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not being acceded to, the bet may be declared void.

Bets agreed to be paid or received in town, or at any other particular place, cannot be declared off on the course.

If a match be made for any particular day, in any meeting at Newmarket, and the parties agree to change the day, all bets must stand; but if in a different meeting, the bets made before the alteration are void.

The person who lays the odds has a right to choose his horse or the field.

When a person has chosen his horse, the field is what starts against him; but there is no field, if the horse so named has no opponent.

Bets made for pounds, are always paid in guineas.

If odds be laid, without mentioning the horse before it is over, it must be determined as the bets were at the time of making it.

Bets made in running, are not determined till the plate is won, if the particular heat be not mentioned at the time of betting.

Where a plate is won by two heats, the preference of the horses is determined by the places they are in at the termination of the second heat.

Horses running on the wrong side of a post, and not turning back to recover their ground completely, are distanced.

Horses drawn between any of the heats, before the plate is won, are distanced.

Horses are deemed distanced, if their riders cross and jostle, when the articles do not permit

it.

If a horse win the first heat, and all others draw, they are not distanced, if he start no more; but if he start again by himself, the drawn horses are distanced.

When bets are made after a heat upon a subsequent event, if the horse so betted upon do not start, the bets so made are void.

When three horses have each won a heat, they only must start for a fourth to determine on the respective bets yet undecided.

No horse can be distanced in a fourth heat. When the words "play or pay" are included in a bet, it is thus decided; the horse that does not appear, and is not ready to start, at the [time appointed, is the loser; while the other is the winner, although he goes over the course by himself.

In running heats, if it cannot be decided which is first, the heat is then called a dead heat, and the horses may all start again; unless it should happen in the last heat, and then it must only be contested between the two horses, either of which, if he had won, would have decided the race; but if there be no two horses thus circumstanced, the others may all start again.

Bets made upon horses winning any number of plates within the year, remain in force till the first day of May.

Money given to have a bet laid, not returned, if not

run.

To a proposed bet, whoever first says "done" to it, makes it a confirmed bet.

Matches and bets are void on the decease of either party before they are determined.

The turf most celebrated in the annals of racing, not only in our own country, but all over the world, is Newmarket. The following are the exact distances of its different courses:

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Two middle miles of B. C.
Two Years Old Course
Yearling Course
Round Course
Duke's Course
Bunbury's Mile
Dutton's Course

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The New Roundabout Course on the Flat is nearly a mile and three quarters.

The great and leading qualifications of a horse bred for the turf, is the purity of his blood, which can only be insured by the truth of his pedigree, and this, to be authentic, must be signed by the breeder, and is in purchase and sale always transferred with the horse. A distinguishing mark of judgment in racing, is first to ascertain the exact speed of the horse, and then to discover of what precise weight he is master; that he may not be retarded in one, by being overloaded with the other. Experience has long since fully demonstrated, upon minute trial (for the trial has been repeatedly made even to the key of the stable door,) that the smallest additional weight is of consequence, and hence judges whose award has been often appealed to, hesitate not to affirm, that the addition of seven pounds weight carried by one horse, where himself and his antagonist are of the same age, speed, strength, blood and bone, will, if the ground be run honestly over, make the difference of a whole distance, which is 240 yards in four miles only.

stone.

The racing weights most in use for the last half century, varied however to age and qualification, have been from about seven stone seven, to nine stone twelve, or ten stone; except in matches with two years old, and yearlings at light or feather weight, and the king's hundreds, for which (till some trifling alterations lately adopted) they carried, at six years old, twelve There are, however, some new clubs, lately instituted by noblemen and gentlemen of distinction, at Bibury and Kingscote, in Gloucestershire, where the weights are advanced beyond the former example, to twelve or thirteen stone, upon a wellfounded principle of exciting emulation in breeders to pay some attention to bone as well as to blood."

The certificate of a horse's age generally runs as

follows:

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The produce of Sir T. Gascoign's Golden Locks, covered by King Fergus, against the produce of Mr. Fox's dam of Calomel, covered by Beningbrough, for 200 guineas each, half forfeit. Colts to carry est. Fillies 7st. 11lb. Last mile and a half. No produce no forfeit.

Produce matches, and produce sweepstakes, are generally made and entered into during the time the respective mares are in foal.

Article of a post produce match of 200 guineas each. Colts to carry 8st. 7lb. Fillies 8st. 4lb.: Mr. Clifton's Expectation,

Mr. Clifton's Eustatia,

Mr. Clifton's sister to Gabriel,

Mr. Dawson's Sincerity,

Mr. Dawson's Highflyer mare, out of Sincerity,

Mr. Dawson's blind Highflyer

mare,

COVERED BY
Abbe Thulle.

Coriander.

Each to bring the produce of one of these, whichsoever he chooses, to run over Knavesmire when four

years old.

Articles for a sweepstakes.

Oxford,

We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, do agree to run for a sweepstakes of 50 guineas each, over Port Meadow, on the last day of Oxford races next ensuing; the horses to carry the gold cup weights, viz. four years old 7st. 71b. five years old 8st. 7lb. six years old 9st. and aged 9st. 4lb. one four-mile heat. The winner of the gold cup to carry 7lb. extra. The subscribers to name their horses to the clerk of the before the first day of March next; and the subscription to close on that day The stakes to be paid into the hands of the clerk of the course before starting, or the subscription to be doubled. Five subscribers,

course, on ог

race.

Notification for hunters' sweepstakes.
Rochester,

or

no

A sweepstakes of 10 guineas each, for hunters (carrying 12st. one four-mile heat, to be rode by gentlemen) that have never started for plate, match or sweepstakes, and to be bona fide the property of subscribers, and which have been regularly hunted the preceding season as hunters, and not merely to have obtained the name; and that have never had a sweat with an intention to run before the first of May next ensuing. Certificates of their having hunted regularly to be produced (if required) from the owner or owners of the hounds which they have hunted; and to be to the clerk of the course on or before the first of April next; and the stakes to be deposited at the same time, or the horse not permitted to start. Six subscribers, or no race. See the articles JOCKEY CLUB, KING'S PLATE, TRAINING, and TURF.

with

named

HORSE Radish, in botany. See CоCH

LEAKLB.

When steeped and digested in vinegar, during a fortnight, it is said effectually to remove freckles in the face.

In paralytic complaints, horse radish has sometimes been applied, with advantage, as a stimulating remedy to the parts affected. A strong infusion of it excites vomiting; and is greatly recommended by Sydenham in dropsies, particularly such as succeed intermittent fevers. Prof. Beckmann mentions this vegetable among the most proper substances for tanning or currying leather and we believe it is sometimes used in dyeing a straw-colour.

HORSE (RIVER.) See HIPPOPOTAMUS. HORSE (SEA.) See HIPPOCAMPUS. HORSE-SHOE, a plate of iron contrived for the preservation of the horse's foot, to the size of which it is adapted. See SHOEING and HOOF.

HORSE-SHOE, in fortification, is a small work, sometimes of a round and sometimes of an oval figure, enclosed with a parapet, sometimes raised in the moat or ditch, or in low grounds, and sometimes to cover a gate, or to serve as a lodgment for soldiers. See FORTIFICATION.

HORSE-SHOE-HEAD, an affection of the heads of infants, in which the sutures of the skull are too open, or too great a space occurs between them; so that the aperture is frequently not close, or the cranium in that part does not become hard and firm till the age of puberty. This opening increases as often as the child takes cold; and if it continue for a long series of years, it is generally regarded as a sign of weakness, or short life. In this case, the usual practice is to rub the head occasionally with warm rum or brandy, mixed with the white of an egg, or a little palm-oil; it will also be advisible to wear a small cushion over such aperture, by which it will not only be protected from the cold air, but likewise from receiving sudden injury; and consequently the closing of it will be promoted. Such infants ought to be watched with additional care, to prevent any accidental falls, or blows on the head, which to them would be fatal. Sometimes the disorder arises from a collection of waters in the head, called an hydrocephalus, which see.

HORSE-TAIL, in botany. See EQUISETUM.
HORSE TAIL, SHRUBBY. See EPHEDRA.
HORSE TONGUE. See Ruscus.

HORSE VETCH, in botany. See HIPPO

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HOR'SELAUGH. 8. (horse and laugh.) A load violent rude laugh (Pope).

1.

HO'RSELEECH. s. (horse and leech.)
A great leech that bites horses. (Shaksp.) 2.
A farrier (Ainsworth).

HO'RSELITTER. s. (horse and litter.) A carriage hung upon poles between two horses, in which the person carried lies along. (Macca.)

HO'RSEMAN. 8. (horse and man.) 1. One skilled in riding (Dryden). 2. One that serves in wars on horseback. (Arb.) 3. A rider; a man on horseback (Prior).

HORSEMANSHIP, the art of riding with grace, safety, and fearlessness, on horseback. To attain which, we shall offer a few rules and observations, for the benefit of those who do not know how to ride, rather than the perusal of those who do. The man who is adroit in this exercise, having examined the condition of his horse, and its furniture, approaches him gently, opposite the shoulder of the near or left side: when facing the wither, he takes the reins of the bridle with a tuft of the mane firmly in his left hand, the bridle being of about the same length it is held at when mounted. The horse standing still, which he should always be accustomed to do when mounting, and not before, his right hand is employed in supporting the stirrup on that side, for the reception of his left foot, when that is safely introduced, his right-hand is removed from the stirrup to the hinder part of the saddle, where it forms a lever to assist in raising the right leg from the ground, and in passing it gradually and steadily over the body of the horse, when it falls readily into the stirrup on the opposite side. When first the reins are taken in hand, due observance should be made of the medium at which they are to be beld; that is, not tight enough to make the borse uneasy, or run back, nor slack enough to afford him an opportunity to set off before his rider is firmly seated.

When mounted, the body should be kept easy, but erect, inclining rather backwards than forwards; the weight chiefly resting upon the horses posteriors, with a moderate pressure of both the legs upon the sides of the horse. To preserve which position, free from constraint and stiffness, the proper length of the stirrups is a matter material to be attended to; for unless they are in length adapted to the stature of the rider, it will be impracticable for him to keep a firm and graceful seat, particularly with violent, vicious, or restive horses, upon many emergencies. The general error amongst inexperienced horsemen, is that of having their stirrups ridiculously short, by which they strangely conceive they insure their own safety; though the opposite is the fact, and especially with a spirited horse; for the knees being lifted above the skirt of the saddle, the thighs are rendered useless, the legs prevented from affording their necessary assistance, and the rider is left withcut a seat or fulcrum by which he can maintain his position; and between alternate rocking and swinging, is left entirely at the mercy of his horse. The stirrups should be exactly of that length in which, the rider sitting upon his horse,

either still or in action, may be able to disen-
gage his foot from them by a single motion, or
recover them with equal
be able to catch or
facility.

These remarks, properly attended to, the body will be found easy, firm, and commanding; free from all those rockings, jerkings, and twistings, sometimes over the horse's head, at others over his tail, too often displayed by the inexperienced. The left-hand is termed the bridlehand, and the left elbow must come nearly into gentle contact with the body, which it has always for its support in any sudden jump, start, or stumble, of the horse. It is impossible to lay down fixed and invariable rules for the pre

cise distance of the left-hand from the breast, or
its height from the saddle; horses differ much
in their mouths; and the bridle hand must, in
consequence, be held higher or lower, and the
reins longer or shorter in proportion.
The right
hand (termed, in racing, the whip-hand) should
be held in a kind of corresponding uniformity
with the left, acting also occasionally in the use
of the reins, and the management of the mouth;
and this is the more necessary, as every com-
plete horseman, or perfect sportsman, can ma-
nage the reins of even a run-away horse, as
well with one hand as the other.
The hand should always be firm, but delicately
pliable, and alive to every motion of the mouth;
for, by giving and taking properly, the horse
has better opportunity to display his spirit, and
to demonstrate the pleasure he receives, in be-
ing encouraged to champ upon the bit. Gentle-
ness, good nature, and especially a thorough
command of temper, are excellent qualifications
for a rider; and while they will prevent a horse
from acquiring a thousand ill habits produced by
the indulgence of passion, and an unrestrained use
of the whip, they will go far to eradicate what-
ever mischief there may be in a horse's natural dis-
position.

poor crea

Horses that are addicted to starting, do it from fear, and not from obstinacy; the recollection of which should instantly excite a consideration of pity and tenderness in the rider; but it is much to be regretted, that nine times out of ten, this very timidity is productive of the most severe and unmerited punishment; and it is no uncommon thing to see a much greater brute than the animal he bestrides, most unmercifully beating, whipping, and spurring a ture for possessing a sensation in common with himself. That horses may be made to pass objects of dislike and dread by such means is not to be disputed; it is, however, just as certain, that lenity, patience, and mild persuasion, are far preferable, inasmuch as they are less troublesome, less cruel, and infinitely more effectual modes of accomplishing the same point. It is certainly the business of the rider to conquer and become master of his horse; but coercive and violent measures should never be resorted to, till the more lenient attempts have failed.

The use of the legs is a very important consideration, not only in the due correction of a horse that starts, but in the airs taught in the manage; where the horse is supported and helped by the hands and legs in every action required, in consequence of which he is technically said to perform his airs by aids from the rider. When a horse, in starting, begins to fly on one side, for the purpose of turning from the object he wishes to avoid, the instantaneous, strong, and sudden pressure of the leg on that side,

use

counteracts his spring, and, with the joint exertion of the rein and wrist, immediately brings him straight; at which moment, the same being made of both legs, as was just before made with one, he has no alternative, but to submit to the determined correction, and soon passes the object of dread or dislike, and proceeds in his proper course. As the legs are of great utility in the due management of a horse, so they are the very reverse, if improperly brought into action. Nothing sooner denotes the inability of a rider, than to see the legs swinging like a pendulum, and alternately beating against the horse's sides: if he be a spirited horse, and well broke, he conceives himself intentionally excited to brisker action; if, on the contrary, he be a dull and sluggish goer, it only adds to his habitual callosity.

HORSEME/AT. 8. (horse and meat.) Provender (Bacon).

HORSEPLAY. s. (horse and play.) Coarse, rough, rugged play (Dryden).

HORSEPOND. s. (horse and pond.) A pond for horses.

HORSESTE ALER. 8. (horse and steal.) A thief who takes away horses. (Shaksp.) HO'RSEWAY. 8. (horse and way.) A way by which horses may travel. (Shaksp.)

HORSHAM, a town of Sussex, seated near St. Leonard's Forest, 38 miles from London. It has its name from Horsa, brother to Hengist the Saxon: and is one of the largest towns in the county. It has sent members to parliament ever since the 30th of Edward I. and is the place where the county gaol is held, and often the assizes. It is a borough by prescription, with the title of two bailiffs and burgage-holders within and without the borough, &c. who elect the members of parliament. The market is on Saturdays; and is noted for poultry. Lat. 51. 8 N.

Lon. 0. 12 W.

HORTAGILERS, in the grand seignior's court, upholsterers, or tapestry-hangers.

HORTATION. s. (hortatio, Latin.) The act of exhorting; a hortatory precept; advice or encouragement to something.

HOʻRTATIVE. s. (from hortor, Latin.( Exhortation; precept by which one incites or animates (Bacon).

HO'RTATORY. a. (from hortor, Latin.) Encouraging; animating; advising to any thing.

"HORTENSIUS (Quintus), a celebrated orator, who began to distinguish himself by his eloquence, in the Roman forum, at the age of nineteen. His friend and successor Cicero speaks with great eulogium of his oratorical powers, and mentions the uncommon extent of his memory. He was prætor and consul, and died 50 years before Christ, aged 53. His ora

tions are not extant.

HORTICULTURE. 8. (hortus and cultura, Latin.) The art of cultivating gardens. HOʻRTULAN. a. (hortulanus, Latin.) Belonging to a garden (Evelyn).

HORTUS SICCUS, a dry garden, an appellation given to a collection of specimens of plants, carefully dried and preserved. The

The

value of such a collection is very evident, since a thousand minutiæ may be preserved in the well-dried specimens of plants, which the most accurate engraver would have omitted. We shall, therefore, give some methods of drying and preserving an hortus siccus. Specimens ought to be collected when dry, and carried home in a tin box. Plants may be dried by pressing in a box of Each sand, or with a hot smoothing iron. of these has its advantages. If pressure be employed, a botanical press may be procured. The press is made of two smooth boards of hard wood, eighteen inches long, twelve broad, and two thick. Screws must be fixed to each corner with nuts. If a press cannot be easily had, books may be employed. Next some quires of unsized blotting paper must be provided. specimens, when taken out of the tin box, must be carefully spread on a piece of pasteboard, covered with a single sheet of the paper quite dry; then place three or four sheets of the same paper above the plant, to imbibe the moisture as it is pressed ont: it is then to be put into the press. As many plants as the press will hold may be piled up in this manner. At first they ought to be pressed gently. After being pressed for twenty-four hours or so, the plants ought to be examined, that any leaves or petals which have been folded may be spread out, and dry sheets of paper laid over them. They may now be replaced in the press, and a greater degree of pressure applied. The press ought to stand near a fire, or in the sunshine. After remaining two days in this situation, they should be again examined, and dry sheets of paper be laid upon them. The pressure then ought to be considerably increased. After remaining three days longer in the press, the plants may be taken out, and such as are sufficiently dry may be put on a dry sheet of writing-paper. Those plants which are succulent may require more pressure, and the blotting paper again be renewed. Plants which dry very quickly, ought to be pressed with considerable force when first put into the press; and if delicate, the blotting paper should be changed every day. When the stem is woody, it may be thinned with a knife, and if the flower be thick or globular, as the thistle, one side of it may be cut away; as all that is necessary in a specimen, is to preserve the character of the class, order, genus, and species. Plants may be dried in a box of sand in a more expeditious manner, and this method preserves the colour of some plants better. after been pressed for ten or twelve hours, must be laid within a sheet of blotting-paper. The box must contain an inch deep of fine dry sand, on which the sheet is to be placed, and then covered with sand an inch thick; another sheet may then be deposited in the same manner, and so on, till the box be full. The box must be placed near a

The specimens,

fire for two or three days. Then the sand must be carefully removed, and the plants examined. If not sufficiently dried, they may again be replaced in the same manner for a day or two.

To retain the various points of form, colour, structure, with as little deviation as possible, moderate heat, moderate pressure, and speedy absorption of the vegetable juices seem indispensably requisite. The plants to be preserved, should with this view be spread carefully over clean paper, then covered with fine sand, then with a second sheet of paper spread over the sand, and the whole pressed by an iron moderately heated for the parpose; or, which is better, pressed greatly by a weight of a different kind, and exposed, while pressed, to the heat of a moderate fire, till the whole be perfectly exsiccated. Mucilage of fine gum-arabic or gum tragacanth, will be found the best paste for cementing them to the papers on which they are to re

main.

HOSANNA, in the Hebrew ceremonies, a prayer rehearsed, on the several days of the feast of tabernacles. The word is Hebrew, and literally signifies, save us now, or, save as we pray.

HOSANNA RABBA, or GRAND HOSANNA, a name given by the Jews to their feast of tabernacles.

HOSE. 8. plur. hosen. (hora, Saxon.) 1. Breeches (Shakspeare). 2. Stockings; coverings for the legs (Gay). HOSEA, a canonical book of the Old Testament, so called from the prophet of that name, its author, who was the son of Beri, and the first of the 12 minor prophets. He lived in the kingdom of Samaria, and delivered his prophecies under the reign of Jeroboam 11. and his successors, kings of Israel; and under the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. His prophecies are chiefly directed to the 10 tribes before their captivity, reproving them for their sins, exhorting them to repentance, and threatening them with destruction in case of impenitence; but comforting the pious with the promise of the Messiah, and of the happy state of the church in the latter days. His style is so abrupt, sententious, and concise, that it borders sometimes on obscurity. And how should it not, when the subjects of 60 years' prophecy are condensed into a few pages? But it is in many places moving and pathetic, and not seldom beautiful and sublime. Hosea is a bold reprover, not only of the vices of the people, but also of their kings, princes, and priests. Like most other of the Hebrew prophets, however, he tempers his denunciations of vengeance with promises of mercy; and the transitions from the one to the other are often sudden and anexpected. He is generally supposed to have prophesied from the year 785 to 725

before the christian æra.

HOSIER. 8. (from hose.) One who sells stockings (Swift).

HOSPINIAN (Rodolphus), a learned Swiss, born at Altdorf, near Zurich, in 1547. Having gone through his academical studies, he was ordained in 1568. In 1571 he was made provisor of the abbey school at Zurich, and afterwards minister of the abbey church. He died in 1626. He wrote several able works on the history of popish errors and superstitions, which have been collected with his other writings, in 7 vols. folio.

HO'SPITABLE. a. (hospitabilis, Latin.) Giving entertainment to strangers; kind to strangers (Dryden).

HO'SPITABLY. ad. (from hospitable.) With kindness to strangers (Prior).

HOSPITAL, popularly spittal, a place or building erected, out of charity, for the reception and support of the poor, aged, sick, and otherwise helpless. The word is formed of the Latin hospes, host, stranger. See HOST. In the early ages of the church, the bishop had the immediate charge of all the poor, both sound and diseased, as also of widows, orphans, strangers, &c. When the churches came to have fixed revenues allotted them, it was decreed, that at least one fourth part thereof should go to the relief of the poor; and to provide for them the more commodiously, many houses of charity were built, which are since denominated hospitals. They were governed wholly by the priests and deacons, under the inspection of the bishop. In course of time, separate revenues were assigned for the hospitals; and particular persons, out of motives of piety and charity, gave lands and money for erecting of hospitals. When the church discipline began to relax, the priests, who till then had been the administrators of hospitals, converted them into a sort of benefices, which they held at pleasure, without giving account thereof to anybody; reserving the greatest part of the income to their own use; so that the intentions of the founders were frustrated. To remove this abuse, the council of Vienna expressly prohibited the giving any hospital to secular priests in the way of a benefice; and directed the administration thereof to be given to sufficient and responsible laymen, who should take an oath, like that of tutors, for the faithful discharge thereof, and be accountable to the ordinaries. This decree was executed and confirmed by the council of Trent.

In Britain, hospitals are buildings properly endowed, or otherwise supported by charitable contributions, for the reception and support of the poor, aged, infirm, sick, or helpless. A charitable foundation laid thus for the sustenance and relief of the poor, is to continue for ever. Any person seised of an estate in fee, may, by deed inrolled in chancery, erect and found an hospital, and nominate such heads and governors therein as he shall think fit; and this charitable foundation shall be incorporated, and subject to the inspection and guidance of the

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