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named, there are several houses of correction, and sundry lock-up houses, as they are called.
As pauperism is the great and fruitful source of low vice and of crime in London, it may be interesting here to give the following comprehensive extract on this subject :
“ The number of persons relieved permanently in London on an average of the three years, 1816-18-19, was 36,034 : occasionally, being parishioners, 81,282; total relieved, 117,316; so that the number of persons relieved from the poor-rates appears to have been nearly twelve in each 100 of the resident population--while the number relieved in 1803 was nearly 74 in each 100; and that, while the population has increased about one sixth, the number of parishioners relieved has advanced from 7 to 11} in each 100. The total of the money raised by the poor-rates was 679,2841., being at the rate of 138. 51d. per head on the population, or 2s. 5d. in the pound, of the total amount of the sum of 5,603,0571., as assessed to the property-tax in 1815. The amount raised by the same rates in 1813 was 471,9381., being at the rate of 10s. 111d. per head. This, therefore, exhibits an increase of nearly one half in the amount of money raised to relieve paupers, and 2s. 6fd. on the rate per head on the population. This increase of pauperism has been marked by a decrease of FRIENDLY SOCIETIES. The number of persons belonging to such societies appeared to be, for the three years 1817-18-19, nearly five in the 100 of the resident population ; a decrease, when compared with the abstract of 1803, of nearly 3. in each 100.
“ To cure or alleviate the evil of Mendicity and VAGRANCY, the House of Commons promoted inquiries by a committee; and the report developed such a body of evidence, as to ascertain, beyond all possibility of doubt, the gross and monstrous frauds practised by mendicants in the capital, and in its immediate neighbourhood.
“The following facts were ascertained :—That considerable sums of money have been found in the pockets and secreted in the clothes of beggars, when brought before magistrates ; that beggars make great profits by changing their clothes two or three times a day, and receiving money which was intended for others ; and that a blind man with a dog has collected thirty shiliings a day, and others from three shillings to seven, eight, and even more, per day. There are two houses in St. Giles's which are frequented by considerably more than two hundred beggars. There they have their clubs, and when they meet they drink and feed well, read the papers, and talk politics! Nobody dares to intrude into their clubs except he is a beggar, or introduced by one ; the singularity of the spectacle would otherwise draw numbers around them, which would hurt the trade. Their average daily collections amount to from three to five shillings, two shillings and sixpence of which, it is supposed, they each spend at night, besides sixpence for a bed. A negro beggar retired some time ago to the West Indies, with a fortune of 1,5001. Beggars have said they go through forty streets a day, and that it is a poor street that does not yield twopence ; and that it is a bad day that does not yield eight shillings and more. Beggars make great use of children in practising upon the feelings of the humane. Children are sent out with an order
not to return without a certain sum. One man will collect three, four, or five children from different parents, paying sixpence or ninepence for each during the day. Some children have been regularly let out by the day for two shillings and sixpence as the price of their hire ; a child that is shockingly deformed is worth four shillings a day, and
Before the Commons' Committee an instance was stated of an old woman who keeps a night school for the purpose of instructing children in the street language.'
" Mr. Martin, a gentleman residing in Westminster, stated, as the result of his inquiries some years ago, the number of beggars about the metropolis to be 15,000. But the committee, from the evidence laid before them, conceived the number to be much larger.
“Beggars evade the vagrant act by carrying matches, and articles of little intrinsic value, for sale. There is no form of distress which they do not assume, in order to practise upon the humanity of stran
“ In Mr. Martin's calculation, formed thirty years ago, there were, out of 15,000 beggars, 5,300 Irish, but Mr. Martin's estimate of the whole number is much under the facts of the present moment. Much pains were taken in 1815, by a remarkably humane gentleman, to ascertain the number of mendicants in London only, and the result was, that there were '6,876 adults, and 7,288 children, making the total of 14,164.
," Mr. Martin's estimates of their numbers, and of the sums annually extorted from the public by their importunities, follow : Parochial individuals,
5,991 Total (including 9,288 children) 15,288 “ The amount of sums gained by them was not estimated at a greater rate than what may be deemed absolutely necessary for the maintenance of such a body of people, although in beggary, and the succeeding low sums were accordingly fixed upon :For 6,000 grown persons, at 6d. a day, each, lodging and clothes inclusive,
54,7501.00 For 9,288 children, at 3d. per day, clothes inclusive,
42,3761. 10 0 Gross annual expense,
97,1261. 10 0." A writer in the London Quarterly Review estimates that in Great Britain the paupers compose one sixth part of the whole population; in Holland and Belgium, one seventh; in Switzerland, one tenth; in France and German Confederacy, one twentieth; in Austria, Italy, Sweden, Denmark, and Portugal, one twenty-fifth; in Prussia and Spain, one thirtieth. The number of paupers in all the poorhouses in the State of New-York on the 1st December, 1834, with a population of over 2,000,000, was only 6,457, including 1,977 in the Almshouse of Ne-wYork City. Public relief was, however, extended in other forms, to 26,331 persons, but in general to a very moderate extent. Of these, more than half resided in the City of New York. There is probably a greater proportion of paupers n the State of New York than in any other state in the union, owing principally to its being a general rendezvous for foreigners.
THE TONGUES AND A MIRACLE.
In December, 1832, while I sat attending on divine ser, vice in the church of the Rev. Mr. Blunt, Chelsea, and the clerk was reading one of the lessons of the day, I was startled by what seemed to me a sudden and violent transition of the reader's voice and manner from his previous unimpassioned tones, and not inappropriate elocution, into an elevated, loud, and astounding cry of alarm! In a moment the whole congregation were upon their feet, myself among the restall so quick that I did not observe the mo, tion, nor could I have believed it, but that I saw them and felt myself to be standing. What could be in the man ?thought I. I looked at him, and his head was turned over his right shoulder, his face lifted towards the ceiling, and a continuous stream of the most startling and alarming exclamations seemed to be pouring from his lips, in a perfect and overwhelming torrent, in the sharpest explosions of the highest falsette, or scream, and with all the power, of which the vocal organs of man might be supposed capable. All eyes were directed to the same quarter with his. Is it fire ? thought I. I could see nothing of that, nor did the alarm seem to be of that import. The congregation hustled, the screams of women and children burst upon the scene, and the louder calls of men here and there intermingled and seemed to be demanding no one knew what-the startling and alarning voice of the chief speaker still above and distinct from the rest, drowning the general confusion and uproar, sharper and louder still, more earnest and impetuous, and still more alarming. What could it be! I thought he seemed to see a vision--that he imagined the opening of the final judgment scene! And all this was merely the enactment of the moment, and still continuing. The uproar, and screams, and firmer call from the voices of men, increased. Women sunk down and fainted in different parts of the church, and some rushed out into the street. The eye of the reader was still fixed in the same direction, and all this while I had imagined the alarming voice was his. But in looking for wha he seemed to see, I discovered a man, apparently perck ud on the seat, with extended and brandishing arms, on the reader's right in the gallery, his wisible organs of speeclı hard at work, and thereby demon
strating, that he was taking a conspicuous part, and was not unlikely the author of this uproarous scene. As soon as the affrighted gentlemen near him had recovered sufficiently to think what could or ought to be done, a few hands seized upon the noisy stentor, and began to perform the office of ejecting him from the church. But nothing daunted, he screamed and roared the louder, and threw his hands and arms, like a maddened and exasperated pugilist, in every direction, #0 sweep his circle clean ; still pouring out his astounding cries. He was soon, however, in the hands of some men stouter than himself, who bore him along through the frightened crowd as fast as was convenient; but, by means of his own determination not to obey their motions, that was slow enough. He endangered all the heads and bonnets not a little that lay within the sweep of his arms, in his unwilling progress towards the door, and through the whole length of the church; still crying out with greater and almost expiring effort. A more frantic madman, I should imagine, hardly ever exhibited a more frantic spectacle. And when passing the end of the gallery, where I happened to be, his cry was~" Judgment ! ment! judgment!" continuously, with all his powers, till he was out of the church, and I heard him in the street.
He was a good-looking man, well dressed, and wore spectacles. When he was fairly ejected, the congregation began to try to be composed. Some sat down, many went out, and the ladies and children, leaning and hanging on their parents, husbands, or brothers, left the church in no inconsiderable numbers. Some were too weak to go, and water and resuscitating drugs were brought to revive them. As fast as they recovered they retired. The service was resumed, every one in fear of faintings and hysterics. And they were not long disappointed, before a genuine and startling hysteric cry burst from a woman in the gallery, and she kept it up, though not so loud as the madman, yet scarcely less to the discomposure of the congregation, till she was fairly clear of the church. The sympathies of the assembly by this time were so completely beyond control, that a person of weak nerves could hardly endure the state of apprehension that peryaded the common mass.
The least symptom of fainting, and they were not unfrequent, became startling. In the middle of Mr. Blunt's sermon, another voice suddenly broke out from below. It proved, however, only another case of hysterics, and the woman was carried out, But the effect of it was frightful, when one looked upon the assembly, and saw so many faces whitened with fear. Not five minutes after, a young woman directly behind me fell into hysterics, and was carried oụt. And really, it seemed for the moment that the whole congregation, men and all, would go into hysterics, There were only three palpable
cases, however. But there were very many apparent attempts at it. In the confusion of the first scene, after the author of this mischief was out, and before the people were seated, I perceived a lady by my side, pale and trembling, whom I thought I ought to know. She seemed to have come to me for protection. But her countenance was so entirely discomposed, although I was well acquainted with her, I was obliged to think hard before I could recognise her. “This is quite frightful, indeed, madam,” said L. But the poor thing could not answer. She nodded assent, and tried to smile, but with an ill grace. Next I perceived her brother stood by her side : and I said—“I am glad you have such good company.”
And what was all this? Why, it was a very benevolent attempt to edify us with an example of the “ Tongues !" He was a clergyman, too, of the Church of England. And the fellow had been so shrewd in his calculations, and knowing the lessons for the day, that he interrupted the reader in the midst of the 23d chapter of the Acts; so that when order was restored, and the service resumed, what should come first upon us but this: “If a spirit or an angel hath spoken to him, let us not fight against God.” And thus this speaker of “unknown tongues" had his seal and “confirmation strong as proofs of holy writ.”
This poor deluded man was retained in custody, brought to examination on Monday, and being convicted under the statute against brawling in churches, was committed, as I understood, for want of bail.
The young man had been attending that morning on the enactments of the Rev. Edward Irving, and as would seem, had become infected. I afterward heard that he proved to be thoroughly deranged, and that the calamity had plunged a respectable family and their connexions into the deepest affliction.
Akin to this is the following miracle, which I was admitted to witness, in 1834 :
I ought perhaps to say, it was signified to me that the parties concerned expressed a wish that no pains should be taken to give the matter publicity; by which I understood that they wished to avoid that kind of notice which would identify them in London with the Irvingites. The matter of course must have had a certain extent of notoriety, even there, as there were many witnesses of different classes, none of whom, I believo, were particularly enjoined to secrecy. It had already been extensively known, as a period. ical event, although I never heard of it before. I trust I am not violating confidence in the record I here offer for so re