« ZurückWeiter »
and from centre F with the radius FB describe
P FB an arc interserting the direction As of the force come P:Q:: FB' : FA, 07- ; that is
Q FA P in the point A': then, drawing the line FA', we
the forces are to each other reciprocally, as the may conceive FA, FP', to be equal rodii of the distances from the fulcrum at which they act. plane upgravitating wheel, and, from the relation Q. E. D. of the forces which secure the equilibrium when
“ PROP. III. Any parallel forces acting upone acting at A' and B', may deduce the relation of the forces P and Q: for it is manifest, from the straight lezer, a ill keep it in equilibrio, if those 20 lemma, that equal and contrary furces acting at forces be to each other reciprocally as the distance the points A', L', in the taugential directions Au, from the fulcrum, measured on the krer, at zhich B'i', will annihilate cuch other's cflects; while,
thuy act. from the first lerma it follows, that a force acting the lever, F the fulcrum, and AA' B'B, the parallel
“Let AFB or BAF (Fig. 6 and 7, Plate L.) te in the direction A'B, will have the same effect at
directions in which the forces P and Q act, those A as at A, and another furce acting in the di
directions being here supposed dot perpendicular rection BB' will have the same effect at B' as at B. Let the force P be represented by Ani, and
to the lever : then drawing the several lines as in the force Q by Bl; make A'd' = Al, and B'V =
the diagrams, the reasoning used in the demon. Bb; and, producing the line FA', complete the
stration of the first proposition will apply bere parallelogram of forces of all. Now, the force throughout, the same letters being placed against A'd (keeping PB in equilibrio) being decom
the corresponding parts of figures, 2, 3, 6, and 7. posed into ine ewo, A'f in die direction FA, Following then the steps of that demonstratron,
and 7.) that P:Q:: and A'u" perpendicular" to it, the latter only it will be seen (in figures
FB' : F3 : wherefore, since the similar triangles will have a tendency to produce rotation, to disturb an equilibrium, the former being ab- FBB', FA, give FB': F8 :: FB : FA, we shall sorbed by the reaction of the fixed point F. have P:Q: : FB : FA, or
whence the But, by the second lemma, the force A'a" is
Q FA' equal to B'll, that is to Q, in the case of equili- truth of this proposition likewise is manifest. brium : therefore, P:Q:: Alu : A'u". Also, the “ As to the objections which have been urged similar triangles Alu'u", ATB, give A'a' : All :: by different mathematicians against Newton's deAF :( FB'): FB; consequently (by equality,) monstration of the property of the lever, they may P FB'
be reduced to three principal ones, all of which P:Q::FB : 1%, or ; that is, the forces will, I hope, be thought of little weight, when the Q F2
preceding lemmata and propositions are duly conare reciprocally as the perpendiculars let fall sidered. from the fulcrum upon their respective directions. “ Ist, It has been objected that the principle Q: E. D.
of equal forces acting perpendicularly at the ex. “ Cask 2. Il'hen both the forces act on the same tremities of equal arms, producing an equilibrium siile of the fulcrum.
when they act in contrary directions, can by no “In this case, referring to Fig. 3, instead of means be admitted, since we are supposed to Fig. 2, the same letters being put to the corre.
be totally ignorant of the effects of weights or of sponding parts in both, the reasoning will apply forces upon any lever.' throughout, and the same conclusion will result: “ To this it may be replied, that when, in the and, as the division of the subsequent propositions theory of mechanics, we attempt to investigate into two cases will be attended with similar cir- the properties of levers, there is no occasion to cumstances, there will be no occasion to make pre-suppose that undertake this while this division formally, but merely to adapt two
* are totally ignorant of the effects of weights or figures to cach demonstration.
of forces upon any lever :' on the contrary, it may " Pror. II. If parallil forces, acting perpen
be fairly imagined that, previously to undertaking
this inquiry, it has been ascertained, either by dicularly upon a strught lever, koop it in equilibrio, experiment or from reasoning, that equal forces thuy will be lo cuch other reciprocally, as t'u distances
acting similarly, though in contrary from the fulcrum at which they act.
upon equal arms of any lever, produce an equili“ llere the same general supposition being brium ; and farther, that when equal forces act on allowed as at the commencement of the demone the arms of a lever, that which is farthest from the stration of the preceding proposition, let fulcrum will prevail; for it is only some such presuppose that the force Q measured by BV in its paratory knowledge that would in general induce own direction, is first balanced (lemma 2.) by the a theorist to inquire what is the universal invaequal force li (Fig. 4 and 5. Plate X.) acting riable law or relation which subsists between perpendicularly at the extremity of the arm FA' forces or weights acting upon a lever any - FB, the direction All produced meeting the distances, or in any directions.
Besides, every straight lever in the point A : then, making All theorist must be supposed to come to this inves= A', the force Ad acting at A, will have the sanie tigation prepared to acknowledge the truth of the efficacy (leuma 1.) in turning the system about second lemma, since he must have a previous F, as the force A'u', acting at the point d'; it acquaintance with the usual theorems relative will therefore be in cquilibrio with the force B5 to the composition and resolution of forces; and Q acting at B. Resolving the force Ai" into ought to be aware that the theorenis are very the two Af, Ali, the former has evidently no ten- confined in their utility whilst they are restricted deney to produce rotation about the fixed point to forces acting stimulantly upon a physical point; F, the latter therefore (Al) mist maintain the but that then only can they be of much essertiel equilibrium with the force Q acting at B, and service in the science of mechanics, when it bas will cursequently be the measure of the force P. been shown, that if several forces acting at once Now the similar triangles a" A1, AFA' give A1: All upon different points of a boly keep is in equi : :Fl': F1. But Au = P, Au
Q, and librio, they are such as would balance when all FX FB: so that the preceding analogy be. act at one point, their directions coatinuing rester
they demonstrate that a body is at rest by supposing being equal a!so, their products, that is to say, the it to be in motion. He then adds, " I shall therefore moments, are equal likewise, and the equilibrium give here a new and universal demonstration of the obtains. property, on the pure principles of rest and pressure, “ The truth of this may be made to flow from the or force only." This new demonstration, however, proposition that the effects of forces, when estimated is essentially the same in principle as Dr. Hamilton's in given directions, are not altered by composition or (a circumstance with which we doubt not Dr. Hut- resolution. Thus let FA, FB (Fig. 1. Pl. 96.) be ton was unacquainted); and is, therefore, liable to the equal arms at the extremities A and B, of which the same objections.
the equal forces act in the contrary directions AP, D'Alembert, Prony, and Fonsenex, have likewise BP, each tending to produce rotation about F as a given demonstrations; but they cannot be regarded centre: since, by the first lemma, the forces may be as free from objections, though we have not room to supposed to act at any points in their respective lines dilate upon them here.
of direction, let them be conceived to act simulFor our own parts we have long been of opinion, taneously at P, the point of concourse of the directhat the demonstration of our illustrious countryman, tions; and let the effects of these forces be both Sir Isaac Newton, is more simple, more obvious, estimated in the direction FP. Let the equal and more satisfactory, than any other with which distances aP, 6P, in the directions of the two forces we are acquainted ; we shall therefore here adopt represent the magnitudes of those forces estimated from No. 82 of the Repertory of Arts and Manu- ic their respective directions; then will aP cos. factures an Essay by Dr. Gregory, in which he APF=d'P, the reduced force aP, in the assumed presents Newton's demonstration in a shape rather direction FP, and bP cos. BPP=PV the contrary different from that in which it was first exbibited force reduced to the same direction. But the in the Principia, and indeed from any in which triangles FAP, FBP, right angled at A and B, it has been heretofore represented, that he may having the sides FA, FB, equal, and FP, common, more readily show its application to the case of are equal in all respects; consequently FPA = FBP, parallel forces acting on a straight lever (an and a Pcos. FPA = OP cos. FPB, or a'P = PÚ. application which it has been supposed it would Hence it follows that the two forces represented by not adrnit, exưept by a bare induction) and more aP, VP, produce an equilibrium in the assumed direceasily defend it against the most plausible objec- tion FP; and therefore, that the contrary equal tions.
forces acting at the extremities of the equal arms “ Besides the knowledge of the celebrated FA, FB, are in equilibrio: since it is a well known theorem, of the parallelogram of forces and of stati, corollary of what has been stated at the commencecal composition and resolution, the demonstration of ment of this paragraph, that, if a system of equilia Newton requires the admission of only two princi. brated forces in one direction be reduced to any other, ples, which may be stated in the form of lemmata, the forces will still be in equilibrio. thus :
“ In fact, it is only to satisfy the more scrupulous, “ LEMMA I. In every system of an invariable that this lemma has been so long dwell upon. Most form we may suppose powers or forces to be applied, students of the science of mechanics would be without changing the effects, at any points whatever satisfied of its truth as soon as they saw that no in the lines of their directions.
reason could be assigned why one force should “ This proposition is so evident as to be adopted prevail over the other. Or we might say, nearly without either proof or illustration by many writers in the language of Mr. professor Vince, when on the theory of mechanics. Indeed, it must be explaining the demonstration originally given by very manifest that (admitting the convenience of 'Archimedes, the lemma rests • upon the most application in all to be alike), if any body be self-evident principles,' which are, that · equal acted upon by a force pushing against it by means forces acting similarly at equal distances, must of an inflexible bar, the effect will be the same produce equal effects; which is manifest from upon the body at whatever point of the bar the this consideration, that when all the circum. force be exerted, the directions of the bar and of stances in the case are equal, the effects must the force coinciding: and when the body is acted be equal;' and equal mechanical effects produced upon by a force drawing by a straight inextensible in contrary senses must destroy each other's cord, the effect will be the same at whatever operation. part of the cord the soliciting force acts: it being The truth of the preceding lemmata being adsupposed in either case that the force is not mitted, as I conceive they will generally be, without employed in part in supporting the bar or cord. any hesitation, I proceed to exhibit and apply the For, in the first case, at whatever point of the bar demonstration of Newton, to the instance of bent the thrusting force Facts, an equal and contrary and straight levers (considered as divested of heavi. force F will destroy its effect; and in the second, ness) in three propositions. at whatever point of the cord the pulling force o “ Prop. I. Any two forces acting upon a bent acts, an equal and opposite force q' will annihilate ils lever in different directions, but in the same plane, effect.
will be in equilibrio, if they are to each other reci. “ LEMMA 2. Equal and contrary forces acting procally as the perpendiculars let fall from the ful. perpendicularly at the extremities of two equal arms crum upon their directions. of an angular lever (or two equal radii of a wheel), “ Case I. When the forces act on different sides will prevent it from turning upon its fulcrum or of the fulcrum. centre of motion.
“ Let the bent lever AFB (Fig. 2, Plate 96.) “ This is a legitimate deduction from the doctrine whose fulcrum is F, be conceived to form part of of moments, in which it is affirmed that the sum a plane ungravitating wheel, capable of being of the moments of forces which tend to produce moved about F as a centre of motion; and let it rotation in one direction, is equal to the sum of the be proposed to determine the ratio of two forces moments of forces which tend to produce rotation in P, Q, acting at the extremities AB of the lever, a contrary direction, when the forces are in equilibrio. in the direction AB, BB', and keeping the system For the forces being equal, and the perpendicular in equilibrio. Upon BB' the direction of one of distances of their directions from the fixed point the forces demit from F the perpendicular FP
Q FA ; that is
and from centre F with the radius FB describe
P FB an are intersecting the direction As of the force
comes P:Q :: FB' : FA, or P in the point A': then, drawing the line FA', we
the forces are to each other reciprocally, as the may conceive FA', FB', to be equal radii of the distances from the fulcrum at which they at plane ungravitating wheel, and, from the relation
Q. E. D. of the forces which secure the equilibrium when
“ Prop. III. Any parallel forces acting upon a acting at A' and B', may deduce the relation of the forces P and Q: for it is manifest, from the straight lever, will keep it in equilibrio, if there 2d lemma, that equal and contrary forces acting at forces be to each other reciprocally as the distaner. the points A', B', in the tangential directions Aut", from the fulcrum, measured on the levet, at zhich B' U', will annihilate each other's effects; while,
they act. from the first lemma it follows, that a force acting the lever, F the fulcrum, and AA' B'B, the parallel
• Let AFB or BAF (Fig. 6 and 7, Plate X) te in the direction A'B, will have the same effect at
directions in which the forces P and Q act, those A' as at A, and another force acting in the direction BB' will have the same effect at B' as at
directions being here supposed not perpendicular B. Let the force P be represented by Aa, and
to the lever: then drawing the several liges as in the force Q by Bb; make A' = Aa, and BV the diagrams, the reasoning used in the demona Bb; and, producing the line FA', complete the
stration of the first proposition will apply here parallelogram of forces f a'. Now, the force throughout, the same letters being placed against A'« (keeping BV in equilibrio) being decom- the corresponding parts of figures, 2, 3, 6, and 7. posed into the two, A'f in the direction FA, Following then the steps of ibat demonstratrop, and Ala" perpendicular to it, the latter only it will be seen (in figures 6 and 7.) that P:Q::
FB' : FB : wherefore, since the similar triangles will have a tendency to produce rotation, to disturb an equilibrium, the former being ab- FBB', FAß, give FB’: FB :: FB: FA, we shall sorbed by the reaction of the fixed point F. have P:Q:: FB : FA, ora=
whence the But, by the second lemma, the force A'a" is
Q FA' equal tó B'U, that is to Q, in the case of equili- truth of this proposition likewise is manifest. brium : therefore, P:Q:: A'a' : A'a". Also, the “ As to the objections which have been urged similar triangles A'a'a', A'ff, give A'd' : Alu" :: by different mathematicians against Newton's de A'F :( = FB') : FB; consequently (by equality,) monstration of the property of the lever, they may P FB
be reduced to three principal ones, all of which P:Q:: FB : FB, or
; that is, the forces will, I hope, be thought of little weight, when the are reciprocally as the perpendiculars let fall preceding lemmata and propositions are duly confrom the fulcrum upon their respective directions. Ist, It has been objected that the principle Q. E. D.
of equal forces acting perpendicularly at the ex“ Case 2. When both the forces act on the same tremities of equal arms, producing an equilibrium side of the fulcrum.
when they act in contrary directions, can by no “ In this case, referring to Fig. 3, instead of
means be admitted, since we are supposed to Fig. 2, the same letters being put to the corre
be totally ignorant of the effects of weights or of
forces sponding parts in both, the reasoning will apply upon any lever.' throughout, and the same conclusion will result: “To this it may be replied, that when, in the and, as the division the subsequent propositions theory of mechanics, we attempt to investigate into two cases will be attended with similar cir. the properties of levers, there is no occasion to cumstances, there will be no occasion to make pre-suppose that undertake this while ve this division formally, but merely to adapt two * are totally ignorant of the effects of weights or figures to each demonstration.
of forces upon any lever :' on the contrary, it may • Prop. II. If parallel forces, acting perpen- this inquiry, it has been ascertained, either by
be fairly imagined that, previously to undertaking dicularly upon a straight lever, kcep it in equilibrio, experiment or from reasoning, that equal forces they will be to cach other reciprocally, as the distances
acting similarly, though in contrary seuses, from the fulcrum at which they act.
upon equal arms of any lever, produce an equili16 Here the same general supposition being brium ; and farther, that when equal forces act on allowed as at the commencement of the demon. the arms of a lever, that which is farthest from the stration of the preceding proposition, let fulcrum will prevail; for it is only some such presuppose that the force Q measured by BV in its paratory knowledge that would in general induce own direction, is first balanced (lemma 2.) by the a theorist to inquire what is the universal invaequal force A'a' (Fig. 4 and 5. Plate X.) acting riable law or relation which subsists between perpendicularly at the extremity of the arm FA' forces or weights acting upon a lever any = FB, the direction A'a produced meeting the distances, or in any directions.
Besides, every straight lever in the point A : then, making Aa' theorist must be supposed to come to this inves=A'u', the force Aa" acting at A, will have the same tigation prepared to acknowledge the truth of the efficacy (lemma 1.) in turning the system about second lemma, since he must have a previous F, as the force A'd', acting at the point A'; it acquaintance with the usual theorems relative will therefore be in equilibrio with the force Bh = to the composition and resolution of forces; and Q acting at B. Resolving the force Aa" into ought to be aware that the theorems are very the two Af, Aa, the former has evidently no ten- confined in their utility whilst they are restricted dency to produce rotation about the fixed point to forces acting stimulantly upon a physical paint; F, the latter therefore (Aa) must maintain the but that then only can they be of much essential equilibrium with the force acting at B, and service in the science of mechanics, when it bas will consequently be the measure of the force P. been shown, that if several forces acting at once Now the similar triangles a“ Au, AFA' give Aa : Anh upon different points of a body keep it in equi:: FN: FA. But Aa P, Aa' Bb Q, and librio, they are such as would balance when all FA FB: so that the preceding analogy be. act at one point, their directions conunuing respec
LEWIS, one of the most considerable of the These, with the fortifications and the sepulWestern Islands of Scotland, which being chres, have been urged as an argument, that in connected by a narrow isthmus with Harris, this country was formerly inhabited by a people
forms but one island, which is about 60 different from the present Indians, and further
The lakes and LEXINGTON, a towu of the state of Massastreams abound with salmon, large red trout, chusets, celebrated for being the place where &c. and there are good fisheries on the coast, hostilities cominenced between the British which is annually visited by millions of her. troops and the Americans, in April, 1775. It rings. So immense are the shoals of dog-fish is 12 miles N.W. of Boston. which pursue the herrings, that their dorsal fins LEXIPHARMICS. (from anyw, to terminate, are sometimes seen like a thick bush of sedges and papuaxov, poison.) Antidotes: alexipharabove the water. Stornaway is the only town mics: medicines which resist or destroy the in Lewis. This island belongs Ross-shire. power of poison. There are several inferior isles and rocks com. LEXIPYRE'TICS. (from anyw, to terminate, prehended under Inverness-shire. The whole and Tupetos, a fever.) Febrifuges: medicines sies 20 miles N. W. of the Isle of Skye. that destroy or shorten the duration of fevers.
LEWISBURGH, a town of Northumber. LEY. 8. Ley, lee, lay, are all from the Saxon land county, in Pennsylvania, seated on the leag, a field or pasture (Gibson). Susquehannah, 140 miles N.W. of Philadel- LEYDEN, a city of the United Provinces, phia.
in Holland, now called the kingdom of HolLEWISTOWN, the county-town of Miff- land, four miles and a half in circumference. lin, in Pennsylvania, seated on the Juniatta, It has eight gates, and contains 50 islands, and 150 miles W.N.W. of Philadelphia. Lon. 78. 145 bridges, the greatest part built of freestone, 13 W. Lat. 40. 35 N.
The principal church is a superb structure, LEWISHAM, a village in Kent, on the whose high roof is supported by three rows of river Ravensbourn, five miles S.E. of London. columns. There are several large hospitals, The church is an elegant new edifice. and a university, which has generally 200 stuLEX, law. See Law.
dents, though there are but two colleges; for LEXICOʻGRAPHER.8. (Arçıxovand ypaow.) the scholars board in the town, and have no A writer of dictionaries; a harmless drudge, dress to distinguish thein. The school consists that busies himself in tracing the original, and of a large pile of brick building, three stories detailing the signification of words (Watts). high; in the uppermost of which the famous
LEXICO'GRAPHY. 8. (notxov and yacow.) Elzevir had his printing-office. Adjoining to The art or practice of writing dictionaries. the school is the physic-garden, where the pro
LEXICON(Arçıxov)the same with dictionary. fessor reads lectures in botany. The library The word is chiefly used in speaking of Greek contains curious manuscripts; and the theatre dictionaries : it is derived from the Greek word of anatomy is one of the finest in Europe. astrs, diction; of adww, I speak. Thus we have Here are manufactures of the best cloths and Hederic's, Scapula's, Parkhurst's Lexicon, &c. stuffs in Holland. Leyden is famous for the See Dictionary and ENCYCLOPÆDIA. long siege it sustained in 1573, against the
LEXINGTON, the capital of the state of Spaniards. It is seated near the ancient bed Kentucky, and county of Fayette. Near this of the Rhine, four miles E. of the German town are to be seen curious sepulchres, full of Ocean, and 20 S.W. of Amsterdam. Lon. 4. human skeletons, which were thus fabricated: 33 E. Lat. 51. 10 N. first on the ground were laid large broad stones; LEYDEN PAJAL, in electricity, is a glass on these were placed the bodies, separated from phial or jar, coated both withiri and without each other by broad stones, covered with others, with tinfoil, or some other conducting sub. which served as a basis for the next arrange. stance, that it may be charged, and employed ment of bodies. In this order they are built, in a variety of useful and entertaining experiwithout mortar, growing still narrower to the ments. Or even flat glass, or any other shape, height of a man. This method of burying so coated and used, has also received the same appears to be totally different from that now denomination. Also a vacuum produced in practised by the Indians. In the neighbourhood such a jar, &c. has been named the Leyden also are remains of two ancient fortifications, vacuum. with ditches and bastions; one containing The Leyden phial has been so called, because about six acres of land, and the other nearly it is said that M. Canæus, a native of Leydeo, three. Pieces of earthen vessels have also been first contrived, about the close of the year 1745, ploughed up near Lexington; a manufacture to accumulate the electrical power in glass, and with which the Indians were never acquainted. use it in this way. But Dr. Priestley asserts that VOL, VI.
ments is the temple and in other pieces. Tley LELTYCHL, a tus of Bior'i iste appie tirane w tie stady of tse lai, circle of Caris, erens : ausein ani were the oed. zary jadges of the country, 11th, battestaban szeretty but aivars saborsirate to the priests. Their the Hassita, te soe tus concil: susistence was the titkes of curt, frit, and is 22. E. :C 2016 EP2924 eattie, toroazboat Israei; bat the priests were LECTENHOEK (139335) i ciekari eatted to a terth of their tithes, by way of Datch piopter, was. Des 1632 6ret-fruits to the Lord. Ezht-and-forty cities apci aoned a great repc250154 ail were assigned for t.e residence of the Levites, Earope, byb'serprises 19: SCT is of which the priests claimed thirteen, sis nataral bistory, by Dass or the Etsage. whereof sere chissen for cities of refuze. Trey He particolarly exceedia si za usik were consecrated before they entered upon microscopes and speczc.es; and be as a their ministry, by sharing their fiesh, washing member of most of the Lazary scieties of their clothes, and sprinkling with tue water of Earoge, to whom he seco car meurs expiation.
Tlose in the Pailosophiai Irusseties, and LEVITICAL. & 'from Jerite.) Belonging in the Paris Memoirs erted to many to the lesites; making part of the religion of volaines; the former were extractes, asi p75the Jews ( Ayliffe).
lished at Leyden, in 179. He died in 11-3, at LEVITICIS, á canonical book of the Old 91 years of age. Testament, being the tuird of the Pentateuch 1', LEVY. P. &. lirer, Freed.) I. T) of Moses: thus called, because it contains prin- raise ; to bring together men (Derici). 2. To cipally the laws and regulations relating to the raise money (Clarendon). 3. To raise mar(Vi). priests, the Levites, and sacrifices; for which Le'ry. 3. (from the verb.) 1. I be xt of reason the Hebrews call it the priests' law. raising money or men (Addison. 2. War
LENITY. 8. (leritas, Latin.) 1. Ligl.tness; raised (Shakspeare). not heavinees ( Bint.). 2. Inconstancy; change- LEWARDEN, a popilons and strong town ableness (Hooker). 3. Cnsteadiness; laxity of of the Unitei Provinces, capital of Froland. mind (Mil.). 4. Idle pleasure; vanity (Calany). The buildings, as well public as private, are 5. Trifling gaiety; kant of seriousness (Att.) magnificent. I: has several canals in the
LECK, a town of Switzerland, in the Va. streets, which are a great assistance to its lais, situated about a quarter of a league from trade; especially as they are continues nuionis the Rhone; the principal place of a dixain: to the sea, but to the niost considerable tutros behind it is a lofty mountain, and on the sides in the province. It is 27 miles N.o Groninare two brooks, which run into deep beds. It gen, and 65 .. by E. of Amsterdam. Lon... contains two churches, and a large palace of 32 E. Lat. 53. X. the bishops of Sion. Two leagues to the north LEWD. a. (læpede, Saron ) I. Lay; not are some celebrated baths, said to be beneficial clerical: obsolete (Daries). 2. Wicked; bad; in rheumatisms, diseases of the skin, &c.: dissolute (Il'hitrit). 3. Lustful; libidinous twenty miles E. Sion.
(Shakspeare.) LETSDEX (John), a celebrated philolo. LENDLY. ad. (from levd.) I. Wickedir; ger, born in 1621. He studied the learned lan- naughtily (Shak.). 2. Libidinously; lastguages and mathematics at Utrecht; and fully (Dryden). then went to Amsterdam, to converse with LEWDNESS. 8. (from lered.) Listful the rabbis, and perfect himself in the Hebrew licentiousness (Dryden). tongue. After which he was professor of He. LEWDSTER. Š. (from levd.) A lecher ; brew at Ctrecht, where he acquired a great one given to criminal pleasures (Shakspeare). reputation, and died in 1699. He wrote many LEWENSTEIN, a town of Franconia, cavaluable works; the principal of which are, i. pital of a county of the same name, with a forOnomasticum Sacrum, 8vo. 2. Clavis He- tress, 10 miles É. of Hailbron, and 30 X. X. E. braica & Philologica Veteris Testainenti, 4to. of Stutgard. Lon. 9. 38 E. Lat. 49. 15 X. 3. Novi Testamenti Clavis Græca, cum Anno. LEWENTZ, a town of Cpper Hungary, in tationibus Philologicis, 8vo. 4. Compendium the county of Gran, and on a river of the saine Biblicum Veteris Testamenti, 8vo. 5. Com- name, wliere the Turks were defeated in 16 11. pendium Græcuin Novi Testamenti; the best It is 23 miles N. E. of Gran, Lon. 18. 31 E. edition of which is that of London, in 1668, Lat. 18. 21 N. 12mo. 6. Philologus Hebræus, Ito. 7. Phi- LEWES, a borough in Sussex, with a Jologus Hebræo mixtus, 4to. 8. Philologus market on Saturday. It contains six parish Hlebrao-Græcus, 4to. 9. Notes on Jonas, churches, and is seated on the Ouse, which Joel, Hosca, &c. He also gave correct edi. is navigable here for barges. The assizes are tions of several learned works.
sometimes hield here; and it sends two memLEUTKIRK, a free imperial town of Sua- bers to parliament. Near this town was fought bia, seated on a rivulet that falls into the Iller, a battle in 1263, when Henry III, and his son 22 miles N. E. of Lindau. Lon. 10. 12 E. prince Edward (afterward "Edward I.) were Lat. 47. 53 N.
made prisoners by the earl of Leicester. Lewis LEUTMERITZ, a town of Bohemia, capi. is situated at the edge of the South Downs, tal of a circle of the same name, with a bisliop's on the declivity of a hill, on which are the re
It is scated on the Elbe, 30 miles N. W. mains of an ancient castle. It is 30 miles E. of Prague, and 10 S. E. of Dresden, Lon. 14. of Chichester, and 19 S. of London. Lop, 0.5 31 E. Lat. 30. 30 N.
E. Lat. 50. 55. N.