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1673. That the catenarea was the best form to the bristle. Ilamosa seta. A sort of pubes. of an arch.
cence, in which the end of the bristle is curved. 1674, Steam engine on Newcomen's prin. See UNCINATE. ciple.
Holoken, a. Bent; curvated (Prozen). 1679. That the air was the sole source of HOOKEDNESS. 8. (from hooked.) State heat in burning : That combustion is the so. of being bevt like a look. lution of the inflammable vapour in air; and HOOKER (John), a learned antiquary, that in this solution the air gives out its heat was born at Exeter in 1521, and educated at and light. That nitre explodes and causes Oxford, after which he travelled into cierbodies to burn without air, because it con- many. On his return home, he married anit sists of this air, accompanied by its heat and settled at Exeter, for which place he sat in light in a condensed or solid state ; and air parliament in 1571. He wrote a Description supports flanie, because it contains the same of Exeter, and some part of Holinslied's ingredients that gunpowder doth, that is, a Chronicle, besides other pieces. He died in nitrous spirit: That this air dissolves some- 1601. thing in the blood while it is exposed to it HOOKER (Richard), a famous English di. in the lungs in a very expanded surface, and vine, commonly called the judicions, was when saturated with it, can no longer sup- nephew of the above, and born at Heavitree port life mor tame; but in the act of solu. near Exeter, in 1553. le receivel bis edu. tion it produces animal heat: That the ar- cation at the grammar-school of that city, terial and venal blood differ on account of from whence, by the kindness of bishop this something being wanting in one of them. Jewell, he was sent to Corpus Christi coiIn short, the fundamental doctrines of mo. lege, Oxford, of which he was made bibledern chymistry are systematically delivered by clerk, and receiveld also a pension from his Dr. Hooke in his Micrographia, published in patron, who recommended him so strongly 166 !, and his Lampas, published in 1677. to Sandys, archbishop of York, that be sent
1680. He first observed the secondary vibra- his son Edwin to be liis pupil at Oxford. In tions of elastic bodies, and their connection 1577 he was chosen fellow of his college, anıl with harmonic sounds. A glass containing in 1581 he took orders ; soon after whichi, water, and excited by a fiddlestick, threw he contracted a most unhappy marriage with the water into undulations, which were the daughter of a linen-draper in London. square, hexagonal, octagonal, &c. shewing In 158 i be was presented to the rectory of that it made" vibrations subordinate to the Drayton. Beauchamp, in Buckinghamshire, total vibration; and that the fundamental where he led an uncomfortable lite with his sound was accompanied by its ociave, its wite for about a year. Being found in this twelfth, &c.
situation by his pupil Mr. Sandys, he repre1681. He exhibited musical tones by means sented his tutor's case so pathetically io 'lis of toothed wheels, whirled round and rub- father, that he procured for liim the masterbed with a quill, which dropped from tooth to ship of the Temple in 1555. But this place tooth, and produced tones proportioned to the did not suit Hooker's temper, who was fitted frequency of the cracks or snaps.
for a country retirement; he therefore apo 1684. He read a paper before the Royal plied to archbishop Whitgift for a removal Society, in which he affirms, that some years sonne quiet parsonage, where he might before that period lie had proposed a me- see God's blessings spring out of his mother chod of discoursing at a distance, not by carill, and cat his bread in peace and privasound, but by sight. He then proceeds to cy; a place where he might, without disturbdescribe a very accurate and complete tele. ance, meditate his approaching mortality, graph, equal, perhaps, in all respects to those and that great account which all flest must dow in use, But some years previous to give at the last day to the God of all spiriis." 1684, M. Amontans had not invented bis In cuisequence of this application, he was telegraph; so that though the Marquis of presented' to a living in Wiltshire, where Worcester unquestionably gave the first lint he wrote part of bis Ecclesiastical Polity. In of this instrument, Dr. Hooke appears to 1595, queen Elizabeth presented him io the kave first brought it to perfection. See rectory of Bishop's Bourne, in Rent, wbere TelegraPII, and a book published 1726, he finished that great work, and his life in entitled Philosophical Experiments and Ob: 1600. James I. had the highest opinion of servations of the late eminent Dr. Robert Hooker's invaluable books, is also bad bis Hooke,
son Charles, who recommended them to his We are indebted to him for many other children; and pope Clement VIII. saiil of discoveries of less note; such as the wheel them to Dr. Stapleton, " that there were in barometer, the universal joint, the manome. them such seeds of eternity, that they will conter, screw divided quadrant, telescopic sights tinue till the last fire shall devour all learnfor astronomical instruments, representation ing.". His works have been frequently printed of a muscular fibre by a chain of bladders, in folio, and a late edition bus appearid at Osexperiments shewing ihe inflection of light, ford in octavo. and its attraction for solid bodies, the curri. Hooker, in naval matters, a vessel much lineal path of light through the atmosphere. used by the ch, built ke a pink, bue
“OKED. Humosus. In botany, applied rigged and masted like a hoy.
HOYOKNOSED. a. (hook and nose.) Hav- shout.) A convulsive cougli, so called from ing the aquiline nose rising in the middle its noise. See Tussis. (Shakspeare).
HOOPOE, in ornithology. See U PUPA. HOOP. 8. (hoep, Dutch.) 1. Any thing HOORNBECK (John), professor of divi. cirealar by which something else is bound, nity in the universities of Leyden and Utrecht, particularly casks or barrels (Shakspeare). was born in Harlem in 1617. He understood 2. The rhalebone with which women extend the Latin, Hebrew, Chaldaic, Syriac, Rabbi. their petticoats; a farthingale (Swift). 3. nical, Dutch, German, English, French, and Ans thing circular (Addison).
Italian languages, and published many works, To Hoop. r. a. (from the noun.) 1. To among which are, 1. A refutation of Socibind or enclose with hoops. (Shak.) 2. To nianism, in 3 vols. 4to. 2. A Treatise for eucircle; to clasp; to surround. (Shak.) the conviction of the Jews. 3. Of the con.
To Hoop. v. n. (from ropyan, Gothic; version of the Heathens. 4. Theological or houpper, French.) To shout; to make an Institutions, &c. which are written in Latin. outcry by way of call or pursuit.
Mr. Bayle represents him as a complete moTo Hoop. v. a. 1. To drive with a shout del of a good pastor and divinity professor. (Shakspeare). 2. To call by a shout.
To HOOT. v. n. (hwt, Welsh; huer, Fr.) Hoop, in ornithology. See Hoopoe. 1. To shout in contempt (Sidney). 2. To
HOOPER (John), a pious English bishop cry as an owl (Shakspeare). and martyr, was born in Somersetshire, and 10 Hoot. v. a. To drive with noise and educated at Oxford. He was for some time shouts (Shuk speare). a member of the order of white-monks or Hoor. 8. (huée, French; from the verb.) Cistercians, but having imbibed gospel prin- Clamour; shout; noise (Glanville). ciples, be quitted them and returned to the To HOP. v. n. (hoppan, Saxon.) 1. To university. At the time when the six bloody jump; to skip lightly (Dryden). 2. To leap articles ivere in force, he went abroad, and on one leg (Albot). 3. 'l'o walk lamely, or inarried a wife in Switzerland, where he ap- with one leg less nimble than the other; to plied assiduously to the Hebrew language. limp (Dryden). 4. To move; to play (SpenAt the accession of Edward VI. he returned ser). to England, and was made bishop of Glou- Hop. 8. (from the verb.) T. A jump; a cester, to which was added that of Worcester light leap. 2. A jump on one leg (Äddison). in commendam. Here be laboured with great 3. A place where meaner people dance. (Ains.) zeal till the restoration of popery under Hop, in botany, See HUMULUS. Hops Mary, when he was arrested and condemned were first brought into England from the to the fames at Gloucester; which he endured Netherlands in the year 1524. They are first with great resolution in 1555, aged 60. Some mentioned in the English statute-book in the of his letters are in Fox's Acts and Monu. year 1552, viz. in the 5 and 6 of Edw. VI. Inents.
cap. 5. And by an act of parliament of the HOOPER (George), an eminent English first year of king James 1. anno 1603, cap: prelate, was born at Grimley in Worcester- 18, it appears that hops were then produced shire, about 1640, and educated at Westmin. in abundance in England. ster school, from whence he removed to Hops (laws relating to). By 9 Anne, cap: Christ Church, Oxford, in 1656. In 1672 121, an additional duty of 3d. a pound is laid le became chaplain to Dr. Morley, bishop on all hops imported, over and above all of Winchester, and shortly after to arch- other duties; and hops landed before entry bishop Sheldon, who gave him the rectory and payment of duty, or without warrant of Lambeth. In 1677 be became almoner for landing, shall be forfeited and burnt; to the princess of Orange, whoin he attend the ship also shall be forfeited, and the per; ed to Holland. In 1691 he was appointed son concerned in importing or landing sball dean of Canterbury; and in the first year of forfeit 51. a hundred weighit, 7 Geo. 11, cap: Queen Anne was made bishop of St. Asaph, 19. By 9 Anne, cap. 12, there shall be paid from whence he was translated shortly after a duty of ld. for every pound of hops grown to Bath and Wells. He died in 1727, and in Great Britain, and made fit for use, withwas interred in the cathedral of Wells. He in six months after they are cured and bag. published several books against popery, some ged; and hop-grounds are required to be ensermons, and several miscellaneous tracts, tered on pain of 40s. an acre. Places of curwhich evince great learning, particularly one ing and keeping are also to be entered, on entituled), An Inquiry into the State of the pain of 501. which may be visited by an ofancient Measures, the Attic, Ronan, and es- ficer at any time without obstruction, under pecially the Jewish. With an Appendix con- the penalty of 201. All hops shall, within cerning our old English Money and Mea. six weeks after gathering, be brought to sares of Content, 1721, 8vo. All his works such places to be cured and bagged, on pain were printed at Oxford in one vol. folio, of 5s. a pound. The re-bagging of foreign 1757 (It'atkins).
hops in British bagging, for sale or exportato Ho'oper. 8. (from hoop, to enclose with tion, incurs a forfeiture of 101. a hundred loops.) A cooper; one that hoops tubs. weight; and defrauding the king of his duty
HOOPING-COUGH. 8. (from houp, to by using twice or oftener the same bag, with
the officer's mark upon it, is liable to a pe- the mind from stagnating in its present pos-
an unmeaning farrago, which could scarceTo Hop. v. a. (from the noun.) To im. ly be deemed innocent, taken with a pregnate with hops (Arbuthnot).
fidence of success, has exceeded in its ottiHop (Horn-beain), in botany. See Car. cacy the utmost efforts of the most skiltul
practitioner. Hop-tops. The young sprouts of the hop Hope, therefore, demands a place among plant; plucked when only a foot above the the niedicaments, which are the wildest and ground, and boiled, they are eaten with butter most grateful in their operations, and esteia as a delicacy, and are very wholesome. larating in their effects (Cogon on the l'us
HOPE. 8. (hopa, Saxon.) 1. Expectation sions, p. 283. of some good ; an expectation indulged with Hope a small river in Esser, which rises pleasure (Locke). 2. Contidence in a future near Laindon Hills, and enters the Thames event, or in the future conduct of any person below Mucking: (Ecclus). 3. That which gives hope. (Shak.) Hope. 8. Any sloping plain between the 4. The object of hope (Drydlen).
ridges of mountains (Hinsworth). Hope, says Dr. Cogan, is the encourage. To Hope.l'.in. (trom the nom.) 1. To live ment given to desire; the pleasing expect. in expectation of some good (lay)... To ancy that its object shall be obtainest. With place contience in another (l'salms). out this affection, desire would sink into de. Toliope.l'. a. To expect with desire. (Pry.) spondency; like a simple wish, it would re- HOPE (Dr. John) was the son of a respectmain inactive, and prey upon itselt: pro- able surgeon at Edinburghi, where he was ducing perpetual uneasiness, destitute of any born in 17.25. Atter the usual grammatical advantage. Hope is so pleasing, and so in education, he entered on the study of plessio vigorating an affection, that is eniphutis at his native place. He afterwards weni to cally styled the Balm of Life. It preserves Paris, and attended the lectures of the cele
brated Bernard Jussieu. Returning from his such manner as to raise hope (Clarendon). 2. travels, he obtained the degree of M. D. from With hope ; without despair (Glanville). the university of Glasgow, in 1750, and soon HOPEFULNESS.s. (from hopeful.) Proafter was admitted a member of the Royal mise of good; likelihood to succeed (Wot. College of Physicians at Edinburgh, where ton). he settled for the purpose of engaging in
HOPELESS. a. (from hope.) ). Wanting practice. In 1761 he was appointed to the hope ; being without pleasing expectation; professorship of botany and materia medica, despairing (Hooker). 2. Giving no hope ; vacant by the death of Dr. Alston. His promising nothing pleasing (Shakspeare). health becoming impaired, he some years af- HO'PËR. 8. (from hope.) One that has terwards resigned the professorship of the pleasing expectations (Swift). mpat, med, but still continued to hold his HO'PINGLY. ad. (from hoping.) With botanical appointment ; to which was after. hope ; with expectation of good (Hamwards added the office of physician to the mond). Royal Infirmary. At the time of his death, HÓPLITES, HOPLITÆ, formed of Endov, which happened in November 1786, he held armour, such of the candidates at the Olymthe high office of president of the Royal pic, and other games, as ran races in arCollege of Physicians at Edinburgh, and
Those who went through the most several years before he had been elected a fel. laborious gymnastic exercises in armour, low of the Royal Society of London. were often distinguished by the term Hoplia
Dr. Hope was indefatigable in promoting todromos. the progress of his favourite science, botany. HOPLOMACHI, in antiquity, gladiators With him criginated the botanical garden who fought in armour. Dear Edinburgh, planted on a spot which HO'PPER. 8. (from hop.) He who hops before was litile better than a dreary waste ; or jumps on one leg. but which in a few years was stocked with HOPPERS. 8. (commonly called Scotch the rarest plants of every clime. It was in hoppers.) A kind of play in which the actor this garden that Dr. H. reared the rheum hops on one leg. palenatam, obtaining from it roots equal in HO'PPER. 8. (so called because it is almedicinal efficacy to those imported from ways hopping, or in agitation.) ). The box the Levant; and accordingly recommend- or open frame of wood into which the corn is ing the cultivation of it in this country, on put to be ground (Grew). 2. A basket for a large scale ; a recommendation which has carrying seed (Ainsworth). since been adopted with the best results. HOR, in geography, a monntain, or rather Here he also reared the plant which yields a mountainous tract of Arabia Petræa, situassafætidæ. On these subjects he communicated in that circuit which the Israelites took cated two papers to the Royal Society, be- to the south and south-east of Edom, in their sides a third on a rare plant found in the Isle way to the borders of Moab. On this mounof Skye.
tain Aaron died. Among the cultivators of natural history in HORÆ, three sisters, daughters of Jupi. Great Britain, Dr. Hope was one of the ter and Themis, according to Hesiod, called first who embraced the Linnean arrangement Eunomia, Dice, and Irene. They were reof plants. “ The sexual system (says Dr. presented by the poets as opening the gates Paltepey) was received nearly about the same of heaven and of Olympus ; and as presiding time in the Universities of Britain, being pub- over the four seasons of the year. licly taught by Professor Martyn, at Cam- HORÆA, in antiquity, solemn sacrifices, bridge, and by Dr. Hope at Edinburgh. consisting of fruits, &c. offered in spring, The adoption of it by these learned profes- summer, autumn, and winter; that heaven sors, I consider as the era of the establishment might grant mild and temperate weather, of the Linnean system in Britain.” Dr. Hope's These, according to Meursius, were offered name has been given to a beautiful tree, to the goddesses called 'szpau, i. e. Hours. Hopea, wbich affords a yellow dye ; see.
HO'RAL. a. (from hora, Latin.) Relating below.
the hour (Prior). HOPEA, a genus of the polyandria order, HO'RARY. a. (horarius, Latin. I. Rein the polyadelpliia class of plants. The calyx lating to an hour (Hudibras). 2. Continuing is quinquefid, superior ; the coral pentapeta. for an hour (Brown). lous ; the stamens are many, and collected HORATII, three Roman brothers, who, into five pencils; there is one style ; the fruit under the reign of Tullus Hostilins, fought is a plom, with a trilocular kernel
. There is against the three Curiatii, who belonged to only one species, the tinctoria, a native of the Albanian army. Two of the Horatii were Carolina.
first killed; but the third, by his address, HOPEFUL. a. (hope and full.) ). Full of successively slew the three Curiatii, and by qualities which produce hope ; promising ; this victory rendered the city of Alba subject likely to obtain success (Bacon). '2. Full of to the Romans. hope ; full of expectation of success (Boyle, HORATIUS (Quintus Flaccus), the most Pope).
excellent of the Latin poets of the lyric and HOPEFULLY. ad. (from hopeful.) 1. In satirical kind, and the most judicious critic
in the reign of Augustus, was the grandson makes a very palatable nourishing bread, and may of a freedman, and was born at Venusium 64 therefore be used for puildings and pastry. The B. C. He had the best miasters in Rome, after beer brewed of it is of a superior richness and which he completed his education at Athens. flavour ; it likewise yields, on distillation, a greater Having taken up arms, he embraced the party proportion of spirituous liquor than rye; hence it of Brutus and Cassius, but left his shield it
deserves to be preferably cultivated.
C. H. frutescens, bushy barley, one grain of the battle of Philippi. Some time after, he gave himself up entirely to the study of po. leaves ; it is sown late, and generally about Midsum
which often produces ten stalks, with broad dark green lite literature and poetry: His talents soon made him known to Augustus and Maecenas, smaller grains than the former variety, and easily de
mer; soon ripens ; is more prolific, but produces who had a particular esteem for him, and generates. The Germans sow it very thinly, and in a loaded him with favours. Horace also con
moist heavy soil. tracted a strict friendship with Agrippa, Pol. 2. H. vulgare ; common barley of four rows. It lio, Virgil, and all the other great inen of liis is productive of longer, though thinner ears and time. He lived without ambition, and led a grains, than the first species ; and as it thrives well tranquil and agreeable life with his friends; on inferior soils, it is frequently cultivated in prefer. but was subject to a defluction in his eyes.
ence to the former. In various parts of Germany, He died at the age of 57. There are still and especially in Thuringia, the common barley is extant bis odes, epistles, satires, and art of very generally sown in autumn, and is not affected by
the severest winters. poetry ; of which there have been a great number of editions. The best have been Wallachian barley, also called Egyptian corn.
A variety of this species is the H. cæleste, or the
It commonly reckoned those of the Louvre, in produces ears and fruit in every respect similar to the 1612, folio; of Paris, 1691, quarto; of Cam, fornier, except that it easily slicis its grains ; from bridge, in 1699; and that with Bentley's emen. which excelient bread is made in Germany, as likedations, printed at Cambridge in 1711; but wise cakes, groats, &c. Its sowing time is the month we cannot omit to mention Pine's edition of of April
, when it is deposited in a well-manured mid1733; Foulis, 1741; the sumptuons edition dle kind of soil. of Dr. Combe and the late Rev. Henry 3. H. hexastichon, or six rowed barley. This Homer, published in 1to, 1792; the clegant sort is uncommonly fruitful, so that it is said to and correct duodecimo edition of Wakefield, produce one-third more in quantity than any other 1791; the magnificent folio edition from species (except the next following); though, in Didot's press, published at Paris in 1799 ;
ordinary seasons, the grains of two of the row's do and the elaborate and excellent octavo edi.
not attain to maturity. It is sown in a well-pretion of Mitscherlich, published at Leipsic about Michaelmas ; in the former case,
pared and tolerably rich soil, either in April
it in 1800.
be mowed so early as Midsummer-day. This HORDE, in geography, is used for a com
species, however, is not so proper for malting pany of wandering people, which have no
and brewing beer, as for being reduced either settled habitation, but stroll about, dwelling to groats and Hour, or converted into ardent in waggons or under tents, to be ready to spirits. shift as soon as the herbage, fruit, and the 4. H. Zeocriton, or bearded barley, or rice present province is eaten bare : such are se- barley, with short and coarse stalks, as likewise short veral tribes of the Tartars,
though broad ears, divided into two rows. When HORDEOLUM (Ilordcolum, i, n. a dim. cultivated on a good soil, and thinly sown, it is the of hordeum). An intiammatory tubercle,
most productive of all the species of barley, and sinilar to a small boil, in the margin of the
possesses the additional advantage, that it does not eyelius, somewhat resembling a barleycorni,
droop its ears nor lodge, even in rainy seasons. Each
row contains from twelve to fifteen small grains : and thence deriving its name.
these yield an excellent white flour, which, for most
culinary purposes, may be substituted for that Hordeum (Hordeum, i, n. ab horrore aristar, of wheat. In England, the best home-brewed from the unpleasantness of its beard to the touch). ale is produced from this grain ; for the culture In botany, Barley.
of which, we shall give a few directions in the In botany a genus of the class triandria, order
sequel. digynia. Calyx lateral, two valved, one flowered, 5. II. murinum, wall barley; a nativc, though growing three together. Nine species, all of which uncultivated English plant, which prow's generally are common to Europe, and the greater number to on the sides of roads, walls, &c. Its blossoms apthe meadows, road-sides, or marshes of our own pear in May and June : horses and cows are particucountry. Those in most common use are as fol. larly fond of it. lows :
6. II. pratense, meadow barley, grows on pastures, 1. H. distichum, summer barley. It bears flat meadows, near the roads, hedges, &c.; Wossoms in ears, divided into two rows, containing large June and July, and is an agreeable fodder to all grains, and grows wild in Tartary, on the banks of kinds of cattle. the Samara; in the vicinity of Babylon ; and in 7. II. maritimum, sea barley ; the production of Sicily. This species requires a loose rich soil, and pasture grounds and gravelly shores. must be sown in dry weather, in April; there are two Cultivation. - Barley, in general, requires a varieties :
dry, light, mellow and rich soil : hence extraa. II. distichum nudum, the large naked barley, ordinary care is requisite where it is to be sowo bearing smooth, heavy grains, that atlord excel.
in clay. Immediately after the foregoing crop lent flour, which, when mixed with that of rve, is removed, the land ought to be ploughed;