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some flowers, extended in a conical form: as in Orchis, Larkspur, &c.-Conica productio baseos.

HORN, or HoOORN, a considerable town of the United Provinces, in N. Holland, with a good harbour. Here cattle are fatted that come from Denmark and Holstein. It is seated on the E. side of the Zayder Zee. Lat. 52. 38, N. Lon. 4. 59. E.

HORN, a town of the Austrian Netherlands, capital of a county of the same name in the bishopric of Liege. Lat. 51. 12. N. Lon, 5, 55. E.

Cape-HORN, the most southern part of Terra-del-Fuego, round which all ships now pass that sail into the Pacific Ocean. Lat. 55. 58. S. Lon. 67. 26. W.

HORN (HART's). See CORNU Cervi.
HORN-BILL, in ornithology. See BUCEROS.
HORN FISH. See Esox.

HORN-SHAPED, in botany. See CORNUTE. HORN WORK, in fortification, an outwork composed of two demi-bastions joined by a


HORNBACH, a town of Deux Ponts, in Germany. Lat. 49. 10. N. Lon. 7. 36. E. HORNBERG, an ancient town of the Black Forest, in Germany. Lat. 48. 12. N. Lon. 8. 27. E.

HORNBLENDA. Hornblend, in minera logy, a genus of the class earths, order talcose consisting of carbonat of magnesia, an equal portion of oxyd of iron, and a nearly equal quantity of carbonat of lime; soft opake, generally of a dull colour, leaving a streak lamellous, breaking into indeter minate fragments; melting in fire, with ebullition, into a black opake globule. Three species.

1. H. vulgaris. Common Hornblend: with scarcely any lustre, of a dull colour when broken in any direction, and exhibiting lamellar pieces or rays. Fourd in Sweden, Saxony, Portugal, Bohemia, and most Eu ropean mountains in solid masses, interspersed with other stones: sometimes crystallized in six or eight sided prisms; colour dull, green or blackish; striated or follated; the crystals transversely striated.

2. H. Labradorica. Labradore Hornblend: sub-opake with a little lustre incurved lamellar pieces, which, when broken, discover a coppery black internal surface. Found in scattered pieces in the island of St. Paul on the Labradore coast; colour grayish-black, with sometimes a shade of coppery red or iron gray according to the direction of the light; fracture mostly curved and foliated.

3. H. Basaltina. Basaltic hornblend: shining, hardish, having a grayish-white streak, when broken longitsually exhibiting straight lamellar pieces crystallizing into small six or eight sided prisms, terminated by three sided pyramids. Found in basalt

hoffe, wrack and lavas in most parts of Europe to which it adheres very closely colour black, grayish-green, dark green or yellowish; of a shining surface when broken. Melts before the blowpipe into a grayish enamel with a tinge of yellow.

HO'RNBOOK. s. The first book of children, covered with horn to keep it unsoiled (Locke).

HORNBURG, a town of Lower Saxony, in the principality of Halberstadt. It is seated on the Isle. Lat. 52. 7. N. Lon. 10.

36. E.

HORNBY, a town of Lancashire, seated on a branch of the river Lune, and beautified with a handsome parochial chapel. Here is a considerable manufactory of cotton. Lat. 54. 6. N. Lon. 2. 20. W.

HORNCASTLE, a town of Lincolnshire, which had a castle, as the name imports; from the architecture of which, and the Roman coins that are sometimes dug up here, it is thought to have been a camp or station of the Romans. The town is well built, and is almost surrounded with water. It is a signiory of 13 lordships. In these lordships there are several chapels for the convenience of the inhabitants, who are at too great a distance from the mother-church, and pretty numerous. It has a market on Saturdays, and fairs in June and August. Lat. 53, 14. N. Lon. 0. 2. W.

HORNDON, a town of Essex, with a market on Saturdays. Lat. 51. 32. N. Lon. 0. 35. E.

HORNE (George), an excellent English prelate, was born in 1730, at Otham, in Kent, of which place his father was rector. He received his education at the grammarschool of Maidstone, and then was elected to a scholarship of University College, Oxford, where he took his degree of B. A. He was afterwards chosen fellow of Magdalen college, and applied himself with great diligence to sacred literature, particularly the Hebrew language. He attached himself to the principles of Hutchinson, which at that time were peculiarly unfashionable at Oxford, and brought upon their abettors much obloquy. In 1753 he entered into orders, and was soon distinguished as an excellent preacher. He appeared also as an acute writer, partienlarly in controversy, defending the singular doctrines of Hatchinson with dexterity, and attacking Dr. Kennicott's interpolating la hours with much learning and adroitness. His examplary character procured for him, in 1768, the important station of president of his college, about which time he married a daughter of Pailip Barton, esq. of Eltham in Kent. He now took his degree of D. D. and was appointed ch pain in ordinary to the king. The year following appeared his beautiful performance, entitied, Consider ations on the Life of St. John the Baptist, being the Substance of Sermons which be had preached annually at Magdalen college, In 1776 he served the office of vice-chancel

lor, and the same year produced his inva luable Commentary on the Psalms, the best work of the kind in our language. In 1781 he was deservedly appointed bishop of Norwich, but unfortunately his infirmities were then so great, that the church could not enjoy much benefit from so pure and evangelical a luminary. "I am come to these steps (said he, as he was entering the palace) at a time of life when I can neither go up them nor down them with safety." He died, full of faith and hope, inspired by the purest principles, and founded on the most solid basis, at Bath, in 1792. His remains rest at Eltham, and a monument has been erected for him in the cathedral of Norwich; but bis best monument and praise are his valuable works, which are, 1. A fair, candid, and impartial State of the case between Sir Isaac Newton and Mr. Hutchinson; 2. The Theology and Philosophy in Cicero's Somnium Scipionis explained, &c. 8vo.; 3. Spicilegium Shuckfordianum, or a Nosegay for the Critics, in 8vo.; 4. An apology for certain Gentlemen in the University of Oxford, aspersed in a late anonymous Pamphlet, 8vo.; 5. A View of Mr. Kennicott's Method of correcting the Hebrew Text, in 8vo.; 6. Considerations on the Life of St. John the Baptist, Svo.; 7. Considerations on the projected Reformation of the Church of England, 4to. 1772; 8. A Commentary on the Psalms, 2 vols. 4to. and 8vo.; 9. A Letter to Adam Smith, LL.D. on the Life, Death, and Philosophy of David Hume, 12mo.; 10. Letters on Infidelity, 12mo.; 11. A Letter to Dr. Priestley by an Undergraduate, 8vo.; 12. Observations on the Case of the Protestant Dissenters, Svo.; 13. Five volumes of Sermons on several Subjects and Occasions; 14. A Charge intended to have been delivered to the Clergy of Norwich at the primacy Visitation, 4to. 1791. The reader will be highly gratified and instructed by reading Mr. Jones's Life of this exemplary divine and apostolical bishop.

HO'RNED. a. (from horn,) Furnished with horns (Denham).

HORNECK (Anthony), a learned divine of the English church, was born in the Lower Palatinate in 1641, and being designed for the ministry, he was sent to study divinity, first at Heidelberg under Spanheim. At the age of 19 he came to England and entered himself of Queen's college, Oxford, of which he was chosen chaplain, and afterwards obtained the vicarage of Allhallows, Oxford. The duke of Albemarle gave him the rectory of Doulton in Devonshire, to which was afterwards added a prebend in the cathedral of Exeter. In 1671 he became preacher at the Savoy, and in 1693 he obtained a prebendal stall at Westminster. He died in 1696. Dr. Horneck was a man of great learning and of exemplary piety. His works are judicious and well known.

HORNERS, those artificers whose business it is to prepare various utensils of the

horns of cattle. The horners were a very an cient and considerable fraternity in the city of London some hundred years ago. In the reign of Edward II. they complained to parliament, that by foreigners buying up the horns in England, they were in danger of being ruined, and this business lost to the nation. For this reason was made the statute of 6 Ed. IV. by which the sale of horns to foreigners (except such as the said horners refused) was prohibited; and the wardens had power granted them to search all the markets in London and 24 miles round, and to inspect Stourbridge and Ely fairs, to prevent such practices, and to purchase horns at stated prices. But on plausible pretences this law was repealed in the reign of James I. and thereupon the old evil revived. The horners again applied to parliament, and king Edward's statute was renewed (excepting as to the inspection of the fairs), and still remains in force. The importation of unwrought horns into this country is also prohibited. The present company of horners were incorporated January 12, 1638.

HORNET, in Entomology. See YESPA.
HORNFOOTED. a. Hoofed.

HORNIUS (George), professor of history at Leyden, was born in the Palatinate, and died in 1670. His principal works are,.1. Historia Ecclesiastica ad ann. 1666; 2. De Originibus Americanis. 8vo.; 3. Geographia vetus &


HORNSEY, a maritime town in the E. Riding in Yorkshire, with a market on Mondays. Near it is a mere two miles long and one broad, famous for its pike and cels. Lat. 53. 56. N. Lon. 0. 1. W.

HORNSEY, is also the name of a village in Middlesex, about five miles north of London.

HORNSILVER, the name by which a white flaky precipitate, formed by dropping muriatic acid into a solution of silver in nitric acid, was formerly distinguished. This compound is now termed MURIAT of silver; which see.

HORNSTEDIA. In botany, a genus of the class monandria, order monogynia. Calyx bifid; corol with a long filiform tube and double border, the exterior three parted; nectary tubular; capsule three celled, oblong. Two species-natives of Malacca.

HORNWRACK, in Helminthology. See FLUSTRA.

HORO'GRAPHY. s. (wga and ygapw.) An account of the hours. Or, the art of making dials, &c. to tell the hours. And the same meaning is generally given to the word HOROLOGIOGRAPHY.

HOROLOGIUM, 'poλoyer, composed of wa hora, "time, hour," and λoyos, “speech, discourse," a common name among ancient writers for any instrument, or machine for measuring the hours (see CHRONOMETER). Such are our clocks, watches, sun-dials, &c. See CLOCK, WATCH, DIAL, and CLEP


HOROLOGIUM, in astronomy, the clock,

a new southern constellation: it consists of 12 stars of the first six magnitudes, viz. 0. 0. 0. 0. 2. 10.

HOROLOGY, that branch of mechanical science which enables us to measure the portions of time. We judge of the lapse of time by the succession of sensible events; and the most convenient and accurate measures of its quantity are derived from motions, either uniform, or else repeated at equal intervals. Of the former kind, the rotation of the earth on its axis is the most exact, and the situation of its surface with regard to the fixed stars, or less simply, with regard to the sun, constitutes the means for determining the parts of time as they follow each other. See ASTRONOMY and DIALLING. Of the latter kind, the rotation of machinery, consisting of wheel-work, moved by a weight or spring, and regulated by a pendulum or balance, affords instruments of which the utility is well known. The term horology is at present more particularly confined to the principles upon which the art of making clocks and watches is established. A considerable portion of this extended subject of research has been given under the article CLOCK. See also SCAPEMENT, WATCH, &C.


HORO'METRY. 8. (wpa and METGEW.) art of measuring hours (Brown). HOROPTER, in optics, is a right line drawn through the point where the two optic axes meet, parallel to that which joins the two pupils.

HOROSCOPE, in astrology, the degree or point of the heavens rising above the eastern point of the horizon at any given time when a prediction is to be made of a future event: as, the fortune of a person then born, the suc cess of a design then laid, the weather, &c. The word is composed of wga hora, “hour,” and the verb Toμai, specto, considero, "I consider."

HOROSCOPE is also used for a scheme, or figure, of the twelve houses; i. e. the twelve signs of the zodiac, wherein is marked the disposition of the heavens for any given


HORREE, in Roman antiquity, granaries. HO'RRENT, a. (horrens, Lat.) Pointed outward; bristled with points (Milton).

HO'RRIBLE. a. (horribilis, Lat.) Dreadful; terrible; shocking; hideous; enormous (South).

HORRIBLENESS, s. Dreadfulness; hideousness; terribleness; fearfulness.

HORRIBLY, ad. (from horrible.) 1. Dreadfully; hideously (Milton). 2. To a dreadful degree (Locke);

HO'RRID, a. (horridus, Lat.) 1. Hideous; dreadful; shocking (Shakspeare). 2. Shock ing; offensive; unpleasing (Pope). 3. Rough; rugged (Dryden).

HORRIDNESS, s. (from horrid). Hideousness; enormity (Hammond).

HORRIFIC, a. (horrificus, Lat.) Causing horrour (Thomson).

HORRIPILATIO, (Horripilatio, onis, f.)

A sense of creeping in different parts of the body. A symptom of the approach of fever.

HORRISONOUS, a. (horrisonous, Lat.) Sounding dreadfully.

HO'RROUR, &. (horror, Lat.) 1. Terrour mixed with detestation (Davies). 2. Dreadful thoughts (Shakspeare). 3. Gloom; dreariness (Pope). 4. (In medicine.) Such a shuddering or quivering as precedes an ague fit; a sense of shuddering or shrinking (Quincy).

Horrour is that very strong and painful emotion excited by the view or contemplation of something peculiarly atrocious in the conduct of another; by some vice which exceeds the usual extravagance of vice, enormities such as surpass the bounds of common depravity; such as impurities too gross to be named, profligacies too shocking to be repeated, and cruelties that make us shudder at the recital. It may also be excited by the extremes of agony, mental or corporeal, by sufferings and punishments at which our natures recoil. This passion may be deemed the antipode of admiration. See COGAN, p. 171.

HORROUR of a Vacuum, was an imaginary principle among the ancient philosophers, to which they ascribed the ascent of water in pumps, and other similar phenomena, which are now known to be occasioned by the weight of the air.


HORROX (Jeremiah), an English astronomer, was born in Lancashire about 1619. He received his academical education Emanuel college, Cambridge, after which he retired to Hool near Liverpool, where he devoted himself wholly to the study of astronomy and making observations; but was cut off by a sudden death in 1640. He was the first person who ever observed the transit of Venus over the sun's disk, an account of which, drawn up by himself, was published by Hevelius at Dantzie in 1661, under the title, Venus in Solepariter visa, anno 1639, Nov. 24. Dr. Wallis published some of his papers in 1673, under the title of Opera Posthuma.

There are two things particularly, which will perpetuate the memory of this extraor dinary young man: the one is, his being the first who ever predicted and saw a transit of Venus: the other is, his New Theory of Lunar motions, which Newton himself made the ground-work of all his astronomy_relative to the moon; this great man always spoke of Horrox as a genius of the first


HORSE, 8. (hops, Saxon.) 1. A neigh ing quadruped, used in war, and draught, and carriage (Shakspeare). 2. A constella tion (Creech). 3. It is used in the plural sense, but with a singular termination, for horses, horsemen, or cavalry (Clarendon). 4. Something on which any thing is supported: as, a horse to dry linen on. 5. A wooden machine which soldiers ride by way of pu

nishment. 6. Joined to another substantive, it signifies something large or coarse; as, horseface, a face of which the features are large and indelicate.

To HORSE v. a. (from the noun.) 1. To mount upon a horse (Bacon). 2. To carry one on the back. 3. To ride any thing (Shak.). 4. To cover a mare (Mortimer).

HORSE. See Equus. For the breeding, rearing, &c. of the horse, see BREEDING, COLT, &c. For the methods of training and managing, see HORSEMANSHIP, BREAKING, MANAGE. The names by which those for riding are distinguished in the present day, are road-horses, riding-horses, saddle-horses, nags, chapman's horses, hacks, hackneys, ladies' horses or pads, hunters, running horses, racers, race-horses, gallopers, managed horses, chargers, troop-horses, post-hacks or post-horses, trotters, cantering-hacks or canterers, double-carrying horses, galloways, and ponies.

Concerning the different colours of horses, and their appropriate advantages, see COLOURS.

At the age of two years, or two years and a half, the horse is capable of propagating; and at even an earlier age, the mare is capable of receiving him. But the foals of so early an embrace are generally weakly and ill-formed. The horse should never be admitted to the mare till he is four, or four and a half, even in the case of draught horses; fine horses never before they are six; and Spanish stallions not before they are seven. The mare is generally in season from the beginning of April to the end of June; but their chief ardour for the horse continues only about fifteen or twenty days, and it is this critical period that should be made choice of. The stallion should be sound, well made, vigorous, and of a good breed. For fine saddle-horses, Arabians, Turks, Barbs, and Andalusians, are preferable to all others. Next to these, British stallions, for they are for the most part a progeny from the above, and are very little degenerated. The Italian, and especially the Neapolitan stallions, are also good males to breed from. The best stallions for draught or carriage horses, are those of Naples, Denmark, and especially Holstein and Friesland. For draught horses, they should be at least fifteen hands high; for saddle horses, from fourteen to fifteen. Nor should the colour be disregarded altogether; of whatever hue, black, gray, bay, or sorrel, it should be bright and perfect in its kind. Independently of which, the stallion selected should have courage, spirit, agility, tractability, a sensible mouth, and sure limbs.

The mare contributes less to the beauty of her offspring than the stallion; but she is said to contribute more to their constitution and stature. For elegant horses, the Spanish and Italian mares are to be preferred; but for draft horses, those of Britain and Normandy. However, when the stallion is good,

the mare of any country will produce a fine horse, provided she be well made, and of unexceptionable breed.

Mares go with young eleven months and some days. Contrary to the common custom among quadrupeds, they bring forth standing instead of lying. They continue to bring forth till the age of sixteen or eighteen and both horses and mares live till near thirty years old. Horses cast their hair once a-year, generally in the spring, but sometimes in the autumn. At this period they are weak, and require more care than at any other season.

In Persia, Arabia, and most eastern coun tries, the horse is never gelt as in Europe; China, perhaps, furnishes the only exception in the east. This operation greatly diminishes their courage and spirit, and probably their strength; but it makes them more tractable, gentle, and good humoured. To take all the advantage of their sex, the operation instead of being performed, as it is often done, at twelve or eighteen months of age, should be delayed till they are two years old, or somewhat more; the gelding will then retain some portion of the natural strength and courage of the stallion.

The English have ever been attentive to an exact cultivation of good horses, and in very early times set a high value on their breed. The esteem in which English horses were held as long ago as the reign of Athelstan, may be collected from a law of that monarch, which prohibited their exportation, unless where they were designed as presents. These, however, must have been native horses, as our commerce was at that period too limited to allow us to have received improvement from any but the German kind, which, nevertheless, could not add much to their value.

No country can bring a parallel to the strength and size of our draught horses, the speed of our racers, or the union of strength and activity in our cavalry.

In this metropolis, there are instances of horses that are able to draw on a plain for a small space, the weight of three ton; and which, with ease, can draw half that weight for a continuance. Some of our mill horses will carry at one load thirteen measures, which at 70lb. each, amounts to 910lb. in the aggregate, being a burthen too heavy for smaller camels. Our race horses, especially Childers and Eclipse, have literally, as M. Condarmine has observed, outstripped the wind; and our cavalry, by their impetuous charge, have broken through French columns, when the heavier German horses were incapable of accompanying them.

HORSEBACK. s. (horse and back.) Riding posture; the state of being on a horse. (Brown).

HORSE BEECH, in botany. See CARPINUS. HORSE BEAN, in Botany. See FABA. HO'RSEBLOCK. s. (horse and block.) A block on which they climb to a horse.

[blocks in formation]

HORSE-RACING, a useful and favourite sport among the superior classes of our countrymen, as well as of high antiquity. In modern times, however, it has been chiefly brought into notice, and pressed forward into celebrity, by Charles II. and the great duke of Cumberland, uncle to his present majesty. This amusement has been conceived of no small consequence to the breed of excellent horses in the country, and it has hence been patronised by the legislature in a variety of acts passed expressly on this subject. By these, in order to prevent those scandalous cheats and immense losses which have so fre

quently dishonoured the turf, it is enacted, That no person whatsoever shall enter, start, or run any horse, mare, or gelding, for any plate, [prize, sum of money, or other thing, unless such horse, mare, or gelding, shall be truly and bona fide the property of, and belong ing to, such person so entering, starting, or running the same : nor shall any person enter and start more than one horse, mare, or gelding, for one and the same plate, prize, or sum of money, under the forfeiture of the horse, horses, or value thereof.

Any person who shall enter, start, or run a horse, mare, or gelding, for less value than 501. shall forfeit the sum of 2001. Any person who shall print, publish, advertise, or proclaim any money, or other thing, to be run for, of less value than 501. forfeits the sum of 1001. Every race for any plate, prize, or sum of money, to be begun and ended in one day. Horses may on Newmarket Heath, in the counties of Cambridge and Black Suffolk, and Hambleton, in the county of York, for less value than 501. without incurring any penalty.


All and every sum and sums of money paid for entering of any horse, mare, or gelding, to start for any plate, prize, sum of money, or other thing, shall go and be paid to the second best horse, mare, or gelding, which shall start or run for such plate, prize, or sum of money, as aforesaid. Provided, that nothing therein con. tained shall extend, or be construed to extend, to prevent the starting or running any horse, mare, or gelding, for any plate, prize, of money, or other thing or things issuing out of, or paid for, by the rents, issues, and profits, of any lands, tenements, or hereditaments; of or by the interest of any sum or sums of money chargeable with the same, or appropriated to that purpose.



Every horse, mare, or gelding, entered to start or run for any plate, prize, sum of money, or other thing whatsoever, shall pay the sum of 21. 2s. And be it further enacted, That the owner of every horse, mare, or gelding, entered to start or run for any plate, prize, sum of money, or other thing, shall, previous to the


entering or starting such horse, mare, or gelding, pay the sum of 21. 2s. as the duty for year, into the hands of the clerk of the course, book-keeper, or other person authorised to make the entry of such horse, mare, or gelding; and if any neglect or refuse to pay the said sum of 21. 2s. owner shall, previous to the starting, for such entrance to the clerk of the course, book-keeper, or other person authorised to make the entry as aforesaid, the owner or owners of every such horse, mare, or gelding, shall forfeit and pay the sum of 201.

The following are the rules chiefly observed in racing:

Horses take their ages from May day.

1760 yards are a mile.

240 yards a distance.
Four inches a hand.

Fourteen pounds a stone.

When horses are matched at catch weights, each party may appoint any person to ride, without weighing either before or after the race.

Give and take plates are for horses of fourteen hands high, to carry a stated weight, above or below which more or less is to be carried, allowing seven pounds for every inch. See GIVE


A whim plate is weight for age, and weight for inches.

A post match is made by inserting the age of the horses in the articles; and the parties possess the privilege of bringing any horse of that age to the post, without making any previous declaration whatever, of name, colour, or qualifi


For a handicap match, see HANDICAP.

Riders must ride their horses (after running) to the scales to weigh; and the horse of him who dismounts without so doing, or who wants weight when weighed, is deemed a distanced horse.

The horse whose head first reaches the ending post wins the heat.

If a rider fall from his horse, and the horse be rode in by a person who is of proper weight, he will take place the same as if the accident had not happened, provided the second rider go back to the place where the first fell.

Horse's plates (or shoes) not allowed in the weight.

Horses not entitled to start, without having a proper certificate produced of their age, if re. quired, at the time specified in the articles, except where aged horses are included; and in that case, a junior horse may enter without a certificate, provided he carry the same weight as the aged.

All bets are for the best of the plate, where nothing is said to the contrary.

For the best of the plate, where there are three heats run, the horse is deemed second best who wins one.

For the best of the heats, the horse is second that beats the others twice out of three times, though he do not win a heat.

In all bets, either better may demand stakes to be made; and on refusal, may declare the bet void. A confirmed bet cannot be off but by mutual consent.

If one of the parties be absent on the day of running, a public declaration may be made of the bet upon the course, accompanied with a demand, whether any person present will make stakes for the absent party, which proposition

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