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which lays it open to be mellowed by the frost and air. In order to promote this effect, ribbing, or a peculiar method of ploughing, has been introduced, to expose the greatest extent of surface. For the improvement of dry clayey land, Prof. Bradley recommends a manure of rich dung, ashes, chalk, or lime; and for some particular soils, malt-dust or soot are very useful; but, according to Sir Hugh Plat, soap-boilers' ashes are the most fertilizing substance for the growth of barley, even upon barren grounds.

The comparative advantages of drilling and broad-casting, are stated by Mr. Peter Smith, of Hornchurch, Essex, as follows: in the last week of February, 1793, he divided three acres. of turnip-land with barley, at twelve inches intervals, with two bushels of seed per acre; it was scarified and harrowed across the latter end of March, and horse-hced the second week in April; at the same time he sowed the grass-seeds, which produced fine plants, far superior to the broadcast. The produce of the drilled barley was eighteen quarters from three bushels, three


On the same day, he sowed three acres of broadcast in the same field and state of cultivation, with three bushels of seed per acre, and also sowed the grass-seeds at the same time. The produce of these three acres amounted only to fifteen quarters and three bushels.

As it is of great consequence in the production of this grain, that it may ripen equally and uniformly, to prevent that inequality which would render it less valuable, we shall communicate the following method of remedying this defect. It is certain, that barley which comes up speedily in a dusky soil, will gain great advantages over seed-weeds: to forward, therefore, its vegetation, some farmers take cut about one-third from every sack of seed-barley or bear, to allow for the swelling of the grain, which they steep thoroughly in clean water, for at least twentyfour or thirty-six hours, according to the more or less dry constitution of the season. For our part, we would prefer steeping the grain; because in this manner all the light and unripe grains swimming on the top may be easily skimmed off, and thus perhaps the smut at the same time be prevented. Although quick-lime has often been recommended to be mixed with the wet barley, before it is sown, yet we agree with those who are of opinion, that it poisons the seeds, absorbs part of its useful moisture, and injures the hands of the sower. As clean water imparts no tenacity, the seed will scatter properly; but being swelled in the proportion of three to four, or two to three, it is necessary to use a fourth or third part more in bulk; to harrow it in, as quickly as possible, after it is sown; and, if convenient, to give it the benefit of a fresh furrow. By this method, it appears above ground, at the farthest, in a fortnight, if these particulars be duly attended


A correspondent of the Bath Society states, that in the remarkably dry spring of 1783, he soaked his seed-barley in the black water taken from a reservoir which constantly received the draining of stables. As the light corn floated on the surface, he skimmed it off, and suffered it to rest twenty four hours. On taking it from the water, he mixed the seed-grain with a sufficient quantity of wood-ashes, to make it spread more regularly, and sowed with it three fields. VOL. VI.

The produce was sixty bushels per acre, of good clean barley, without any small or green corn, or weeds at harvest. He also sowed several other fields with the same seed, dry, and without any preparation, but the crops were poor, producing only twenty bushels per acre, and much mixed with green corn and weeds.

There is a species of this grain which was introduced into Britain about thirty years since, by Mr. Halliday, and is hence called by his name, or sometimes Siberian barley; it is possessed of qualities that entitle it to particular consideration as an object of importance in agriculture. From a quart of it sown in May 1768, he procured nearly a bushel, which he sowed in April 1769, in drills drawn by a plough; and from this he reaped thirty-six bushels of clean corn. Since that period, Mr. HALLIDAY has made many experiments to ascertain the merits of this prolific grain as bread-corn, and as proper for malting. He accordingly informs us, in the second volume of the Georgical Essays, price 2s. 6d. published in 1771, that its flour makes excellent bread, peculiarly retentive of moisture; and the ale brewed from its malt has a fine colour, flavour, and body. (See the variety of our second species, from which it will appear that this grain is the same which Dr. Lochster, in his Latin Dissertation, On the Medicinal Plants of Norway, feelingly characterizes, by calling it the Heavenlý Barley, because it is equally grateful and efficacious.)

As a proof of the extraordinary fecundity of barley, and how much the fertility of the soil contributes to the increase of vegetable productions, we shall mention an instance which occurred, in the summer of 1797, at Reichenbach, in Upper Saxony. Two grains of our third species being planted close to each other, in a common garden soil, grew briskly, and spread with no less than one hundred and thirteen stalks, which almost uniformly produced long ears: these contained the surprising number of two thousand five hundred and thirty-four grains, of which two thousand two hundred and five were perfectly ripe and sound, but the remaining three hundred and twenty-nine were of inferior size and weight. According to this computation, one bushel of barley, in a rich and miellow soil, might occupy in planting, at least, twenty

acres !

We presume that the following additional observations on the culture of this valuable grain, made by a Norfolk farmer, will not be unacceptable to the practical reader. The best soil, in general, is that which is dry and healthy, rather light and stiff, and yet of sufficient tenacity to retain the moisture. On such land, the grain acquires the best colour and body, is the most nimble in the hand, and has the thinnest rind; qualities which eminently recommend it to the maltster. But, if the land be poor, it should be kept dry and warm; in which case it will often bear better corn than richer land in a cold and wet situation.

The best seed is of a pale colour and brightish cast, without any deep redness or black tinge at the tail. A slight shrivelling of the rind proves it to have a thin skin, and that it has sweated in the mow; both being favourable circumstances. As this grain will grow coarser every succeeding year, it should never be sown for two successive seasons on the same soil.

Sprinkling a little soot over the water in which C

seed barley is to be steeped, has been of great service, by securing it from the depredations of insects. In very dry seasons, barley that has been wetted for malting, and begins to sprout, wil come up sooner, and produce as good a crop as any other. If sown after a fallow, three times ploughing is necessary. On lands well manured, clover may be sown with barley; the former of which, after harvest, affords good fodder during the following winter, as well as from the next spring to July; when the land should be fallowed till the suceceding spring, and again sown with barley and clover: this method does not exhaust, but promotes, the fertility of the ground, while it produces large crops. The lightest lands are fit for receiving the seed in April; those of a moist nature, in May; because all soils liable to be infected by weeds, bear the best crops when sown late, with a view to stifle their growth by the ascendancy of the barley.

Although the broad-cast, at two sowings, is the common method, and the usual allowance from three to four bushels per acre, yet much grain is thus unnecessarily wasted. Half the quantity, and even less, if sown equally, would not only afford a better crop, but the corn also would be less liable to lodge; for weak stalks, standing close together, are less capable of resisting the force of winds, or supporting themselves under heavy showers.

Unless the land be very light and rich, the method of setting and drilling will not answer. Although one root will produce eighty stalks, all having good and long cars filled with superior grain, yet it is to be apprehended that this process of planting is too expensive in a country where manual labour is performed by free-born subjects. Hence it would be preferable to sow thin on poor lands, in order to allow suflicient room for the nourishment of each plant; as it is proved by experience that this simple method is the most be


It has farther been suggested, when the barley is sown and harrowed in, that, after the first shower of rain, the land should be rolled, to break the clods; which, by closing the earth about the roots, will be of great advantage to it in dry weather. After the barley has been above ground three weeks or a month, it should again be rolled with a heavy roller, to prevent the sun and air from penetrating the ground, to the injury of the roots. This rolling, before the barley branches out, is said to be attended with another advantage, namely, that it will cause the plant to spread into a greater number of stalks, so that if they be thin, the ground will thus be filled, and the stalks strengthened, Whether this expedient be proper for all soils, indiscriminately, we are inclined to doubt, though we do not hesitate to approve of it for very light lands, which are neither loamy nor otherwise too stiff.

Lastly, if the blade grow too luxuriantly, as is the case in warm and wet springs, mowing is said to be preferable to feeding it down by sheep; because the scythe removes only the rank tops, but those animals, being fond of the sweet end of the stalk next the root, will often bite so close as to injure its future vegetation.

With respect to the time when barley is fit to bod, farmers frequently fall into the error before it is perfectly ripe; thinking its perfect maturity, if they allow

it to lie in the swarth. This, however, is a very common error, as it will shrivel in the field, and afterwards make but an indifferent malt; it also threshes with more difficulty, and is apt to be bruised under the flail. The only certain test of judgment when it is fit to mow, must be from the drooping and falling of the ears, so as to double against the straw. In that state, and not before, it may be cut with all expedition, and carried in without danger of heating in the mow. To obviate such accidents, and secure it from being mow-burnt, it is advisable to prepare a large sheaf, or two sheaves, of straw, closely tied together, which should be placed in the centre, when the stack is commenced; and as the layers of corn rise, other sheaves must be put on the first; so that when the whole stack is completed, and the sheaves are removed, a funnel, or venthole, may be continued from the bottom to the top. After withdrawing the sheaves, the stack should be covered with a bottle of straw, before it is thatched.

Barley lying in the mow unthreshed will keep for one or two years, if the above stated method be adopted. But when this grain is converted into malt, it can with difficulty be preserved longer than one year, without being infested by weevils. One of the best remedies to destroy these vermin is dry worm-wood laid in the malt.

Barley, in consequence of its common use, in fermentation, after being malted, has been examined of late with considerable attention by chymists, partly in order to form correct conceptions, if possible, of the nature of the process of fermentation, and partly to ascertain the constituents of barley. Foureroy and Vauquelin published several ingenious remarks and experiments on it in 1805, and Einhof published a still more elaborate analysis about the commencement of the same year; having examined this grain in different stages of its growth, and after it was fully ripe. When unripe barleycorns are triturated with water, the liquid acquires a milky colour. If this process be continued, adding fresh portions of water as long as the liquid passes off muddy, there remains only a green husky matter. When the matter is macerated a sufficient time in cold water, it acquires a greenish grey colour, and when dry has the appearance of vegetable fibre. The water in which it was macerated, when boiled, deposits a few flakes of albumen, and when evaporated to dryness leaves a small portion of extractive. The water with which the barley was at first triturated is at first milky, and gradually deposits a white powder, yet it does not become transparent, though allowed to stand a considerable time. When filtered, it passes through transparent, while a slimy substance of a greenish gray colour remains upon the filter. This substance possesses the properties of gluten. When the solution, now transparent, and of a yellowish colour, is boiled, it deposits flakes of albumen. It reddens litmus paper, strongly precipitated by lime-water, nitrate of lead, and sulphate of iron, indicating the presence of phosphoric salts. The liquid being evaporated to the consistence of a syrup, and the residue treated with alcohol, the solution diluted with water, and the alcohol distilled off, to separate some gluten which still remained, a syrupy matter was obtained, having a sweet

and is

taste, which WIS considered as the saccharine

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PEARL BARLEY and FRENCH BARLEY are barley freed from the husk by means of a mill, the distinction between- the two being, that pearl barley is reduced to the size of very small shot, all but the heart of the grain being ground away. See farther upon this subject the articles HUSBANDRY, and MALT.

The seeds obtained from all these, but especially from H. vulgare and H. distichon, are in common use. They are extremely nutritive and mucilaginous, and generally employed to furrish an aporem by boiling in water, in all inflammatory diseases and affections of the chest, especially when there is cough or irritation about the fauces. Amongst the ancients, decoctions of barley, Ket, was the principal medieine, as well as aliment, in acute diseases. Barkey is freed from its shells in mills, and in this state is called Scotch and French barley. In Holland they make barley into small round grains, somewhat like pearls, which is therefore called pearl barley.

HORDEUM CAUSTICUM. See Cevadilla. HORDICALIA, or HORDICIDIA, in antiquity, a religious feast held among the Romans, wherein they sacrificed cattle big with young.

HOREB, a mountain of Asia, in Arabia Petræa, at the foot of which is a monastery, where a bishop of the Greek church resides. There are two or three fine springs, and a great number of fruit-trees.

HOREHOUND. In botany. See MARU


HORESTI, a people of Britain, beyond Solway Frith (Tacitus), now Eskdale (Camden).

HORIA. In zoology. A genus of the class insecta, order coleoptera. Antennas moniliform; feelers four, thicker towards the tip; lip linear, rounded at the end. Two species: 1. H. Testacea, Rufous; antennas and legs black; body long, cylindric; male kind, thighs thicker and toothed. Inhabits Tranquebar. 2. H. Dermestoides. Testaceous, eyes, wings, and breast black. Inhabits Europe.

HORITES, an ancient people, who at the beginning dwelt in the mountains of Seir beyond Jordan. (Gen. xiv. 6.) They had princes, and were powerful, even before Esau made a conquest of their country. (id. xxxvi. 20-30.) The Horites, the descendants of Seir, and the Edomites, seem afterwards to have been confounded, and to have composed but one people. (Deut. ii. 2. xxxiii. 2. and Judg. v. 4.) They dwelt in Arabia Petræa, and Arabia Deserta, to the south-east of the promised land. We find the Hebrew word on Chorim, which in the book of Genesis is translated Horites, to be used in an appellative sense in several other passages of scripture, and to signify nobles, or great and powerful men (1 Kings

xxi. 8, 11. and Neh. ii. 16. iv. 14. v. 7. vi. 17. vii. 5. xii. 17. Eccl. x. 17. Isa. xxxiv. 12. Jer. xxvii. 20. xxxix. 6.); and it is very probable that the Greeks derived from hence their heroes in like manner as they derived Anax "a king," from the sons of Ånak, the famous giant in Palestine.

HORIZON, in geography and astronomy, a great circle of the sphere, dividing the world into two parts or hemispheres; the one upper and visible, the other lower and hid. The word is pure Greek, pwv, which literally signifies "bounding or terminating the sight;" being formed of pw, termino, definio, " I bound, I limit;" whence it is also called finitor, "finisher."

The horizon is either rational or sensible. 1. The rational, true, or astronomical horizon, which is also called simply and abso lutely the horizon, is a great circle, whose plane passes through the centre of the earth, and whose poles are the zenith and nadir. It divides the sphere into two equal parts or hemispheres. 2. The sensible, visible, or apparent horizon, is a lesser circle of the sphere, which divides the visible part of the sphere from the invisible. Its poles, too, are the zenith and nadir; and consequently the sensible horizon is parallel to the rational; and it is cut at right angles, and into two equal parts, by the vertical. These two horizons, though distant from one another by the semidiameter of the earth, will ap pear to coincide, when continued to the sphere of the fixed stars; because the earth compared with this sphere is but a point.


The sensible horizon is divided into eastern and western. The eastern or ortive horizon, is that part of the horizon wherein the heavenly bodies rise. The western or occidual horizon is that wherein the stars set. altitude or elevation of any point of the sphere is an arch of a vertical circle intercepted between it and the sensible horizon. By sensible horizon is also frequently meant a circle which determines the segment of the surface of the earth, over which the eye can reach; called also the physical horizon. In this sense we say, a spacious horizon, a narrow scanty horizon. On looking to the figures referred to, under the article DEPRESSION, it will be manifest that the higher the spectator is raised above the earth, the farther this visible horizon will extend, as the respective distances AD, BA, will be the greater. On account of the refraction of the atmosphere, distant objects on the hori zon appear higher than they really are, or appear less depressed below the true hori zon SS, and may be seen at a greater distance, especially on the sea. M. Legendre, in his memoir on measurements of the earth, in the Mem. Acad. Sci. for the year 1787, says that, from several experiments, he is induced to allow for refraction a 14th part of the distance of the place observed, expressed in degrees and minutes of a great circle. Thus, if the distance be 14000 toises,

the refraction will be 1000 toises, equal to the 57th part of a degree, or l′ 3′′.

HORIZON CF A GLOBE, the broad wooden circular ring in which the globe is fixed. On this are several concentric circles, which contain the months and days of the year, the corresponding signs and degrees of the ecliptic, and the 32 points of the compass.

HORIZON, ARTIFICIAL. A contrivance to be used with Hadley's sextant or quadrant, in taking altitudes of the celestial bodies. The instrument is simply a plain mirror, AB, fig. 6, plate 86, placed perfectly hori zontal. Let HE represent a ray of light coming from an object whose altitude is to be observed, the problem therefore is, to mea sure the angle HEA, or the angle GEB which will be the same, the angle of incidence being always equal to the angle of reflection. To do this we employ Hadley's quadrant, or some other reflecting instrument. (See the article QUADRANT.) The eye of the observer is placed at D in the line EG, and he turns the instrument about, until he sees the reflected image of the object to be observed, through the unsilvered part of the horizon glass G: he then turns round the index glass F by its limb, until the image of the object to be observed (coming in the line HF) is reflected by the index glass F to the silvered part of the horizon glass G, and thence to the eye of the observer at D, covering the image of the same object seen in the artificial horizon AB at E. The observation is now read off, and the angle denoted by the quadrant will be double the angle HEA: for the angle measured by the quadrant will be HIE, which is double HEA, because HE is parallel to HF, the object they tend to being supposed at an infinite distance, and HEA is equal GEB.

The methods of placing a mirror horizontally are very numerous. The most simple and accurate, where it can be used, is a dish containing mercury, but this is not applicable in towns, as the motion of carriages, &c. causes such undulations in the surface of the mercury, as to prevent an accurate observation being made. Figs. 3, 4, and 5, represent a simple and effective instrument, which was invented by Mr. John Adams, of Edmonton; fig. 3 is an elevation, fig. 4 a section, and fig. 5 a plan. It is a brass box a b, which has a top d fastened in it, made of dark coloured glass; the upper surface of the glass is ground to a perfect plane, and the under surface is a segment of a large sphere. The box is nearly filled with alcohol, leaving a small bubble of air in it, and is mounted upon three screws efg, by which it can be adjusted horizontally, though it stands upon an uneven surface: at h is a screw which takes out to fill up the box with alcohol when necessary. In using the instrument, it is set down upon any solid and steady support, and one or other of the feet screws efg, turned until the bubble of

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HORIZONTAL. a. (from horizon.) 1. Near the horizon (Milton). 2. Parallel to the horizon; on a level (Arbuthnot). 3. Relating to the horizon (Chambers).

HORIZONTAL DIAL, is one drawn on a plane parallel to the horizon, having its gnomon or style elevated according to the altitude of the pole of the place it is designed for.

HORIZONTAL DISTANCE, is that estimated in the direction of the horizon.

HORIZONTAL LEAF, in botany, horizontale folium. Making a right angle with the stem having the upper surface turned towards the sky. See ADVERSE.

HORIZONTAL FLOWER. A flower parallel with the surface; a horizontal root; a root running immediately under the surface, and parallel to it.

HORIZONTAL LINE, in perspective, is a right line drawn through the principal point, parallel to the horizon; or it is the intersection of the horizontal and perspective planes.

HORIZONTAL LINE, or base of a hill, in surveying, a line drawn on the horizontal plane of the hill, or that on which it stands. HORIZONTAL MOON. See Apparent MAG


HORIZONTAL PARALLAX. See PARALLAX. HORIZONTAL PLANE, is that which is parallel to the horizon of the place, or not inclined to it.

HORIZONTAL RANGE. See PROJECTILES. HORIZONTALLY, ad. In a direction parallel to the horizon (Bentley).

HORMINUM. (Horminum i. n.

from qua, to incite, named from its supposed qualities of provoking to venery.) Garden clary. Salvia selara of Linnéus.

HORN, 8. (haurn, Gothic, hoɲn, Saxon.) 1. The hard bodies which grow on the heads of some graminivorous quadrupeds, and serve them for weapons (Bentley). 2. An instrument of wind-inusic, made of horn (Dryden). 3. The extremity of the waxing or waning moon (Dryden. Thomson). 4. The feelers of a snail (Shakspeare). 5. A drinking cup made of horn. 6. Antler of a cuckold (Shakspeare). 7. HORN mad. Perhaps mad as a cuckold (Shakspeare).

HORN is a substance so generally known, that it is scarcely necessary to give a detinition of it. Growing on the heads of vari ous animals, particularly the cloven-footed quadrupeds, horns are serviceable as weapons both of offence and defence. They are not very hard (though some kinds are more so than others) as they may be easily cut with

a knife, or rasped with a file; but they are, from their toughness, not capable of being pounded in a mortar. When strongly heated in a Papin's digester, they are, at length, entirely converted into a mass which exactly resembles gelatine in its properties. In thin plates, they have a degree of transparency, which renders them useful in the making of the more common kind of lan terns; hence also they have been sometimes substituted for glass in windows. When heated properly, they become very soft and flexible, so that their shape may be altered considerably; hence they may be gradually pressed into a mould, and wrought into various forms, as in the making of bandles for knives and forks, and in many

other instances.

To Mr. Hatchett we are principally in debted for the knowledge we possess of the composition of these and similar bodies; for though they have long been decomposed in many of the processes in which they were employed, they were never before analysed with any care or success. They appear to consist chiefly of a membranous substance, which possesses the properties of coagulated albumen; a small quantity of earthy matter, in which respect chiefly they differ from bone, and probably also a little gelatine. After burning 500 grains of ox-horn, Mr. Hatchett obtained only 1 grain of residuum, and not so much as half of this proved to be phosphat of lime; from 78 grains of Chamois horn, he obtained only half a grain of residue, which afforded not half that weight of phosphat of lime. The horns of the hart and buck, however, contain a much greater proportion of earthy matter, differing, as appears also from the experiments of Scheele and Rouelle, from bone in no other respect than that of containing a larger proportion of cartilage.

From the distillation of bones and horns, particularly hart's horn, and rectifying the product till it becomes very much attenuated, chymists have long been in the habit of procuring a volatile, thin, and valuable oil, to which the name Oil of Dippel has been applied, in honour of the first preparer. Almost every other animal substance would, perhaps, furnish this oil, but none of them so easily or so plentifully as the horn above mentioned. See OIL.

Horn and tortoise-shell are applied to mechanical purposes, which require them to be bent and united in various ways; this is performed by the aid of heat, applied either dry, with warmed irons or burning charcoal; or, by softening the horn in boiling water, or in a weak solution of alkali: when thus softened they will easily adhere. Mr. Aikin gives the following process for making the horn ring that surrounds a common opera-glass: "A flat piece of horn is cut out, of the requisite shape, the ends to be joined are thinned down by a file, the piece


is then put into boiling water till sufficiently supple, and is then rolled round a warm iron cylinder, and held in that position by a vice, so that the ends overlap each other: other piece of iron, heated and grooved, is then laid upon the seam of the joined ends, and pressed upon the cylinder, and there confined by an iron wire; and the heat of the two partially melts that portion of the horn, and cements the ends so completely, that no seam or joining can be observed when cold."

Dyeing or staining horn to imitate tortoiseshell. The horn to be died must be first pressed into proper plates, scales, or other flat form, and the following mixture prcpared: take of quick lime two parts, and of litharge one part: temper them together to the consistence of a soft-paste with soap-lie. Put this paste over all the parts of the horn, except such as are proper to be left transparent, in order to give it a nearer resemblance of the tortoise shell. The horn must remain in this manner covered with the paste till it is thoroughly dry; when, the paste being brushed off, the horn will be found partly opaque and partly transparent, in the manner of tortoise-shell, and when put over a foil of the kind of latten called assidue, will be scarcely distinguishable from it. It requires some degree of fancy and judgment to dispose of the paste in such a manner as to form a variety of transparent parts, of different magnitudes and figures, to look like the effect of nature and it wild be an improvement to add semitransparent parts, which may be done by mixing whiting with some of the paste to weaken its operation in particular places, by which spots of a reddish brown will be produced, which, if properly interspersed, especially on the edges of the dark parts, will greatly increase both the beauty of the work and its similitude to real tortoise-shell.

HORN is also a sort of musical instrument, of the wind kind chiefly used in hunting, to animate and bring together the dogs and the hunters.

The French HORN is no other than a wreathed or contorted trumpet. It labours under the same defects as the trumpet itself: but these have of late been so palliated, as to require no particular selection of keys for this instrument. In the beginning of the year 1773, a foreigner, named Spandau, played, in a concert at the opera-house, a concerto, part whereof was in the key of C, with the minor-third; in the performance of which all the intervals seemed to be as perfect as in any wind instrument. This improvement was effected by putting his right hand into the bottom or bell of the instrument, and attempering the sounds by the application of his fingers to different parts of the tube.

HORN or Spur, in botany, Cornu s. Calcar. The hinder hollow part of the nectary in

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