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did he appoint that it should be heard once only, or twice, or often, but that laying aside all other works, we should meet together every week to hear it read, and gain a perfect understanding of it.”

XXX. [p. 465.] Acts xxi. 23. “We have four men, which have a vow on them; them take, and purify thyself with them, that they may shave their heads."

Joseph. de Bell. 1. xi. c. 15. “It is customary for those who have been afflicted with some distemper, or have laboured under any other difficulties, to make a vow thirty days before they offer sacrifices, to abstain from wine, and shave the hair of their heads."

Ib. v. 24. Them take, and purify thyself with them, and be at charges with them, that they may shave their heads."

Joseph. Antiq. 1. xix. c. 6. “ He (Herod Agrippa) coming to Jerusalem, offered up sacrifices of thanksgiving, and omitted nothing that was prescribed by the law. For which reason he also ordered a good number of Nazarites to be shaved." We here find that it was an act of piety amongst the Jews, to defray for those who were under the Na. zaritic vow the expenses which attended its completion ; and that the phrase was, “ that they might be shaved." The custom and the expression are both remarkable, and both in close conformity with the Scripture account.

XXXI. [p. 474.) 2. Cor. xi. 24. “ Of the Jews, five times received I forty stripes, save one.

Joseph. Antiq. iv. c. 8. sect. 21. “ He that acts contrary hereto, let him receive forty stripes, wanting one, from the public officer.”

The coincidence here is singular, because the law allowed forty stripes : Forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed.” Deut. xxv. 3. It proves that the author of the Epistle to the Corinthians was guided, not by books, but by facts; because his statement agrees with the actual custom, even when that custom deviated from the written law, and from what he must have learnt by consulting the Jewish code, as set forth in the Old Testament,

XXXII. [p. 490.) Luke ii. 12. also publicans to be baptized." From this quota

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tion, as well as from the history of Levi or Matthew (Luke v. 29.) and of Zaccheus (Luke xix. 2.) it appears, that the publicans or tax-gatherers were, frequently at least, if not always, Jews : which, as the country was then under a Roman government, and the taxes were paid to the Romans, was a circumstance not to be expected. That it was the truth, however, of the case, appears, from a short passage of Josephus.

De Bell. lib. ii. c. 14. sect. 45. But, Florus not restraining these practices by his authority, the chief men of the Jews, among whom was John the publican, not knowing well what course to take, wait upon Florus, and give him eight talents of sil. ver to stop the building."

XXXIII. [p. 496.) Acts xxii. 25.“ And as they bound him with thongs, Paul said unto the centurion that stood by, Is it lawful for you to scourge a man that is a Roman, and uncondemned ?"

“ Facinus est zinciri civem Romanum; scelus verberari.Cic. in Verr.

“ Cædebatur virgis, in medio foro Messanæ, civis Romanus, Judices : cum interea nullus gemitus, nulla vox alia, istius miseri inter dolorem crepitumque plagarum audiebatur, nisi hæc, Civis Romanus

XXXIV. [p. 513.) Acts xxii. 27. “ Then the chief captain came, and said unto him; (Paul), Tell me, art thou a Roman? He said, Yea.” The cir. cumstance here to be noticed is, that a Jew was a Roman citizen.

Joseph. Antiq. lib. xiv. c. 10. sect. 13. “ Lucius Lentulus, the consul, declared, I have dismissed from the service the Jewish Roman citizens, who observe the rites of the Jewish religion at Ephesus.”

Ib. ver. 28.“ And the chief captain answered, With a great sum obtained I this freedom.

Dio Cassius, lib. Ix. “ This privilege, which had been bought formerly at a great price, became so cheap, that it was commonly said, a man might be made a Roman citizen for a few pieces of broken glass.”

XXXV. [p. 621.) Acts xxviii. 16. " And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the gaurd; but Paul


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was suffered to dwell by himself, with a soldier that kept him."

With which join ver. 20. “For the hope of Is. rael, I am bound with this chain."

“ Quemadmodum eadem catena et custodiam et nilitem copulat; sic ista, quæ tam dissimilia sunt, pariter incedunt.” Seneca, Ep. v.

“ Proconsul æstimare solet, utrum in carcerem recipienda sit persona, an militi tradenda." Ulpian. 1. i. sect. De Custod. et Exhib. Reor.

In the confinement of Agrippa by the order of Tiberius, Antonia managed, that the centurion who presided over the gaurds, and the soldier to whom Agrippa was to be bound, might be men of mild character. (Joseph. Antiq. lib. xxiii. c. 7. sect. 5.) After the aceession of Caligula, Agrippa also, like Paul, was suffered to dwell, yet as a prisoner, in his own house.

XXXVI. (p. 531.) Acts xxvii. 1. And when it was determined that we should sail into Italy, they delivered Paul, and certain other prisoners, unto one named Julius." Since not only Paul, but certain other prisoners were sent by the same ship into Italy, the text must be considered as carrying with it an intimation, that the sending of persons from Judea to be tried at Rome, was an ordinary practice. That in truth it was so, is made out by a variety of examples which the writings of Josephus furnish ; and, amongst others, by the following, which comes near both to the time and the subject of the instance in the Acts. “ Felix, for some slight offence, bound and sent to Rome several priests of his acquaintance, and very good and honest men, to answer for themselves to Cæsar.” Joseph. in Vit. sect. 3.

XXXVII. [p. 539.] Acts xi. 27. “ And in these days came prophets from Jerusalem unto Antioch ; and there stood up one of them, named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be a great dearth throughout all the world (or all the country); which came to pass in the days of Claudius Cæsar.

Joseph. Antiq. 1. xx .c. 4. sect. 2. " In their time (i. e. about the fifth or sixth year of Claudius) a great dearth happened in Judea."

XXXVIII. (p.555.) Acts xviii. 1, 2. “ Because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome."

Suet. Claud. c. xxv. “ Judæos, impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantes, Roma expulit."

XXXIX. [p. 664.] Acts v. 37.! “ After this man, rose up Judas of Galilee, in the days of the taxing, and drew away much people after him." Joseph. de Bell. 1. vii.

“ He (viz. the person who in another place is called, by Josephus, Judas the Galilean or Judas of Galilee) persuaded not a few not to enrol themselves, when Cyrenius the censor was sent into Judea."

XL. (p. 942.) Acts xxi. 38. “ Art not thou that Egyptian which, before these days, madest an uproar, and leddest out into the wilderness four thousand men that were murderers ?

Joseph. de Bell. I. ii. c. 13. sect. 6. “But the Egyptian false prophet brought a yet heavier disaster upon the Jews; for this impostor, coming into the country, and gaining the reputation of a prophet, gathered together thirty thousand men, who were deceived by him. Having brought them round out of the wlderness, up to the mount of Olives, he intended from thence to make his attack upon Jerusalem ; but Felix, coming suddenly upon him with the Roman soldiers, prevented the attack."A great number, or (as it should rather be rendered) the greatest part, of those that were with him, were either slain or taken prisoners.

In these two passages, the designation of this impostor, an Egyptian," without the proper name ; có the wilderness ;' his escape, though his followers were destroyed ; the time of the transaction, in the presidentship of Felix, which could not be any long time before the words of Luke are supposed to have been spoken ; are circumstances of close correspondency. There is one, and only one, point of disagreement, and that is, in the number of his followers, which in the Acts are called four thousand, and by Josephus thirty thousand : but, beside that the names of numbers, more than any other words, are liable to the errors of transcribers, we are, in the present instance, under the less concern to reconcile the evangelist with Josephus, as Josephus is not, in this point, consistent with himself. For whereas, in the pas sage here quoted, he calls the number thirty thou. sand, and tells us that the greatest part, or a great number (according as his words are rendered,) of those that were with him, were destroyed; in his Antiquities, he represents four hundred to have been killed upon this occason, and two hundred taken prisoners :* which certainly was not the greatest part," nor“ a great part,” nor

a great number," out of thirty thousand. It is probable also, that Lysias and Josephus spoke of the ex® pedition in its different stages : Lysias, of those who followed the Egyptian out of Jerusalem : Jo. sephus, of all who were collected about him afterward, from different quarters.

XLI. (Lardner's Jewish and Heathen Testimo. nies, vol. iii. p. 21.) Acts xvii. 22. " Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars-hill, and said, Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious; for, as I passed by and beheld your devotions, I found an altar with this inscription, TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare 1 unto you."

Diogenes Laertius, who wrote about the year 210, in the history of Epimenides, who is supposed to have flourished nearly six hundred years before Christ, relates of him the following story : that, being invited to Athens for the purpose, he delivered the city from a pestilence in this manner;—"Taking several sheep, some black, others white, he had them up to the Areopagus, and then let them go where they would, and gave orders to those who followed them, wherever any of them should lie down, to sacrifice it to the god to whom it belonged ; and so the plague ceased.--Hence," says the historian, it has come to pass, that to this present time, may be found in the boroughs of the Athenians ANOS NYMOUS altars : a memorial of the expiation then made.”+ These altars, it may be presumed, were called anonymous, because there was not the name of any particular deity inscribed upon them.

Pausanius, who wrote before the end of the se.

* Lib. 20. c. 7. sect. 6.

| In Epimeaide, 1. i. segm. 110.

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