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work,- to calculate the quantity of raw ma- | one in Naples, and up to last summer there terials that could be worked up,—and the had been constructed in different parts of quantity of manufactured product that could Europe six extensive factories, exactly acbe turned out of such a factory,—to deter- cording to that plan. mine from the current prices,

cost of There are two copies of each memoir labour, of materials, charging for risk, and made out, and all plans and drawings are ultimately return a financial statement of lithographed in the school. The author the amount of profit that might be expected, retains one copy, the other belongs to the or if so, to what extent the branch of 'ma- school; and, during their second and third nufacture might be, under existing circum- years of study, the pupils are occupied in stances, a source of loss.

copying the plans, and familiarizing themIf, on the other hand, his profession is selves with the arrangement and style of the to be a constructor of machines, he is re- best productions of their predecessors, and quired to give in similar plans, for the most thus, the student becomes the possessor of profitable investment of a certain capital in a great collection of drawings, plans, and flas mills, silk mills, cotton inills, etc. as estimates, which no person but a pupil of the the examiners may propose,—to determine school can have access to. the greatest number of looms and spindles The immediate details of the course of that could be driven with that capital, -the study we do not purpose now entering into; amount of raw material necessary for keep- they embody a vast and complete course of ing those machines at work,—the amount of education for each practical profession; and produce,-rate of loss by wear, and all sour- the most eminent men of Paris are numces of failure,-and, as before, to return a bered among its professors. calculation of the amount of profit or loss So remarkably successful has this instituwhich the speculation would be likely to tion been, that the French government has produce.

osten attempted to get some hand in its For a civil engineer, the best conditions arrangement. At first, they proposed that under which specified works could be car- the state should pay part of its expenses, ried on,—the practicability of certain sug. such as rent, &c. Then, that the professors gestions, the relative economy of others. should be salaried by the state. Both of Plans for the employment of capital in these propositions were refused. At last railways or canals between places,—the pro- the minister of public works granted to bable traffic, and geographical conditions of the prefect of each department a certain which are given,- are also required. sum (in all 17,000 francs) to pay the ex

For the miner and metallurgist, it is ne- perses of educating at the school a number cessary to present drawings of ihe best plans of young men, two or three from each defor draining and ventilating shafts of speci- partment, who should get those places at a fied depths and inclinations,—to arrange a public examination to be held annually in series of dressing, picking, and smelting the chief town of each department. To houses, on a scale commensurate to the this of course, the council of the school produce which the supposed mine is calcu- could not object; all they wanted by keeplated to afford,—to examine and report on ing it a private school, being, that a student the modes of excavation and smelting adopt on receiving his diploma should be at full ed in various countries, their relative cost, liberty to employ his energies as he liked

- the local circumstances which might in- best, and not to be tid up to the govern-
duce the adoption of one or of another, and ment in any way.
to explain their scientific theories.

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does not allow us to allude to These memoirs are the highest tests of the arrangements of other similar institucapability. So much intelligence and study tions in Belgium, in Prussia, and even in is devoted to their drawing up, that they Austria, but we sball briefly notice what has frequently cause the iminediate appointment been very recently done, much nearer home, of their authors to lucrative situations, not in England. merely in France, but frequently in foreign It is but a couple of years since the first countries; thus,-a plan was given in at ex- step was made towards giving a regular amination, two years ago, for the manu- education to civil and mining engineers, by facture of stearic acid candles, which was so the establishment of a course of lectures on complete in its details, and so accurate in those subjects in the university of Darits economic calculations, that the writer ham. The proximity of that place to the was immediately employed to found one in great mining fields of Cumberland and Paris ; then another in St. Petersburgh ; Northumberland, was, perhaps, the reason

we

why the want was more keenly felt, and bound down in fetters of adamant her legithat the success of the attempt appeared timate industrial capabilities for centuries. more probable than in other places. But Her people are peaceable, temperate, and long before that time, in 1825, Mr. John endowed with energy and industry adapted Taylor, one of the most extensive and best to succeed in the most laborious tasks, and informed mining proprietors in England, minds as capable of intellectual attainments printed a prospectus, which now lies before as those of any other race. We are now us. After a masterly survey of the injury first beginning to appreciate the inexhaustcaused by the wanit of knowledge on the ible sources of wealth, which our fertile soil, part of the superintendants and workers of our mountains rich in the most productive the mines in Cornwall, and describing the ores, our coasts thronged with the most valuabenefits which would ensue from their being ble fish, and adapted to the most profitable properly educated to their business; he laid traffic, present to our acceptance ;

and down the plan for the formation of a school have discovered by the arrangement of levels of mines, in which the branches of science in the interior of the country, that for faciand art, which are of use in mining and lities of internal transport by railways or metallurgy, should be taught. His scheme canals, Ireland is not to be excelled. It only was nearly that, though much less exten- remains that to utilize those great natural sive, which we have ourselves felt the be advantages, we should become educated to neficial effects of in Freiburg, (Saxony) those practical professions, for which the inexcept that the mining school of Freiburg, stitutions already noticed have been estab(Berg Academie) is supported by the state, lished in other countries. To work our whilst Mr. 'Taylor proposed that the Cornish mines successfully, we must becoine skilful school of mines should be supported by mining engineers and metallurgists. To contributions from the mine proprietors of develope, without the extravagant expense the district. Mr. Taylor's plan fell to the and ruinous loss, through which success has ground at that time, but last sumıner, been gained in England, the internal comSir Charles Lemon, the munificent mem- munication by railways, and the navigation ber for Cornwall, although himself not of our lakes and rivers, we must become a mining proprietor, offered to carry the well educated civil engineers. To manufacture whole plan into effect almost at his own with success we must learn our respective expense, on certain conditions, one of trades, for as the Morning Chronicle very which, we regret to say, was, that the plausibly said when commenting on one of the college should belong to a particular Irish manufacture meetings lately held, to form of religion. At the same time both succeed we should have capital, and we are colleges of the university of London have poor--we should be educated, and we are opened engiueering courses. In King's ignorant-we must be orderly and quiet, and College, Mr. Daniell, Mr. Moseley, Mr. our trades are combined in a system of inCooper, and Mr. Tennant, form an excel- timidation. We have therefore our success lent body of professors; but, unfortunately, to make. We possess all the materials for a the extent of education proposed, is very complete success, if only we be true to ourcircumscribed, and we fear that the diplo- selves and to our country. ma of civil engineer from King's College But it may be asked cannot our young is not likely to require much knowledge. men learn these things in England ? Will not In University College, as far as we could a short time spent in Manchester, with Sharp learn, they have not advanced even so far. and Roberts, or with Fairbarn, make a betIn addition, there has been, within the last ter machinist than could be effected in Dubyear, established at Kentish Town, near lin by any system of education? We say, London, a distinct College of Engineering. no—we say that a young man who learns to

While all this activity has been manifested make one steam engine in Mallet's or in upon the Continent and in England, what Robinson's is as well educated as if he saw has been done here ? Absolutely nothing; one hundred of the same sort made in Manand yet there is no country in the world in chester, and that in those great establishwhich practical education is more required, ments, the education of the apprentice is or in which it would be productive of more not the direct object of the owner. A young immediate benefit, and there never was a man after paying a large fee to become aptime so well calculated for its favourable re- prentice in an engine factory, and thus giving ception as the present. Our country has up for seven years, his whole time to the just emerged from the whirlpool of political service of his master, is taught nothing. He discontent and social enmity, which had may learn a great deal-he is placed under

We are,

very favourable circumstances for learning, I believe that the sooner we begin to learn, but the information he acquires, is taken by the better, and that men learn a great himself, and is not communicated to him. deal quicker by working with their own He may come out when his apprenticeship hands than by merely looking on. is over, an accomplished machinist, but he therefore, for education in the practical promay also be found, and we have met several fessions, carried on at home and by Irishmen, such, -incapable of passing a step out of the for we decidedly maintain that our city posroutine of the workshop in which he had sesses more than enough of men eminently spent his time, skilled in one or two me- qualified for such a task. Indeed, since we chanical operations, but ignorant of the prin- commenced writing on this subject, a pamciples by which their success in after life phlet has been placed in our hands, printed must be decided. It must be recollected last year, from which we learn, that as a prithat whilst a workman is to learn facts, the vate speculation, Mr. Gregory, a distinguishsuperintendant requires principles, and in ed civil engineer of this city, has actually the large machine factories of Manchester, founded a school of civil engineering, based principles are not taught.

upon principles, which coincide very closely In mining operations it becomes espe- with those which we have endeavoured to cially necessary that the education of the show should regulate instruction in that miner should be peculiarly directed to the branch. We learn that Mr. Gregory's plan country where he is afterwards to work. The has been attended with considerable success, results of mining enterprize depend on a both to himself and to the students whom minute appreciation of all the circumstances he has had under his care. But a private of the geology of the district. A miner institution such as his, cannot fulfil the great educated in Cornwall, or in Northumber- object of complete practical education for land, is totally at fault when he goes to work the country at large, and hence, notwithin Wicklow, Waterford, or Clare, and must standing that we wish him and his pupils all be educated over again in a knowledge of the the success that their enterprise and persecountry, before he can be of much use. The verance so well deserve, we yet contemplate composition of the adhering rock, the nature the plan of engineering education which he of other minerals occasionally mixed, may has proposed, and the favourable manner in affect very much the metallurgic processes which it has been received by those intersubsequently required.

ested in that branch of science, as indicatBut we do not at all admit the principle ing only the great want of education that had that we should be obliged or expected to go existed, and not by any means that the want to England for education which we should have has been supplied. offered to us, equally good, at home. We do We would advise, therefore, all those that not approve of the system, which was very wish to see Irish manufacture rapidly and graphically described to ourselves by a mem- steadily established, our mining and agriculber of a government board, one day after ural capabilities properly developed, the indinner, when his heart was a little opened, ternal communication and foreign commerce that we must get every thing of importance of the country advanced and extended to the done here by Englishmen and Scotchinen degree which a bounteous Providence, by for a generation or two, and perhaps then, by its geographical position, and geological having looked on so long, the Irishmen structure, has indicated as its due—to provide might gradually be allowed to take such for sound practical education, in engineerthings into their own management. We ing, agriculture, mining, and manufactures.

HAMILTON ROWAN.*

PART I.

If we do not some time or other possess or firmest of that giant race, but still a noa good history of the half century that pre- ble tree, which the storm that levelled all ceded the Union—a period not only so re- else had somehow passed over and spared. markable in the history of Ireland, but also, There is no sort of reading more univeras regards the general experience of the sally popular than biography; and autoworld, so novel in many of its aspects, so biography is surely not its least attractive startling in many of its results-it will cer- species. It is most desirable that many tainly not be for want of materials of suffi- autobiographies should be written, and we cient copiousness and variety. The lives of hope, as the tide of literature spreads and Charlemont, Flood, Grattan, Curran, Tone, deepens, to see their number greatly inand Fitzgerald, have already been written, creased, anticipating as we do a correspondif not always with the requisite courage and ing improvement in quality. For as yet it impartiality, at least with care and ability a is an ugly fact in literary history, that too good deal above the average of biographies. many of the best autobiographies are the The historical compilations of Plowden, Mac- work of men who ought never to have unneven, Barrington, Seward, and others, al- dertaken such a task. There is a self-resthough none of them of a high order, are pect that genius of the highest order owes yet, as the productions of cotemporaries and unto itself, which we cannot but conceive to eye-witnesses, full of instruction for the can be violated by disclosures of a certain kind. did enquirer. The host of pamphlets also, Not that dignity is a thing for high or low with which the press teemed during the en- to stand on thorns about, if they knew but tire of that eventful struggle, affords a wide all : walking on stilts is at best a tiresome field for research, and one whose riches are exercise, and only rational or pardonable in as yet unknown and unexplored : to this very marshy districts. Nevertheless there are class of writings the efforts of Swift and Lu- matters, and those unworthy of the slight cas had, at an earlier period, given an influ- the world is prone to cast on them, concernence and importance scarcely paralleled in ing which a man whom fate hath led, any other country, and which tended in scarred perhaps, but still victorious, through some degree to compensate for the scanti-the ordeal and fiery whirlwind of contending ness and inefficiency of the newspaper press thought and passion, ought to have respect at that time. Again, the memoirs and per- unto himself, and simply hold his tongue sonal narratives of Holt, Teeling, Sampson, about them. Hay, and a variety of other publications, of We cannot help thinking that such men different degrees of merit, contain the rich as Rousseau and Goethe, have, all things est materials for picturesque and effective considered, done the world more harm than history. To these is now added the Auto- good, by the minute analysis of their early biography of Archibald Hamilton Rowan, a history, which they have bequeathed to after man whose residence among us helped, for generations. It is, in some respects, an unmany years, to keep alive in our daily clean and unwholesome thing to see a man thoughts the memory of the contest in which of such an order, a born king of men, a ruler he had been engaged. Dwelling among us in by right divine over the hearts and souls of security and respect, his manly presence was his generation, or many generations, severan unceasing testimony to the worth of those ing with chirurgic coolness the tissues of his of whom he was almost the sole survivor; dead departed affections, the truest glories of like a solitary oak still growing where once his life. It chills the pulse of houest ena forest had been, not the grandest perhaps, thusiasm, to listen to a patriarch of sorrow

Autobiography of ARCHIBALD HAMILTON Rowan, Esq. With Additions and Mustrations, by WILLIAM HAMILTON DRUMMOND, D.D., M. R.I. A. Dublin, Tegg and Co. 1840.

and song, telling with frigid philosophic in- Often in reading such productions, and for difference the story of his ancient loves and example, on coming to the end of the work of hates, his trials, his sins, his sufferings; which we are proceeding to give an account, lecturing, as it were, on the anatomy of life, have we been forced to exclaim, laying down with the corpse of his early self before him. the book in despair,—Is that all? Was Such work, in our opinion, has a tendency this a man's life ? To be sure, the reply of to undermine (in common with many other our own thoughts almost anticipated our strongholds of morality, which the last three query:- This was not all; 'tis simply all centuries have been incessantly bombarding) that the unfortunate narrator was able to rethat safeguard of silence and obscurity, that member or relate; and under the most fasacredness of home, which erewhile clothed vourable circumstances how little must that with a graceful garment the nakedness of be? Is not the life of the meanest man on life, and cherished in purity and warmth the earth more than the greatest could, with the hearts of many a generation; hearts nurtured labour of a life-time, adequately chronicle, into simpleness and strength by truly noble much less satisfactorily account for? The influences, and dreading the rebuke of far truest joys, the deepest sorrows of life—its other censors than newspapers and police strength, its weakness, its meanness, its subthe moral satraps of our present dwarfed ex- limity,—what words shall describe them, istence.

what endowment of graphic power avail to Men, however, are above all things desi- paint even their shadow ? The sunshine rous to gratify their curiosity, and will there and the storms of life, its brightness and fore always drink in with greedy ear the re- gloom, its pride and passion, its vigour and cital of the like details. Such self-historians decay, ye may mimic, ye sons of men,

but as we have spoken of will therefore ever be new create you cannot. The highest poet their prime favourites. And we allow that only twines a garland of autumn leaves, on much or almost everything of the kind, de- which, as it crowns his anxious brow, men pends on the what and the how. We gaze, till in memory or in hope, the leaves should be sorry to quarrel with Jean Paul seem green again, and the face of that man for the frolicsome minuteness, brimful too of transfigured with a brightness which is not the deepest pathos, with which he brings be- of earth. Alas ! 'uis an idle delusion all, fore us the glories of his childhood. We glad though it make your hearts. To anhave not recently experienced a greater chor in the stream of time, even his strength pleasure than in the perusal of Romilly's may not avail you. He floats on the waters early history, as retraced by himself with himself, motionless though he appear. If such a lingering fondness of recollection; the men were not always attempting tasks bestill current of a deep affection mellowing yond their strength, 'twere wonderful how into a radiant poetry, the plainest and most they beguile themselves and others with unpretending narrative. Would that we had such fantastic semblance. The unconscious thousands of such histories; but of such dreams of infancy, the sprightliness of childautobiographies as Rousseau's and Goethe's, hood, the fervour of youth, the fierce intendisclosing secrets which should never have sity of manhood, the gradual resignation of been spoken of, violating sanctities which old age,—what power shall awaken them ought above all to have been respected, the from the tomb of the past, and make them fewer we have the better. The repentant alive and real ? The trustful purity of our fervour of the former, the vivid grace of the young years, the infinite exaltation of latter, the importance, in literary history, of early love, the lonely sufferings of later lise, what has been revealed to us by both, will the burthen of the infirmities and sorrows never induce us to pardon them such wrong which wean the aged from existence; our to mankind and to themselves.

joys and our sorrows alike,—who shall reOn the other hand, anxious as we are to call them even in memory, or gather with see men of lively powers, and endowments unwavering hand the tangled threads of his not arising to sublimity of genius, under history ? The joys and sorrows alike, ninetake the labour of writing their own history, tenths of them are forgotten. The tide of we must acknowledge that there are im- oblivion hath swept them away. Gather the inense difficulties in the way. A good auto- wrecks together, and 'tis all thou knowest of biography is an excessively difficult achieve thy life. Arrange, and name, and number ment, and needs, for the most moderate suc- them, and 'tis all thou canst tell of thy hiscess, some powers at least of a high order, tory. Surely autobiography is a very imand indeed so rare as at once to entitle their perfect thing. possessor to rank an undisputed genius. So much for what men may succeed in

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