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stances, which we shall here throw together, In France, by the last arrangement of will sufficiently prove how much we are be- its constitution, every Frenchman aged hindhand, after all, in the attempt.
twenty-five years, enjoying his civil and In the admirable constitution of Norway, political rights, and paying two hundred settled in 1814, the franchise of the people francs (£8) of direct contributions, is an was arranged with that regard to the adop- clector. Members of the French Institute, tion of a broad and simple basis, which is and some others, need only pay one half essential to the stability of a popular insti- of that amount. The contributions counted tution; we are indebted to Mr. Laing's as direct are, the land tax,—the personal excellent work for the following account and furniture tax,—the door and window of it:
tax,—the taxes on patents, and every tax Every native Norwegian of twenty-five levied under the title of “ centimes addiyears of age, who has been for five years tionnels.” owner or life-renter of land paying scat or From the 1st to the 10th of June, the tax,—or who is a burgess of any town, or mayors of the different communes, in their possesses there a house or land to the value respective cantons, meet in the chief place of one hundred and fifty dollars, ( £30,) is of the canton, and there, with the aid of entitled to elect. The country is divided the collectors of taxes, revise the list of the into election districts, corresponding to preceding year. This list, with the obsercounties, and subdistricts corresponding to vations of the subprefect of the arrondisseparishes. Registers of the qualified voters ment, is sent to the prefect of the departin each sub-district are kept by the minis- ment before the 1st of July, who in his ter, and also by the foged or baillie. turn revises it,-stating his reasons for the
The construction of the Storthing or le- decisions he comes to. The list is then gislature is singular. The whole body, when printed and deposited at the mayoralty of elected, divides itself into two houses; the each commune, by the 15th of August. whole Storthing choosing from among its Any claims then made are judged by the members one-fourth, who constitute the prefect in council,—from whom ihere is no Lagthing or Upper House, their functions appeal but to a "cour royale," which, howresembling those of our House of Lords ; ever, is obliged to decide the case definithe other three-fourths constitute the Odels- tively and without expense.* thing or House of Commons, in which di- To a certain extent this is rather a convision all proposed enactments must be fined representation; it does not proceed originated. The entire number of the Stor- from a sufficient number of those in whose thing should not consist of under seventy- hands the property of the nation is diffive, nor above one hundred members. The fused; that ihis is the case is a matter genproportions are founded on the principle, erally acknowledged. Men of all parties that the towns of Norway should, as nearly seem agreed that it shall be extended; the as possible, return one-third, and the coun- details of its enlargement are yet the subtry two-thirds. The elective franchise is ject of deliberation.+ not inseparably connected with the place, In Belgium, by the electoral law for the but depends on the number of electors in formation of the Chamber of Representaa place; there being a self-acting principle tives and of the senate, 3rd March, 1831, of parliamentary reform, by which the elec- to be an elector it is necessary, tive franchise is considered as a privilege First,--To be a Belgian by birth, or to belonging to the constituency, according to have obtained naturalization in full form : the numbers dwelling in a place, and not a Secondly,—To be of the age of twee typrivilege attached to the place. Thus, when five years complete : Mr. Laing visited Norway, the city of Thirdly,-To be a contributor to the Drontheim had just the number of quali- state in a given quota of direct contribufied electors to send four representatives. tions. These are counted for so much as If the electors had been fewer, it would the elector has contributed for the year anonly have sent three, or two, or one, or terior to that in which the election takes even none, if its numbers of qualified vo- place. In case of successive title, even this ters had been under fifty, and must have is vot required. Patents are comprised in joined itself in that case, to the constituency the calculation. Contributions of the wife, of the nearest town, Christiansund, and elected jointly with them.*
* The Monarchy of the Middle Classes, by H.
L. Bulwer, B. v. chap. xii. p. 304. • Laing's Norway, chap. iii. pp. 118, 45). † See the Journal des Débats, 1839, 1840.
having community of goods, are counted tions. Duplicates of the lists are open to to the husband, and those of minor chil- public inspection, with the secretary of the dren to the father having the guardianship commune, and the commissary of the disof them. The qualification to the given trict. If the communal board proceed to amount is ascertained, either by an extract erase the name of an elector, they are bound from the roll of contributions, or by the ac- to give him forty-eight hours notice in quittances of the current year, or by the writing at his residence, informing him of acertissements of the receiver of contribu- their reasons. tions.
An appeal lies from the communal Tables are given, fixing different amounts administrations, to the permanent deputawhich shall qualify in different districts; tion of the provincial council, (see note A.) the highest amount is in the three great Every individual unduly inscribed, omitted, towns of Bruxelles, Anvers, and Gand, erased, or otherwise injured, whose comeighty florins; the lowest in the country plaint has not been attended to below, may parts of the provinces of Luxembourg and thus appeal, annexing the proofs in support Namur, twenty florins,—(£1 13s. 4d.) of his complaint. In the same way, every
Simple and effectual means are provided individual, in the enjoyment of civil and pofor registration. The electoral lists are con- litical rights, may complain of each improsidered permanent, save where, upon an per inscription, annexing to his case proof annual revision, names are erased or newly that he has notified it to the party interested, inscribed. The communal administrations who has ten days from the time of the no(local boards elected by the people, see note tice to make answer to it. The deputation À) revise annually, from the 1st to the 15th of the provincial council must determine of April, the lists of the citizens of their upon these points within five days after recommunes. They affix them publicly for ceipt, or after the time for opposing exten days, and they call upon those citizens pires. Their decisions must be accompanied who pay contributions in other communes, by the reasons for thein (seront motivées), to apprise the local authorities of the fact, and are to be communicated to the parties. by a day, which they name, fifteen days dis- The opportunity of cassation is open tant. Each list contains the date of the from the decision of the provincial board, birth of each elector, and the place where for five days after the notification to the
pays the required amount of contribu- parties interested. The procedure is sum
Note (A)— The Communal Boards are com- admirably devised and classified, as to make us posed of councillors elected by the assembly of feel our Anglo-Irish legislation to be a subject for the electors of the communes, and of a burgo- mere shame and reproach. In each province master and two or four sheriffs, (échevins) named there is a provincial council, elected for four by the crown. In communes under 20,000 in- years; i. e. one half every second year, and a habitants, there are but two sheriffs. The number commissary of the government who is governor of councillors varies by a scale,—the lowest being of the province. This council is elected by the nine in communes containing from 1000 to 5000 ; electors qualified by the electoral law, for the the highest thirty-one, in those containing 70,000 formation of the chambers, with some enlargements inhabitants or more. Each commune has a secre- in supplementary lists, formed in the same manner tary and receiver. The qualifications for commu- as the principal lists. They select from among nal electors are,—to be a Belgian by birth or na- themselves a permanent deputation, consisting of turalization,-of full age,-domiciled in the com- six members. They deliberate, as well in the abmune, at least, from the 1st of January preceding sence as during the session of the council, upon all the election, and contributing, to the public, that relates to the daily interests of the province; amounts, varying from fifteen francs, (say lls. but their decisions are subject to be modified by 3d.) in communes under 2,000 inhabitants, to 100 the council. It is their duty, at the opening of francs, (say £3 15s.) in those containing over each provincial session, to submit a report called 60,000. Mothers and widows may delegate their a mémorial administratif. The sittings of the rights of representation. The same care is taken council are public, but they have a power of formfor the revision of these lists as of those for gen- ing themselves into a secret committee. The eral elections. The functions of these bodies are general administration of the province is comof considerable local importance. They, in fact, mitted to them,-comprising functions of the most manage all the local revenues, and provide for all important character. the communal interests, subject, however, in By these institutions the internal economy of more important transactions (all carefully defined) Belgium is rendered, not only the most popular, to submit them to the advice of the permanent de- but also, probably, the best ulated in the world. putation of the provincial council, and the appro- Manuel du Citoyen Belge, contenant la Constibation of the crown. In this way they are bodies, tution Belge, la loi électorale, la loi communale, la having certain permanence, and performing all classification des communes, la loi provinciale, et the fiscal acts of the Irish grand juries, and other le tableau de la répartition des conseillers provinlocal boards amongst us, but under regulations sociaux, pp. 266.
mary, and if cassation be pronounced, the and recovered from the pangs which follow affair shall be sent back. The commissa- upon her labour, than she sets to—to bait a riat of the district is bound to communicate patent Derby trap, armed all over with prongs, the annual lists and corrections to all who and claws, and spikes, to catch and choke wish to take copies.
the little abortion, which, in her excessive Belgium (containing 4,000,000 of inha- good nature, she had allowed to creep into bitants) is divided into nine provinces, re- her sister's bosom. turning one hundred and two representa
When Continental Europe comes to learn tives, and fifty-one senators,—divided among what this notorious Reform Bill really is, them by a proportional scale, which is set she will laugh it to scorn; and if Miss forth in the work we refer to (see note A.) Bull, in her pride and conceit, is still ob
Now, what have we in our electoral stinately bent to hold. “ to the bill, the law to compare with the institutions thus whole bill, and nothing but the bill,” it is growing up around us in Europe ?- high time for us to leave her alone dressing Here are nations making no noise about her dolls in her own baby house,—and to their advances to true and solid liberty, demand some better occupation,--something but settling the rights of their people upon that is worth playing and working for,the most perfectly methodized, sufficient, and and if we do, we may depend upon it, we simple basis ; while we behold England shall find more respect amongst our brealmost shaking the globe to its founda- thren elsewhere in the world. tions in the pother kicked up about “the The notions of a franchise here thrown bill, the whole bill, and nothing but the out (or rather brought together) are simple, bill.” And what is the fact, especially in efficacious, and founded on common right the step-sister gift made upon that occa- and justice. They are the wish and will sion to Ireland,
of the great mass of the people. Let it
DETERMINATION “Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus !" No sooner, too, is Miss Bull delivered,
V E N ICE.
FROM THE FRENCH OF MAD, MONTARAN.
Adieu dear Venice; thy departed sway
When Morn awakes, and Eve goes down in tears ;
The shore, where rests the idle boat, but hears
Hath all been lost in hopeless thraldom ? no:
Thy doge's famous banners flout the skies.
Still let St. Mark and soft Madonna's eyes
A CHAPTER ON INK.
council) am I abont to write, but of that
little monosyllabic prejunctive or adjuncA kind of amphibious thinker am I. 1 tive, things and persons are epitheted withal. think in ink, and I think out of ink. Ink, This word “nice” is indeed a nice word, however, is my favourite element. I go on but devilish hard to be understood. Would swimmingly in it. Sometimes I feel no you derive it—let us see—from “ yrzn, efforts in the moving. I glide, I float, I from the "victory” or influence a “nice" bask-in short, as I said before, ink is my person or thing hath, or is supposed to element. Now, out of it, how is it with me? have, over the opinions of people? But I am helpless : don't expect any easy, uni- there is no analogy in pronunciation ; as form movement from me; I am all spas- well may you derive it from Nick, (I mean modic impulses—ranunculous saltations. No Old Nick) from the fact of "devilish” beschool-boy's squib hoppeth and fizzeth so ing frequently appended thereto. Thus :uneasily; no skittish peg-top pranceth so “devilish nice" girl—“devilish nice" mare
" awkwardly; no eel on the line plungeth deviiish nice” day—“devilish nice” cigar,
“" with so many gyrations. Catch me out of &c. &c. &c. I cannot decompose it into ink and keep me out of ink, you keep me its elementals ; to understand it rightly out of blood; ink is my blood_ink is my you must invariably qualify it with some life. Deprive me not of it-give me back diagnostic expletive; and, moreover, you my element ; would you have me live must recollect there is a class of persons and give me my Black Sea, my tanno-gallate things to which it always applieth. Who chalybeate, my spring of bright ebony is there that ever heard Goliah called a pearlings.
“nice" giant ?—Mont Blanc a “nice" And thou, good Thames, that rollest by mountain ?-a seventy-four a “nice" ship? St. Stephen's "tongue-batteries," and bear--an elephant, a rhinoceros, a lion, a tiger, est Channelward our due rounds of political a whale, a shark,—"nice” animals ? Who ammunition--the wadding (of rags) and ever heard of a “nice" tempest—"nice" the powder (of lamp-black) with which thy thunder, or the like? No one-unless pressgang are so skilful in priming and from the lips of a lunatic. Every day of loading the national war-engines, do thou your life you will hear—" Oh! what a nice also "flow on, thou shining river," into the little dwarf !” Does a mushroom excresreservoirs of Aldersgate-street and the cence, called a hillock, rise up from the Strand, that thy branches, becoming con- plain—“Oh! what a sweet nice little hill!" fluent, may swell even more than ever my Does a frigate ride at anchor in the bay, favourite-my Black Sea. Suffer, as is looking like a "daddy-long-legs" on a
” thy wont, those chemical magicians, Ar- pane of glass—“Oh! what a dear nice nold and Warren, to exert their metamor- little vessel !” Does a tortoise, about the phosing influence upon thee; suffer their size of a tolerable walnut, crawl on your “iron to enter into" thy waters, and their carpet—"what a nice little creature !" Ora “gall” to be disenvenomed in them; be- lady's puppy, (rather puppet) that would come, at the touch of their wand, indeed a fit in the said walnut, frisk about chirping, “shining river,"-8"black-flowing splen- (call it not the legitimate barking of dogdour," and cease to flow into the hellish hood)—" did you ever see such a nice, cauldrons, where the "gall” superabound- sweet, little dog ? oh, good Miss Dogbuy,
" eth, and the mud, and the slime, and the could you get me one of the same breed,” filth“ do congregate."
&c. 'Tis plain, littleness appertaineth to some indefinable
degree to that word " NICE" SPECULATIONS.
“nice.” It escheweth the grand, the sub
lime, the terrific. It hath nothing to do Reader, not of the Council of Nice, (I with mountainous or Patagonian concepknow absolutely nothing of this or the like tions. Its" name is never heard" in the
menagerie or the cattle-show. It boometh the matutinal intelligence, which hath no not through the cloud or the cannon. It compromise—no putting in abeyance-delighteth in the micography of its own mic “the tay is wet, Sir.” 'Tis my study, crocosm. Ye youths,“ hide your diminished therefore, to bounce up at once, to thrust heads," when the fair apply this epithet to my face into the basin of water to purify it you, for it Lilliputianizes whatever of man- from the cobwebs of sleepiness, and to hurry hood there is in you; it is, as it were, a into my pantaloons and morning-gown as kind of Dalilah's scissors, which lops off fast as I can, so as to be in time for the seyour strength ;-and, by the bye, talking of cond “wetting” of the tea-pot. Shaving, scissors, I do now stumble upon some clas- then, I could not wait to think of. This sic reminiscence about a certain Nisus, (not operation must be deferred to somewhere Euryalus's chum,) whose fate was oracled about 12 o'clock, that I may shave safely to depend upon a golden lock that flou- and smoothly, and take a most elegant and rished through his dark hair. So long as masterly circumrasion, when the irritable it flourished, did the Megarian king fon pimple cometh in my way. Hurry me to rish; but “ Love langhs at lock-smiths," breakfast in a strange place, (of course and laughed at poor Nisus, when he bade shave I must there before my accustomed Scylla snip off the lock from her father's time,) verily, my upper lip and chin are pate, while sleeping, and allow her father's sure to exhibit some half dozen of unsought enemy, the Cretan Minos, “a walk over," and unstudied beauty-spots--and worse,
- a quiet possession of the town of Megara. of mine host's court plaster. To say noBut, lo! unlike Scylla's, the heart of thing of the wholesale mowing down of Minos was impenetrable; Cupid declared it your pimples, your napkin bath & most adamantine against bis shafts. Scylla was revolting appearance to the nervous host or disappointed. She flung herself into the chambermaid, who visits your apartment sea, and the gods, no doubt taking pity after you have gone. Had a suicide or on her, changed her into a lark. Nisus other tragedy been performed there, the fell by his own hand ; and at his own es- ensanguined towel could not create such a pecial request, was changed into a hawk, shuddering and a shattering of their nerves. ihe better, by this metamorphosis, to pur- Doubtless, after breakfast is the proper, sue his vengeance upon the treasonous the sensible time for the razor. lady-bird. To this day do we see the dire- Now, Johanna is aware that, in winter, ful enmity between the hawk and the lark; she may as well fly out of my house as and ever since that sad event hath hawko think of her “ daily tea is ready," without ing become a royal game ; and his Hawk- having a comfortable fire made ready also. ship Nisus encouraged in his flights against What a horrible feeling one has (I had it her Larkship Scylla.
Now here I can some time ago, I believe about Norfolkvery well understand why this royal pas- street, Strand, London,) when he has to get time was called “ a nice sport,” for, by all up, to suit the convenience of a railway
" accounts, “ Nisus' sport” was the earliest office, earlier than is his wont. and most original phrase, which was next up reluctantly; you enter upon a kind of corrupted into “ Nise sport,” and next, and drowsy reasoning with yourself about deferfinally, into the above a nice sport.” Scyl. ring your journey; but necessity stareth la’s are there still, who, with that scissors— you in the face, and lowering a lazy leg that weapon-ridicule, do essay to shear towards the floor, while the other lingereth many an unsuspecting Nisus of his pro- in the linens, you essay your first yawn. priety, making him devilish shrewd and Yawn the second is cut short by a general hawk-eyed after their twitting larkings; frigorific spasm. Aware you can't be made while these airy little misses, in their turn, much colder, your palsied limbs bear you are but too often made to feel the difference to the stand, and, souse—you ice your face between “ a hawk and a handsaw.”
in the basin. Would you shave ? You
ring the bell—you want hot water; but the RISE TO BREAKFAST, AND SHAVE After little gal runneth up and telleth you,
“ there aint none in the house the fires
is'nt made yet." Horrible! You can't I awake every morning generally at the shave above, nor, when you come down same hour, and when I do, I have no busi- stairs, can you warm yourself, or have“ the ness whatever to sodden slothfully in my tea wet" below! Horrible again, you must bed; in fact I have not time to do so, for put up for the whole day with an unscythed Johanna raps at the door, and giveth me chin, and comport yourself patiently in the