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contrivance had ever before been heard of, to give origin and currency to the report. The ecclesias. tics of the place would, it is probable, favour the story, inasmuch as it advanced the honour of their image and church. And if they patronised it, no other person at Saragossa, in the middle of the last century, would care to dispute it. The story likewise coincided, not less with the wishes and preconceptions of the people, than with the interests of their ecclesiastical rulers : so that there was pre. judice backed by authority, and both operating upon extreme ignorance, to account for the success of the imposture. If, as I have suggested, the contrivance of an artificial limb was then new, it would not occur to the cardinal himself to suspect it; es. pecially under the carlessness of mind with which he heard the tale, and the little inclination he felt to scrutinize or expose its fallacy.
III. The miracles related to have been wrought at the tomb of the abbe Paris, admit in general of this solution, The patients who frequented the tomb were so affected by their devotion, their expectation, the place, the solemnity, and, above all, by the sympathy of the surrounding multitude, that many of them were thrown into violent convulsions, which convulsions, in certain instances, produced a removal of disorders depending upon obstruction, We shall, at this day, have the less difficulty in admitting the above account, because it is the very same thing as hath lately been experienced in the operations of animal magnetism; and the report of the French Physicians upon that mysterious reme. dy is very applicable to the present consideration, viz. that the pretenders to the art, by working upon the imaginations of their patients, were frequently able to produce convulsions; that convulsions so produced, are amongst the most powerful, but, at the same time most uncertain and unmanageable applications to the human frame which can be em ployed.
Čircumstances, which indicate this explication in the case of the Parisian miracles, are the follows ing:
1. They were tentative. Out of many thousand sick, infirm, and diseased persons, who resorted to
the tomb, the professed history of the miracles con. tains only nine cures.
2. The convulsions at the tomb are admitted.
3. The diseases were, for the most part, of that sort which depends upon inaction and obstruction, as dropsies, palsies, and some tumours.
4. The cures were gradual; some patients attending many days, some several weeks, and some several months.
5. The cures were many of them incomplete.
So that all the wonder we are called upon to account for, is, that, out of an almost innumerable multitude which resorted to the tomb for the cure of their complaints, and many of whom were there agitated by strong convulsions, a very small proportion experienced a beneficial change in their constitution, especially in the action of the nerves and glands.
Some of the cases alleged, do not require that we should have recourse to this solution. The first case in the catalogue is scarcely distinguishable from the progress of a natural recovery. It was that of a young man, who laboured under an inflammation of one eye, and had lost the sight of the other. The inflamed eye was relieved, but the blindness of the other remained. The inflammation had before been abated by medicine; and the young man, at the time of his attendance at the tomb, was using a lotion of laudanum. And, what is a still more material part of the case,the inflammation after some interval returned. Another case was that of a young man who had lost his sight by the puncture of an awl, and the discharge of the
aqueous humour through the wound. The sight, which had been gradually returning, was much improved during his visit to the tomb, that is, probably, in the same degree in which the discharged humour was replaced by fresh secretions. And it is observable, that these two are the only cases which, from their nature, seem unlikely to be affected by convulsions,
* The reader will find these particulars verified in the detail, by the accurate inquiries of the present bishop of Sarum, in his Criterian of Miracles, p. 132, &c.
In one material respect I allow that the Parisian miracles were different from those related by Tacitus, and from the Spanish miracle of the cardinal de Retz. They had not, like them, all the power and all the prejudice of the country on their side to begin with. They were alleged by one party against another, by the Jansenists against the Jesuits. These were of course opposed and examin. ed by their adversaries. The consequence of which examination was, that many falsehoods were detected, that with something really extraordinary much fraud appeared to be mixed. And if some of the cases upon which designed misrepresentation could not be charged, were not at the time satisfac: torily accounted for, it was because the efficacy of strong spasmodic affections was not then sufficiently known. Finally, the cause of Jansenism did not rise by the miracles, but sunk, although the miracles had the anterior persuasion of all the numerous adherents of that cause to set out with.
These, let us remember, are the strongest examples, which the history of ages supplies. In none of them was the miracle unequivocal ; by none of them, were established prejudices and persuasions overthrown; of none of them, did the credit make its way in opposition to authority and power; by none of them, were many induced to commit themselves and that in contradiction to prior opinions, to a life of mortification, danger, and sufferings; none were called upon to attest them, at the expense of their fortunes and safety.*
* It may be thought that the historian of the Parisiau miracles, M. Montgeron, forms an exception to this last assertion. He presepted his book (with a suspicion, as it should seem, of the danger of what he was doing) to the king, and was shortly afterward committed to prison, from which be never came out. Had the miracles been unequivocal, and had M. Montgeron been originally convinced by them, I should have allowed this exception. It would have stood, I think, alone, in the argument of our adversaries. But, beside wbat has been observed of the dubious nature of the miracles, the account which M. Montgeron has himself left of his gonversion, shows both the state of his mind, and that his persuasion was not built upor external miracles.- “Scarcely had he entered the churchyard, when he was struck (he tells us) with awe and reverepcr, having never before beard prayers pronounced with so mnch ardour and transport as he observed amongst the supplicants at the tomb. Upon this, throw
PROPHECY. ISAIAH lii. 13. liii. Behold, my servant shall deal prudently; he shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high. As many were astonished at thee, (his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men ;) so shall he sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their mouths at him : for that which had not been told them, shall they see ; and that which they had not heard, shall they consider.—Who hath believed our report ? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed ? For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground; he hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. He is despised and rejected of men, a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid, as it were, our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not. Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows : yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he opened not his mouth. He was taken from prison and from judgment; and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living : for the transgression of my people, was he stricken. And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death ; because he had done no vio. lence, neither was any deceit in his mouth. Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him ; he hath put him io grief. When thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my rightecus servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors, and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.”.
inguimseli upon his knees, resting his elbows on the tomb-stone, and covering his face with his hands, he spake the following prayer : -0 thou, by whose intercession so many miracles are said to be performed, if it be true that a part of thee surviveth the grave, and that thou hast influence with the Almighty, have pity on the darkness of my understanding, and through his mercy obtain the removal of it."
Having prayed thus, many thoughts (as he with) began to open themselves to his mind, and so profound was his attention, that he continued on nis knees four bours, not in the least disturbed by the vast crowd of surrounding supplicants. During this time, all the arguments which he ever heard or read in favour of Christianity, occurred to him with so much force, and seemed so strong and convincing, that he went home fully satisfied of the truth of religion in general, and of the holiness and power of that person who (as he supposed) had engaged the Divine Goodness to enlighten his undert standing so suddenly." Douglas's Crit. of Mir. p. 214,
These words are extant in a book, purporting to contain the predictions of a writer who lived seven centuries before the Christian era.
That material part of every argument from prophecy, namely, that the words alleged were actually spoken or written before the fact to which they are applied took place, or could by any natural means be foreseen, is, in the present instance, incontestable. The record comes out of the custody of adversaries. The Jews, as an ancient father well observed, are our librarians. The passage is in their copies, as well as in ours. With many attempts to explain it away, none has ever been made by them to discredit its authenticity.
And, what adds to the force of the quotation is,