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. Charles, by letter dated 23rd March, 1667, Pretexts for impeachment were in vain in answer to the representations made by the sought; plots and snares were profusely Duke of Ormond, gave directions “that all strewn in his path; but his caution and firmrestraints upon the exportation of commodi- ness carried him safely through. By his ties of the growth and manufacture of Ire- zealous endeavours to advance our commerland, to foreign parts, should be taken off, cial and manufacturing interests, he became and that this should be by a proclamation so identified with us, that “that party of of the Lord Lieutenant and Council." men who were for denying reasonable things Permission was also given to retaliate on the to Ireland, were declared enemies to the Scotch for the prohibition of the import of Duke of Ormond."* Their stratagems our cattle, in accordance with which a for impeachment having failed, as a last efproclamation was issued, “notifying the fort they resorted to the cry of“ Merus Hiallowance of a free trade to all foreign bernicus,” and a pamphlet was published, in countries, either in war or peace with his which it was assertedMajesty, and prohibiting the importation of linen and other commodities from Scotland, longer in the government of Ireland, he being an
“That it was unfit Ormond should be continued as a great hindrance to the manufactures of
Irishman. This was sent to one of the Privy this kingdom."* But while Orinond thus Councillors to have it placed in the hands of the encouraged one branch of national industry, King, for the good of his Majesty and his people, he did not endeavour to crush another. both of which would be in danger if his Grace, Though the minister of Charles, he forgot being an Irishman, was continued in the licute
nantcy." + not that he had a country; and while in the linen factory of Chapel Izod we have a me- His friends sought to extenuate the crime morial of his worth, we have equal ones in by urging, that to be born in Ireland was the woollen factories of Clonmel, Carrick, no personal fault of his. Their reasonand Kilkenny.
ing was plausible, but it was not accordIn thus consulting the national weal, Or- ance with the spirit of English rule, and the mond raised against himself a host of pow- Duke of Ormond, when found guilty of beerful enemies; and “ some of the restraints ing an Irishman, was incapacitated for office. respecting Ireland, in this reign, were sup- There have been found those who, while posed to have originated in a dislike or jea- they objected to the act, acquiesced in the lousy of the growing power of the Duke of principle. They argued (and with truth) Ormond, who, from his great estate and that he was not an Irishman by birth, havpossessions in Ireland, was very naturally ing come to Ireland at the age of three ; supposed to have a personal interest in the but that even were he born in Ireland, he welfare of that kingdom.”+ The Duke had done so many services to Charles that conducted his administration on the prin- he ought to have been accounted “ equal to ciple, that it was the duty of the Chief an Englishman.” Governor to increase the trade-improve
The council of trade which he established, the manufactures-extend the commerce- was composed of some of the most influenencourage the industry—and direct the ener- tial men of the day, including members of gies of the people towards the develop the government, lawyers, and merchants; ment of the resources of the country which they held weekly meetings, appointed comhe governed. The principle might be right, mittees, and drew up reports and suggesand just, and good, but he forgot that the tions on the state of the several trades and nation he applied it to was Ireland, and manufactures. Concerning these suggeshe himself but the deputed of England. tions we are told that However he sought to improve the condi
- The Duke of Ormonde leaving the governtion of the country, around which clung all ment before a parliament met, or those suggestions the fond recollections of his childhood, and for forming acts of state, were put in practice; as to alleviate the pangs which a series of the council of trade was their nursery, so the counwrongs had inflicted, and for this was his cil table became their sepulchre, where they remain loyalty to the crown of England called in in their urn to this day, and are not likely to have
a resurrection; for before the Duke's removal, question.
most of the Privy Council and other principal
ministers of state, seemed exceeding fond of all “ For 'tis treason to love her, and death to proposals tending to the improvement of the trade defend."
and manufacture of the nation." I
Such was the administration of Ormond, from England for the purchase of these commoand such was the example he set. How few dities, and that this might in a great measure be of his successors have profited by it requires prevented by being supplied from Ireland.” not to be told by us.
We thus minutely mention the various Let it be borne in mind that at the period statutary encouragements given to our linen of which we are writing, we were rapidly trade prior to the period of its history, at extending both our woollen and linen ma- which we have now arrived, for the purpose nufactures, and that in both of these under- of showing that in all those bills and protakings we received not only the encourage- clamations, whether emanating from the ment of our parliament and Viceroy, but parliament of Ireland or England, there even the toleration of England. We was no stipulation made, por agreement of must not however, suppose that the pro- any sort entered into, on condition whereof gressive increase of our commercial relations this encouragement was given; on the conescaped the jealous watch which England trary, in the last named act, it is distinctly ever had on our advancement. That it was stated that the object of the English parnot so, the many and varied attempts which liament in giving a preference to Irish she made to crush our rising spirit too well grown linens and hemp, was to prevent prove. But as the space to which we are great sums of money being "continually limited prevents our entering more at length carried out of England.”* into this subject, we would strongly recom- We now coine to an examination of the mend such of our readers as would desire most important era in the history of this information on these matters (and we trust trade,-one which is equally remarkable for they are many) to peruse that invaluable the unconstitutional power arrogated by the manual of anti-Irish legislation, “ Hints to English parliament, as for the obsequious Hardinge," from the able pen of M. Staun- acquiescence of the Irish. But while we ton, Esq. It contains in a few pages a mass reprobate the weakness our parliament exof information, such as the ordinary reader hibited by their submission to the dictation could otherwise never arrive at, which, from of that of England, is there not some exits importance entitles it to become the tenuation to be found in the peculiar cirhand-book of every Irishman who loves his cumstances of the time in which it occurred. country in sincerity and truth.
The wars of 1688 had ended ; an act That our parliament did not relax its of indemnity had been just passed ; comexertions for the advancement of the linen merce and trade began to revive, and again trade, appears froin their journals. On the was peace and industry established among 22nd November, 1695, we find the heads the people. This was the critical juncture of a bill for this purpose brought into the of which England availed herself, to dehouse by Colonel Hamilton of Tullamore. prive us of a portion of our trade, which, It included “The linen, sail-canvas, cordage when the hour of our strength arrived, she and other manufactures of hemp and flax in was no longer able to retain. this kingdom.” It received the approbation Though we have in a recent number + reof the house, and that it might become a viewed the manner in which she accomlaw, it was sent to the Lords Justices to be plished this, it will be necessary to refer to transmitted to England. But thence it such of the details connected with it, as may never returned. *
În the following year a serve to elucidate the subject immediately bill was passed in England, entitled, “ An under consideration. It would appear that act for the encouraging the linen manu- by the act of 1696, admitting Irish hemp facture of Ireland, and bringing flax and and linens into England, custom free, the hemp into this kingdom (England),” where- English economists expected to turn the atby it was enacted that hemp, flax, and tention of the Irish to the growth and exlinen, and its thread and yarn, might be port of hemp, for the purpose, as its title freely imported into England by the natives says, of “encouraging the making of sailof England and Ireland, custom free, being cloth in this kingdom (England)." That the growth and manufacture of Ireland.”+ this was their hope, is pretty evident from But the preamble to the act shews for the manner in which they complained two whose benefit this encouragement was given. years subsequently, of our neglect of what the growth of flax and hemp; but not manufacture will not only be encouraged as conchoosing to be mere“
they say would be "so profitable to Eng
land,” though in truth we did not neglect “That great sums were annually sent abroad
Com. Jour. vol. ii. p. 120. † Engiish Acts, 7th, 8th Wm, III, C. xxxix.
* English Acts, 7th, 8th Wm. III. C. xxxix. † See vol. ii: 340,
hewers of wood, and sistent with the trade of England, but will render drawers of water" for England, we preferred the trade of this kingdom both useful and neces
." employing our own hands on the raw material, to exporting it for the “ further en- and they accepted it in the following
To this proposal our commons agreed, couragement of English made sail-cloth.”
words : Finding that the bait of '96 did not “go down,” another stratagem was devised, by that we shall heartily endeavour to establish a
“ We pray leave to assure your Excellencies which they hoped to accomplish their de- linen and hempen manufacture here, and to render sign. This was to enter into a compact the same profitable to England as well as advanwith Ireland, that she should turn her at tageous to this kingdom, and we hope to find tention solely to the linen and hempen trade here, that the same may not be injurious to
such a temperament in respect to the woollen manufacture, while England should turn
England." + hers solely to the woollen.
The Commons of Ireland having thus The first proposition to this effect was an address from the English House of Lords several addresses and speeches, 'received
accepted the terms proposed by these to the reigning monarch in 1698, from the bill of the Lords Justices for the enwhich we quote the following passage :
couragement of the linen and hempen ma*** “And on the other hand, if they turn nufactures; and in pursuance of their comtheir industry and skill to the settling and im- pact, they appointed a committee on the proving the linen manufacture, for which gener: | 1st day of November, 1698, to take into conthey shall receive all countenance, favour, and sideration the heads of a bill for laying a protection from your royal influence, for the ma- duty on the export of woollen manufactures. I nagement and promoting of the said linen manu- The committee it would appear, did not prefacture to all the advantage and profit that kingdom can be capable of.*
the “suicidal act" with sufficient dispare
patch, and on the 2nd of December, the This was quickly followed by a similar Lords Justices send a “written speech” reone from the Commons to the saine effect; commending a bill for the purpose,—the they held out the same offers of encourage- reception of which was put from the speakment, and on the same conditions.
er's chair,—the house was divided, and the “We cannot without trouble observe that Ireland numbers were seventy-four for the reception which is so proper for the linen manufacture, — of the bill, while thirty-four voted against the establishment and growth of which there, it “taking it into consideration.” Even would be so enriching to themselves, and so pro- then was there a remnant in the land who fitable to England, should of late apply itself to the woollen manufacture, to the great prejudice of bowed not the knee to Baal. The purport of the trade of this kingdom, and so unwillingly this bill was to lay a heavy duty on all promote the linen trade, which would benefit both woollens exported from Ireland, frizes exthem and us." They then humbly implore his
cepted. Majesty to secure the trade of England by “discouraging the woollen manufacture, and en
The history of this session, as connected couraging the linen manufactures in Ireland, to with our subject, is short. The bill framed which we shall always be ready to give our ut- by those, the object of whose rule was, that most assistance."
we might be made profitable to England, His majesty's answer was, “ I shall do passed both houses with tolerable rapidity, all that in me lies to encourage the linen whereas the bill for the encouragement of the manufacture there." The proposal was for- linen and hempen manufactures which they mally made to our parliament in the same so urgently “recommended” in the early year by the Lords "Justices, who, in the part of the session, still remained “in comspeech from the throne say,
mittee.” On the 26th day of January the “ Amongst these bills there is one for the en- Lords Justices summoned the Commons, couragement of the linen and hempen manufac- and having affixed the royal assent to the bili tures. At our first meeting we recommended you prohibiting the export of our woollens, that matter, and we have now endeavoured to their object,-the object of that country render that bill practicable and useful for that whose servants they were,—was accomplisheffect, and as such, we now recommend it to you; Ied, and in that very day, nay, in that very The settlement of this manufacture will be found more advantageous to this kingdom than the wool hour was our parliament prorogued ; and len, which, being the staple of England, can never be encouraged here, whereas the linen and hempen Com. Jour. vol. ii. p. 241.
† 1st Oct. 1698.-Com. Jour: vol. ii. p. 243. 9th June, 1698.
Ibid, vol. ii. p. 280. † 30th June, 1698.
Com. Jour, vol. ii. p. 287.
thus ended all the promises of encourage- herself affect to interpret them when usurping ment.* Parliament was prorogued to a more the power of making her laws, binding upon convenient season : but though William Ireland, irrespective of the wishes of her wielded the sceptre for full three years after, own parliament, she prohibited the export
of that convenient season never came.
our woollens under a penalty of £500, by In reference to these transactions, Ander- 10th William III. chap x.* son says,t-"The first step that Ireland took Before we proceed to enquire into the in consequence of this compact, was to lay manner in which England fulfilled her an export duty upon wool and woollens of all part of the engagement, we will quote the kinds, equal to a prohibition, and when that opinions as to the nature and terms of act expired, for it was but a temporary one, this compact, which have been expressed by by way of experiment, the British Par- authorities whose competency to form a corliament, without consulting that of Ireland, rect judgment on the matter cannot be deby the 10th and Tlth of William III. nied. passed a similar act, and made it perpetual.” Arthur Young, an Englishman, who is so The fact is, the English parliament did not well known as the author of “ The Tour wait for the expiration of the term during in Ireland in 1777,” thus writes :which the 10th William, chap. v. imposed “ The memoirs of the time as well as the exa duty on our woollens which would extend pressions in the above transactions, evidently prove to the 25th day of March, 1702, but in that it was understood by both kingdoms to be a troduced their bill during the very next sort of compact, that if Ireland gave up her woollen year, whereby, to use the words of the par, under every encouragement. They could not
manufacture, that of linen should be left to her liamentary committee of 1772,
mean internal encouragement or regulation, for hath been still further restrained in the wool- they had nothing to do with either. It could len manufacture than was even desired in simply mean, as the purport of the words evidently 1698, having been deprived of the export of show, that they would enter into no measures frize.
which should set up a linen manufacture to rival
the Irish,- that woollens should be considered These are the facts connected with this and encouraged as the staple of England, and celebrated compact. In adducing evidence linens as that of Ireland; it must mean this or it concerning it, we have endeavoured to means nothing. That the Irish understood it so give the truth, the unvarnished, and the en- they in consequence? They were in possession
cannot be doubted for a moment ; for what did tire truth. At this distant period it is im- of a flourishing woollen manufacture which they possible to shew the under currents,—the in- actually put down and crippled by prohibiting extrigues, and political manæuvering, whereby portation. Let me ask those who assert there the Irish parliament were induced to accept
was no compact, why they did this? It was their the proposal made by the Lords and Com- either reward or promise of reward? Common
own act. Did they cut their own throats without mons of England. That their acceptance sense tells us they did this under a perfect conof it was not unanimous we have already viction that they should receive ample encourageshewn : that a large majority however, were
ment from England in their linen trade. induced to accede to the terms is evident. The late Lord Oriel, in a paper written, But whether from a conviction of the neces of this subject, says, after detailing the ansity they were placed under, or from what has swer of the Irish parliament to the Lords too often proved more powerful, "court per- Justices, suasion,” does not appear. But whaiever
“ In pursuance of this answer, they evinced may have impelled them to it, accepted it that temperament most effectually by passing an was; and a compact was fully established be- act for laying prohibitory duties on the export of tween the two nations that Ireland should en
their own woollen manufacture,—thus accepting joy all the benefits of the linen trade, and the national compact, and fully performing their
part of the agreement; and by that performance England all the benefits of the woollen,-each giving an incontrovertible claim to Ireland upon to the exclusion of the other. That such is England for a perpetual encouragement of the the proper interpretation of these several ad- linen manufacture to all the advantage that Iredresses and speeches, is too evident to ad- land should at any time be capable of."I mit of any question. In this manner are Such was the compact, and thus did Irethey understood by all those who have writ- land fulfil the terms of her agreement to the ten on the subject; and thus did England very letter.
The combined effects of these crippling
prohibitions, and England's forgetfulness of Com. Jour. vol. ii. 306-7. Hist. Com. vol. v. p. 383.
English Act. Statutes, vol. 3. p. 472.
Tour, vol. ii. p. 148-9. Com. Jour. vol. xv. p. 426.
her plighted honour were most disastrous to which was broken, and with warning voice Ireland. In the language of our parliament declare to future generations that until we in their address to the throne,“We were were “hindered from earning our own hindered from earning our own livelihoods, livelihoods” we needed not a poor-house. and from maintaining our own manufactures; Another century of the same blighting and our poor had thereby become very nu- policy has since rolled by; how many
Notwithstanding this represen- poor-houses have we now? they are many, tation of the distress caused by the comple- very many, but there are of poor to fill tion of our part of the treaty, England them “ enough and to spare." " The commoved not in the fulfilment of hers; and mercial jealousy which then left our our Commons appointed a committee to thousands unemployed has since left tens prepare another address to the throne, pray- of thousands idle and “ in want of bread.” ing that her Majesty,–
Irishmen, 'tis for you, not for party that
we write; to you then we would address “ May interpose with the parliament of England, that this kingdom may have leave to export
you be men, if the love of their manufactures of linen from this kingdom party is ever to pass away, and that of into the western plantations, which her Majesty's father-land to reign supreme in its slead ; poor subjects of this kingdom have great reason let this fact take strong hold upon your to hope for from the encouragement given them by several addresses made by the Lords and Com- memories; tell it round the hearth and mons of England to his late Majesty in 1698, in
on the hill side, till every village, every which they promise to give all the encouragement hamlet, every cottage has reechoed the that in them lay to promote the said manufacture sound thereof; nor let the pregnant truth to the greatest advantage this kingdom is capable die upon your lips till each true born of of.”'t
Erin has been taught to know and to feel, In accordance with the directions thus that “ being hindered from maintaining our given to the committee, an address was pre- own manufactures” it was necessary
tax pared and agreed to by the house on the the community for the support of those who 23d day of November, 1703, praying, once constituted its wealth.
While on this topic we may mention that “ That her Majesty's subjects of this kingdom have liberty of exporting linen cloth to the plan- not only did our parliament endeavour to tations, and that they receive such further en- meet the existing want by thus providing a couragement as had been assured to her subjects place of refuge for the destitute; they also of this kingdom, if they should turn their industry aimed at staying its progress, as will apto the improvement of the linen manufacture." I
pear by the following extract from their In the following year the English Com- journal :mons passed a bill, granting us permission “ Resolved, nem. con.—that by reason of to export our white and brown lineus to the the great decay of trade, and discouragement colonies, for a limited time, being the first of exportation of the manufactures of this kinglaw which was enacted for the encourage. want and begyary. Resolved, nem. con.—that it
dom, many tradesmen are reduced to extreme ment of the linen manufacture of Ireland will greatly conduce to the relief of the said poor, since the compact had been entered into. and to the good of this kingdom, that the inhaWhile England was thus tardy in assuming bitants thereof should use none other than the even the semblance of good faith, poverty and in the furniture of their houses :-Memoran
manufactures of this kingdom, in their apparel, had stricken root wide and deep through our dum—that the members of this house did unaniland and by order of the house,
mously engage their honours to each other that “Mr. Recorder presented heads of a bill for they will conform to the said resolution."
March 1st, 1703. erecting a work-house in the city of Dublin for employing and maintaining the poor thereof."'S Neither were these the resolutions of This was the memorable occasion on
ephemeral excitement; our Commons felt which Ireland's first poor-house was pro- committed to their charge, by a false step
perhaps, that they had betrayed the trust jected; and were the period marked by this fact alone, it should be accounted an impor
which, in their then powerless condition, they
were unable to retrace; and, as a sort of relant era in our wrongful history. When the night of oppression is past, it shall tributive measure, which, if not effectual, at remain an evidence of the plighted faith
least shewed the disposition to make amends;
they adopted those resolutions, and renewed Address to Anne, 20th October, 1703.
them again on the 15th of June, 1705. + Com. Jour. vol. ii. p. 361. | Ibid, vol. ii. p. 384.
Com. Jour. vol. ii. p. 407. Ibid, vol. ii. p. 343,
† Ibid, vol. ii. p. 481.