; the bottom of the cell is contrived with three rhombuses, so disposed as to constitute a solid angle under three equal angles, and each of which is double the maximum angle of 54°. 41. Hence it comes to pass, that a less quantity of surface is sufficient to contain a given quantity of honey, than if the bottom had been flat, in the proportion of 4,658 to 5,550, as has been found by calculation; that is, nearly a fifth of the whole, so far as the figure in the end of the cells extends, in each; which fifth part of wax and labour saved amounts to a vast deal in the whole comb. And if these admirable insects knew their advantage, they could not more nicely observe the rules of modern geometry.

The method of making two sorts of cells in each comb is also admirably contrived to save the expence of wax, since had they been made single, every comb must have had its peculiar base, and every set of cells their bottom of wax, whereas one bottom now serves for two cells; and there is but one plate of wax in the centre of a double comb. This structure occasions a very great sparing of the wax, or matter of the comb; but, besides this, there is another great advantage resulting from this structure, which is, that the angles arising from the forementioned combination of the bases greatly strengthen the whole work.

The sides of the cells are all much thinner than the finest paper, and yet they are so strengthened by their disposition, that they are able to resist all the motions of the bee within them, as they are frequently obliged to be. The effect of their thrusting their bodies into the cells, would be the bursting of those cells at the top, were not this well guarded against. But to prevent this, the creatures extend a cord, or roll of wax, round the verge of every cell, in such a manner, that it is scarce possible they should

split in that particular part. This cord or roll is at least three times as thick as the sides of the cell, and is even much thicker and stronger at the angles of the cells than elsewhere, so that the aperture of each cell is not regularly hexagonal, though its inner cavity be perfectly so. The several combs are all placed parallel to one another, and there is such a space left between them, that the bees can easily pass; and often they place a part of the comb in a contrary direction to the rest, so that while the others are placed horizontally, these stand perpendicularly. The cells which have served, or are to serve, for the habitation of the worms of the common and of the male bees, are often made also at other times the receptacles of honey; but though these are indifferently made to serve either use, there are others destined only to receive honey. The celerity with which a swarm of bees, received into a hive where they find themselves lodged to their minds, bring their works of the combs to perfection, is amazing. There are vast numbers at work all at once: and that they may not incommode one another, they do not work upon the first comb till it is finished, but when the foundation of that is laid, they go to work upon another, so that there are often the beginnings of three or four stories made at once, and so many swarms allotted to the carrying on the work of each.

To HONEY, v. n. (from the noun.) To talk fondly (Shakspeare).

HONEY-CUP. In botany, nectarium, or nectary. Honey-cup is improper, because few nectaries are in form of a cup; not more so, however, than glass ink-horn, silver terrene, Dresden China, and many other barbarisms. But why multiply these unnecessarily? See NECTARIUM,

HONEY-DEW, Or Suffusio mellita, a sweet substance found on the leaves of oak, hazelnut, hops, and other plants; and which has been erroneously supposed to fall from the sky.

According to Dr. Darwin, the honey-dew is a saccharine juice that exudes from trees, in consequence of the retrograde motions of the cutaneous lymphatic vessels connected with the umbilical, or with the common sap-vessels of plants; instead of being carried forward to increase the growth of the present leafbuds, or to accumulate nutriment for the buds, which are in an embryon state.

This exudation is consequently very inju rious to the trees which are subject to it; especially from its great sweetness, which attracts immense numbers of bees and ants: no method of preventing it has hitherto been discovered.

HONEY-FLOWER, in botany. See MELI


HONEY-GUIDE. See CUCULUS. HONEY-LOCUST. See GLEDI ISIA. HONEY-MOON. The first month after marriage (Addison).

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HONEY-SUCKLE. (Fr.) See HEDYSARUM. HONEY-WORT. See CERINTHE. HONEYLESS. a. Being without honey (Shakspeare).

HOʻNIED. a. (from honey.) 1. Covered with honey (Milton). 2. Sweet; luscious (Shakspeare).

HONFLEUR, a considerable sea-port of France, in the department of Calvados. The harbour, which is very capacions, is at the month of the Seine. Lat. 49, 21. N. Lon. 0. 15. E.

HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE, q. d. "Evil to him that thinks evil;" the motto of the most noble order of the Knights of the Garter. See Garter.

HONITON, a borough of Devonshire, with a market on Saturday. A dreadful fire hap. pened there in July 1747, which consumed three parts of the town, and the damage was computed at 43,0001. It has one church, half a mile from the town, and a chapel within it. Here is a large manufactory of bonclace. Just before the entrance into the town, from London, is a bill, which commands one of the most beautiful prospects in the kingdom. Honiton is seated on the river Otter. Lat. 50. 45. N. Lon. 3. 12. W.

HONORIACI, an order of soldiery under the Eastern empire, who introduced the Goths, Vandals, &c. into Spain, when, in fact, they were appointed to prevent their en


HO'NORARY. a. (honorarius, Lat.) 1. Done in honour; made in honour (Addison), 2. Conferring honour withont gain. (Add.)

HO'NOUR, 8. (honeur, Fr. honor, Lat.) 1. Dignity; high rank. 2. Reputation; fame (Bacon). 3. The title of a man of rank (Shakspeare). 4. Subject of praise (Shakspeare). 5. Nobleness of mind; magnanimity (Rogers). 6. Reverence; due veneration (Shakspeare). 7. Chastity (Shakspeare). 8. Dignity of mien (Milton). 9. Glory; boast (Burnet). 10. Public mark of respect (Wake), 11. Privileges of rank or birth (Shakspeare). 12. Civilities paid (Pope). 13. Ornament ; decoration (Dryden).

Honour and Virtue were deified among the ancient Greeks and Romans, and had a joint temple consecrated to them at Rome; but afterwards each of them had separate temples, which were so placed, that no one could enter the temple of Honour without passing through that of Virtue; by which the Romans were continually put in mind, that virtue is the only direct path to true glory. Plutarch tells us, that the Romans, contrary to their usual custom, sacrificed to Honour uncovered; perhas to denote, that wherever honour is, it so covering, but shows itself openly to


Historians have furnished us with some striking instances of honour, with regard to truth, humanity, &c. which have been ob served in different ages and countries. We select a remarkable one of a poor unenlightened African negro, recorded in Captain Snelgrave's account of his voyage to Guinea. A New England sloop, trading there in 1752, left a second mate, William Murray, sick on shore, and sailed without him. Murray was at the house of a black named Cudjoe, with whom he had contracted an acquaintance during their trade. He recovered; and the sloop being gone, he continued with his black friend till some other opportunity should offer for his getting home. In the mean time, a Dutch ship came into the road, and some of the blacks coming on board her, were treacherously seized and carried off as their slaves. The relations and friends, transported with sudden rage, ran to the house of Cudjoe, to take revenge by killing Murray. Cudjoe stopped them at the door, and demanded what they wanted. white men," said they, "have carried away our brothers and sons, and we will kill all white men, Give us the white man you have in your house, for we will kill him.” "Nay," said Cudjoe, "the white men that carried away your relations are bad men, kill them when you can take them; but this white man is a good man, and you must not kill him."-" But he is a white man," they cried, "and the white men are all bad men, we will kill them all." "Nay," says he, you must not kill a man that has done no harm, only for being white. This man is my friend, my house is his post, I am his soldier, and inust fight for him; you must kill me before you can kill him. What good man will ever come again under my roof, if I let my floor be stained with a good man's blood" The negroes seeing his resolution, and being convinced by his discourse that they were wrong, went away ashamed. a few days Murray ventured abroad again with his friend Cudjoe, when several of them took him by the hand, and told him, They were glad they had not killed him; for, as he was a good (meaning innocent) man, their God would have been very angry, and would have spoiled their fishing."

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Honour, in the beau monde, has a meaning which it is easier to illustrate than define. It is, however, subject to a system of rules, called the law of honour, constructed by people of fashion, calculated to facilitate their intercourse with one another, and for no other purpose. Consequently nothing is considered as inconsistent with honour but what tends to incommode this intercourse. Hence, as Archdeacon Paley states the matter, profaneness, neglect of public worship or private devotion, cruelty to rigorous treatment of tenants or other dependants, want of charity to the poor, inju ries done to tradesmen by insolvency or delay of payment, with numberless examples


of the same kind, are accounted no breaches of honour; because a man is not a less agree. able companion for these vices, nor the worse to deal with in those concerns which are usually transacted between one gentleman and another.

If this, however, be honour, we may say, in the language of Shakspeare,

"The mere word's a slave, "Debauch'd on every tomb; on every grave "A lying trophy; and as oft is dumb, "Where dust and damn'd oblivion is the tomb "Of honour'd bones indeed."

HONOURS OF WAR, in a siege: when a governor, having made a long and vigorous defence, is at last obliged to surrender the place to the enemy for want of men and provisions, and makes it one of his principal articles to march out with the honours of war; that is, with shouldered arms, drums beating, colours flying, and all their baggage, &c. HONOURS (Military). All armies salute crowned heads in the most respectful manner, drums beating a march, colours and standards dropping, and officers saluting. Their guards pay no compliment, except to the princes of the blood; and even that by courtesy, in the absence of the crowned head. To the commander in chief the whole line turns out without arms, and the campguards beat a march, and salute. To generals of horse and foot, they beat a march, and salute. Lieutenant-generals of ditto, three ruffs, and salute. Major-generals of ditto, two ruffs, and salute. Brigadiers of ditto, rested arms, one ruff, and salute. Colonels of ditto, rested arms, and no beating. Sentinels rest their arms to all fieldofficers, and shoulder to every officer. All governors, that are not general officers, shall, in all places where they are governors, have one ruff, with rested arms; but for those who have no commission as governors, no drum shall beat. Lieutenant-governors shall have the main-guard turned out to them with shouldered arms. Thus much in the general; the minutia we cannot specify.

HONOUR (Fountain of). The king is so styled, as being the source of honours, dig. nities, &c. See PREROGATIVE. Although the origin of all sovereignty is in the people, yet it is absolutely impossible that govern ment can be maintained without a due subordination of rank. The British Constitution has therefore entrusted the king with the sole power of conferring dignities and honours, in confidence that he will bestow them only upon such as deserve them. Hence it is that all degrees of nobility, of knight hood, and other titles, are received by immediate grant from the crown: either expressed in writing, by writs, or letters patent, as in the creation of peers and baronets; or by corporeal investiture, as in the creation of a simple knight.

HONOUR (Maids of), are young ladies in the queen's household, whose office is to at

tend her majesty when she goes abroad, &c. In England they are six in number, and their salary 3001. per annum each.

Honour is particularly applied in our customs to the more noble kind of seignories or lordships, whereof other inferior lordships. or manors hold or depend. As a manor consists of several tenements, services, customs, &c. so an honour contains divers manors, knights-fees, &c. It was also formerly called beneficium or royal fee, being always held of the king in capite.

HO'NOUR-POINT, in heraldry, is that next above the centre of the escutcheon, dividing the upper part into two equal portions.

To HONOUR. v. a. (honoro, Lat.) 1. To reverence; to regard with veneration (Pope). 2. To dignify; to raise to greatness. (Exod.). 3. To glorify (Exodus).

HONOURABLE. a. (honorable, French.) 1. Illustrious; noble (Isaiah). 2. Great; magnanimous; generous (Shakspeare). 3. Conferring honour (Dryden). 4. Accompa nied with tokens of honour. (Sp.) 5. Not to be disgraced (Shakspeare). 6. Free from taint, or reproach (Maccabees). 7. Honest; without intention of deceit (Iay). 8. Equitable.

Members of the King's privy council are styled Right Honourable.

HONOURABLENESS. 8. (from honourable.) Eminence; magnificence; generosity. HONOURABLY. ad. (from honourable.) 1. With tokens of honour (Shakspeare). 2. Magnanimously; generously (Bacon). Reputably; with exemption from reproach (Dryden).


HONOURER. s. (from honour.) One that honours; one that regards with veneration.

HOOD, in composition, is derived from the Saxon had, in German heit, in Dutch heid. It denotes quality; character; condition as knighthood; childhood; fatherhood. Sometimes it is written after the Dutch as maidenhead. Sometimes, it is taken collectively: as, brotherhood, a confraternity.

HOOD. 8. (ho, Saxon.) 1. The upper covering of a woman's head. 2. Any thing drawn upon the head, and wrapping round it (otton). 3. A covering put over the hawk's eyes. 4. An ornamental fold that hangs down the back of a graduate, to mark his degree.

To HOOD. v. a. (from the noun.) 1. To dress in a hood (Pope). 2. To blind as with a hood (Shakspeare). 3. To cover. (Dryd.) Hoop Island, one of the MARQUESAS. HOODED WILLOW HERB. See SCUTELLARIA.

HOODED, in botany. See COWLED.

HO'ODMAN (BLIND). 8. A play in which the person hooded is to catch another, and tell the name; blindman's buff (Shakspeare).

To HOOD-WINK. v. a. (hood and wink.) 1. To blind with something bound over the eyes (Sid. Dav.) 2. To cover; to hide (Shak). 3. To deceive; to impose upon (Sidney).

HOOF. 8. (hop, Saxon; hof, Dutch.) The hard horny substance on the feet of graminivorous animals (More).

Hoor of a horse or other quadruped, the hard horny substance at the lower extremity of the legs, coming into contact with the ground, and upon which are often placed shoes, made of iron, for the preservation of the feet. The hoof of a horse, to be perfect, should nearly circumscribe five eighths of a circle, with a transverse line from one point of the heel to the other, as if a segment of threeeighths was taken away in addition to which form, it should be solid in substance, smooth to the hand, and free from contracted rings, or wrinkles, like those found upon the horns of cattle, by which their age is ascertained.

der surface of a mushroom. These are united, or rather interwoven, with similar lamina or membranes which cover all the anterior and lateral substances of the sensible foot, forming a very secure union between the crust and the internal parts: nor are these membranes possessed merely of great strength; they possess likewise a considerable degree of elasticity, constituting one of those curious springs which nature has provided to prevent concussion when the animal is in motion. That these lamina form an union between the crust and sensible foot, of sufficient strength to support the animal's weight, has been proved beyond a doubt, by removing from a living horse the bottom of the hoof, that is, the sole and frog: in this case, had the laminæ been unable to support the horse's weight, the internal foot must have slipped through the hoof, so as to come down upon the ground; but this did not happen, and the sole, as it was reproduced, assumed its proper concave form.

The horse's foot is made up of a great variety of parts; some of them possessing blood-vessels and nerves, like other parts of the body, and highly sensible; others are composed of dead horny substance, that is perfectly destitute of feeling. All the external parts of the foot, which, when taken As these lamina form so secure an union together, are termed the COFFIN, or HOOF, between the crust and the internal foot, it are composed of this horny substance, which is evident that the weight of the horse is is not only very hard, but is possessed also in great measure supported by the crust, of a considerable degree of toughness and which therefore ought to possess considerelasticity, which render it extremely durable strength; for, if it were too weak and able, and well calculated to protect the sensible parts which it encloses-a purpose for which it was obviously designed by nature.

The hoof consists of the wall or crust, the sole, the frog, and the bars; the upper part of the crust, where it is connected with the skin, is termed the coronet, the lower part in front the toe; the sides of the crust are named the quarters, the quarters terminate in the heels, and the heels are connected with the frog. The crust grows from the coronet, and, instead of taking a perpendicu lar direction, becomes oblique in its descent, whereby it acquires a conical figure, being considerably wider at the basis than at the coronet. But this description of the hoof applies only to the healthy foot, that has not been improperly treated; for, when the bars have been cut away, and the frog mutilated and prevented from receiving pressure, the heels will contract, or approach each other, and the shape of the foot will be considerably altered.

When we examine a hoof that has been recently separated from the foot, an immense number of small orifices, or pores, may be observed in that groove which is found on the inside of the coronet; into these orifices the extremities of those vessels are inserted which secrete the horny matter, the whole of which appears to be pervaded by a fine fluid, serving to prevent brittleness, and to preserve in the hoof a proper degree of elasticity. All the internal surface of the crust, except the groove we have just mentioned, is covered by a beautiful membranous er laminated substance, which very much resembles the un

flexible, it would not be adequate to the burthen which it has to sustain, and must consequently bend to it. In this case, the hoof would loose that oblique form which it had originally, and would approach the hori zontal line; at the same time, the sole would lose its concave form, from receiving an unusual degree of pressure, becoming flat, and at length convex or projecting. But, when the crust is sufficiently strong, the internal foot, and consequently the whole animal, is suspended by those elastic membranes, as a carriage is by its springs; and, though the bottom of the internal foot is in contact with the sole, it nevertheless does not press upon it considerably, except when the horse is in motion, and then the back part of the sole descends a little (being somewhat elastic), and suffers the lamina to elongate in a small degree, so as to prevent any painful concussion.

That portion of the hoof which comes in contact with the ground is formed by the sole, the frog, and the bars. On these Mr. White makes the following observations:

The sole is rather concave, or hollow, on its external surface, and consists of a dif ferent kind of horn from that which forms the crust, being of a scaly texture, and sometimes soft and pulverable, on its exterior surface. Its use is to defend the sensible sole, that lies immediately under it. From its concave form, the horse is enabled to tread more firmly on the ground, and the sensible parts are less exposed to blows or pressure than they would be had it been made either flat or convex; and, being some

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