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priciously dealt with--might be stung by in- / tion's property ; but to hold up to view the
dividual tyranny into mad and vain resolves, system as it pervades a large portion of the
forgetful of the odds against him, and that no land, torturing and exacting, trampling and
revenge, however terrible or guilty, he could decimating the unprotected people, and thus
take, would perceptibly modify the general to arouse the constitutional might of the as-
evil. But this conviction, which improved sailed and too long suffering inany, to uni-
habits of life and the spread of education ted exertion for a thorough reformation of
have latterly done so much to confirin, with- the laws of land.
held many an injured man from violence in A mass of evidence, of information, and of
the worst of times; and the comparative facts lies at this moment before us; how shall
facilities existing then for obtaining a new we select from them, or arrange them? How
holding, when a man was driven from his shall we give the tithe of them within rea-
ancient home, turned away the wrath of the sonable space? We cannot; it must susfice
outcast, and gave him an alternative to to take them as they come in order of time,
think of. That too was something ; but reserving for recurring opportunities, which
that is now fast disappearing, and in many we shall not fail to find, the continuation of
cases it is already wholly gone. An arro- our melancholy narrative.
gant and overbearing fraction of the com- There exist no materials for any thing
munity, who assume to themselves the title like an adequate summary of the details of
of lords of the soil, have reduced their old dispossession, in any single county. Returns
caprice to regular system. They do things of the number of cjectments sued out in the
now by rule, and upon no fickle or mercy- superior courts, during a certain period, by
giving principle. They are educated and the landlords of a few of the most disturbed
enlightened oppressors now,--have learned districts, were made by order of the govern-
political economy, or pretend to have,- ment, and used by Lord Morpeth in the de-
and are covenanted and agreed together bates on the state of criine in Ireland, which
among themselves, to clear, that is to de- took place in the course of last session.
populaté the land. If a tenant votes against But these were far, infinitely far short of
his owner's wishes, he must take the conse- exhibiting in their true extent, the fearsul
quences- 5-a ditch for a bed, and begging for workings of the system. Under the recent
a livelihood. If his offence be the wor- statutes, giving extended jurisdiction to the
ship of his father's God, the proprietor Assistant Barrister's court, cjectments may
of his conscience believesbelieves ! —it to be brought at Quarter Sessions against all
be his duty to drive from the place of his persons accused of “overholding," as the le-
early dwelling and matured affection,-- gal phrase hath it, if the rent does not exceed
froin the only spot on earth where he £50 a year. Every body knows that within
has a certain mcans of life, the old tenant this limit fall three fourths of the tenantry of
of the estate, and 10 supplant him with im- the kingdom. When therefore we are told
ported strangers of the favoured creed. the number of ejectments in the superior
There is a still worse crime in these wise, courts, we are told practically nothing of
humane, and lordly men's estimation—that what is really going on throughout the coun-
of being a small holder. The poor man is an try, in this the most important matter that
offence unto them; his existence is intoler- the country can be informed about. The
able in their sight; God hath said the poor law business of the people is done at
shall never cease out of the land; but cer- Quarter Sessions, and not in the Four Courts,
taiu landlords of Ireland say they shall. Dublin; we know that the extent of law pro-

Said we not well that life and property ceedings in the latter relative to land and its was fast becoming insecure in Ireland ? tenure, is already too great for the peace of

But the proof--the proof, cries soine apo- the country; but great though they be, they logist of peculiar ignorance on the other side are as cypher, compared with those which of the Channel, or of peculiar elfrontery on take place in the local tribunals. this side. Ali, you shall have it till you Here then we pause to ask, what is the rue the hour you asked for it.

reason that a liberal government, professedly not about to darken the bad fame of this man existing on the popular breath, and lawor the other; we have no individual injuries officered by men well acquainted with this to wreak, no personal anger to give vent to. vital truth of society and its fate in Ireland, Our object is a public and a national one, —what is the reason that now six years have -10 tell, as a faithful tribune of the people, been suffered to roll ignorantly by, without what they are suffering, not here or there, any efficient means being taken to rip open on Lord Harass'en's estate, or Mr. Evic- and lay bare this mystery of misery ? Or if

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ihe administration have neither the energy nor , are presented with the fearful spectacle of the will to do this duty to our people—to do nearly one thousand families menaced with this, which it were no mighty or espensive the loss of that, by whose undisturbed posboon to grant, but literally nothing beyond session alone they can feel the ineans of exthe doing of an easy act of common justice istence secure. But let us look a little towards us—why is it that parliament is not closer at the picture. The county whereof called upon by some of our independent we are speaking now, is one of comparamembers for Ireland, to institute a bold and tively small dimensions. Its population does searching inquiry into the subject? This is not exceed 150,000, a number which is usuthe kernel of Irish policy; and all the rest, ally estimated as composing 28,000 families. till this be come at, is but scraping and rind. And what have we then ? One family out of ing of the shell. This is the previous ques- every twenty-eight threatened in the brief tion to Lord Stanley's Bill. For until this space of half a dozen years with extirpation. matter of the uumutual, unreciprocal, and Each of these families is necessarily known unequal relation of landlord and tenant be to, and connected with many others. The ascertained, as the first step to a thorough sympathy of friendship-of neighbourhood, change of their respective positions, and until -of relationship, is strong in the hearts of that change be set about and perfected, fran- our countrymen. Such feelings may be chise and registration disquisitions are little contrary to landlord-made law—may be at better than a stupid playing of the old game variance with the tranquil decimation or enof political blindman's-buff. As to the mere slaving of a people: what business have the statistical facts, any member of the House of people with sympathies for the aggrieved, or Commons could obtain for asking for it, a indignation at wrong? their duty in this return of the number of civil bill ejectments, world is to drudge, to emigrate, and die ;-to brought in each county in Ireland, during be kept at home for domestic purposes, the last half dozen years; and it is hardly too while faggots are worth forty shillings á much to say, that whoever would take the year,—or to be exported like swine, and trouble of procnring such a return, would other beasts," when votes become no longer render his constituents and his country pre- marketable. “ Beasts” is no phrase of ours, eminent service.

—not even in the bitterness of our scorn and Meanwhile let us glance at a few specimens ridicule of the system we arraign, would we of the working of agrarian combination as it is dare to trifle so far with the honour of our carried on by a portion of the aristocracy. race, or so forget the homage which we owe We shall omit mentioning names in the fol- to the good and wise Creator of our race, as lowing recitals, for a very plain and suffi- to be guilty of that impious nickname. But cient reason. Our object is not to gratify all decency is laid by when the madness of local feelings of resentment or indignation; social tyranny begins, and reason and exwhich, however just and natural, are wholly postulation are waste of time. It is power vain for any purposes of general or perma- and impunity which make oppression recknent remedy, and rather tend to absorb and less and talkative ; let us pardon and forwaste the energy of each district in passion- get the individual fool; but let the epithet ate utterance of its peculiar wrongs, than and the applause it won, as expressive of the lead it to seek the sympathy and coopera- spirit that actuates the system, be rememtion of each other equally suffering dis- bered and reiterated until that system be put trict, that all may take united measures of an end to for ever. mutual help and aid. For the people's Perhaps it will be said that threats are sake, we moum over every ebullition of vio- not deeds, and that however unhappy the lence, whose echo we are forced to hear. menace of ejectment may render a large

In one of the counties of Leinster, there portion of the community, it is only an aswere no fewer than one hundred and ninety- sertion of proprietory rights, and is not to five ejectments brought in the superior be taken as an index to actual dispossession; courts between 1833 and 1838. We inser, in other words, service of ejectments upon not only from the grounds already stated, all the tenants of a townland is nothing but also from the result of a good deal of inore than the cracking of the driver's whip enquiry we have made in various counties in a slave plantation ; is it indeed ? upon the subject, that the number of eject- Within the confines of the county we ments brought in the quarter sessions courts have been adverting to, there stood not very by civil bill, are, at the lowest calculations, long ago a considerable village, wherein four times as numerous as those sued forth between forty and fifty families had their of the superior tribunals. Thus, then, we home. Some of them were poor, and pro

bably enjoyed as sparingly the comforts of as the cant is; and though they had relied
life as commonly falls to the Irish peasant's upon the promise of leases, and had paid up
lot. But many of them also were in com- the rent to the day, he had the power to evict
fortable circumstances, living in houses built them as yearly tenants by a mere notice to
of stone, and bringing up their children, to quit, notwithstanding the prescriptive title
use their own phrase, with notions of de- that upwards of twenty years' possession had
cency. Their fathers had dwelt around the morally given them.
same spot for many generations; and they Now we have selected this case as one
were instinctively fond of the old place. devoid of any peculiar circumstances of
That once thriving and populous hamlet ex- political or religious oppression, because we
ists no

more. Every family therein was, know it to be a fair and admitted sample of by the absolute and resistless decree of one the operation of the existing law, universally man, driven from their homes, and none throughout the kingdom. And on this we shall ever light a fire upon these hearths take our stand and say,—here is the root of again. With the exception of one house that insecurity that inevitably tends to deand the barrack of the constabulary, not moralize, degrade, and impoverish the naa single dwelling was left standing. Where tion. It signifies not one farthing, whether yesterday there was the hum of toil, the light the same law acting, as in England, upon a laugh of childhood, and the quiet talk of age, social condition wholly and utterly different, there is silence now; desolation reigns; the is found to work no similar evil. The inhabitants are gone, and the place thereof variety of employments which exists in knoweth them no more. At the lowest cal- England, renders it impossible for landlords culation two hundred human beings were to trifle with the good humour of their tenanthus driven into exile, or compelled to seek try. One half the population of England a prowling livelihood by mendicancy in their are engaged in other pursuits than agriculnative land. It only remains to be added, ture ; agriculture with four-fifths of our that no pretence of insolvency was made as population is the only means of existence. the reason of their arbitrary dispossession. If a tenant is aggrieved in England, he

In another and somewhat larger county of throws up his holding, and it lies, perhaps, the same province, the number of ejectments for years unoccupied, the landlord is taught issued during the same period, namely from a lesson for life, -and the rest of his tenants 1833 to 1838, in the superior courts alone, live on and improve securely. So far from considerably exceeded 200; and estimating the possession of leases being thought inthe civil bill proceedings of the same kind dispensable by the tenant, there are numerous by the proportion already noticed, we have at districts in England where they are practithe least as numerous a class of sufferers cally unknown. And thus it happens, from here as in that above mentioned. By way the disparity of circumstances, that the law of illustration of the abuses in detail, which which in lawyer's lingo sounds the same the existing laws of tenantry give room for, there and with us, works all the difference, in we shall inention a case that occurred in the practice, of social peace and social war, county in question within the last three years. of personal liberty and prædial 'thraldom. Three respectable small farmers had held As to the abstract or intrinsic righteousunder a middle man for very many years ; ness of the English law itself, we have neibut the latter, having become improvident, fell ther time nor patience to do more than say, into arrear and was justly evicted. The sub- that in every such matter, whose excellence tenants came thenceforth to hold directly or evil consists solely in its applicability to from the owner in fee, and upon the occasion the wants it is applied to, the pretence of of their being for the first time recognized as abstract justice is nothing more nor less tenants by him, they were distinctly told that than abstract fudge. The land laws of Engthey should get new leases if they maintained land may work well in England for aught we their good character, and improved their know; and if they do, Heaven forbid that holdings. This was sworn to upon the trial we should be suspected of having the rewhich subsequently took place, and not con- motest wish to see them altered : we take it troverted; it was likewise proved incontestably for granted that our shrewd and thrifty that they had improved, and had built com- neighbours understand what is good for them, fortable houses on their little farms, and no better than any other set of men on the face allegation whatsoever was made of their mis- of the earth ever did or ever will compreconduct in any respect. But the landlord hend it. But so in like manner do we; and had formed the resolution in his own wise we are not, therefore, to be baffled, when we head that their farms needed consolidation, demand a change that the experience of

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generations has proved so indispensible to after we shall name the "Insecurity of the our safety and welfare,—by the pert quip of People," to rest in silence until we shall see Counsellor Hungry, or the assimilating active and earnest measures taken, or pracchatter of Mrs. Expectant.

tically, at least, begun for the permanent But we pass on to a third illustration of protection that we stand in need of; and as the system. There is a certain property in the knowledge of the whole bitter truth is the fine county of which we are now about the first step to be taken in the work of Land to speak, which never has belonged to a Reforın, as it is in every similar work of real bigoted or politically unpopular family. reformation, we purpose to continue, in fuAbout five and twenty years ago the owner ture numbers, our examples and illustrations of it desired to create, as it was called, an of the state of property and its tenure in interest in the county, with a view to the Ulster, Connaught, and Munster. representation. Accordingly he granted nearly Meanwhile, a few words as to other 300 forty-shilling freeholds, which, as the Leinster counties. In one of the most popdistrict was then populous, was an easy mat- ulous of them, the number of ejectments ter to do. Soon afterwards, however, he served under the authority of the superior succeeded in obtaining the object of his am- courts, in the six years from 1833 to 1838, bition elsewhere, and from that hour this both inclusive, was only 170, while in another liberal, for he was on the hustings and in the adjacent thereto, of yet larger dimensions, the house of Commons an undoubted liberal, corresponding proportion was kept up during began the work of clearance. Notices to the same interval to a still greater amount. quit, and ejectments for rent and title, were But the community who have suffered most, kept up without mercy or intermission, 'till taking into consideration their fewness, comno vestige remained of the once thronging paratively speaking, are those who dwell in hill-side and valley. A whole townland is one of the spots which Providence would engrossed by one man now; and there are idiots seem to have most specially intended for the who will tell you that the change of a hu- happiness and comfort of man. The soil man population into an inhabitancy of oxen is more than Irish in its fertility ; and along and sheep, is an evidence of giant-stride its borders pour the deep and affluent tides prosperity!

of inland navigation. But a few men, gifted The melancholy consequence of the fatal with irresponsible social power, and carried system in this particular instance, was the or- insanely away by the dictates of prejudice ganization of lawless and desperate bands, and passion, and unrestrained by the advice who kept the entire neighbourhood in awe, as unreproved by the good example of their up to no very distant period. They threat- brethren aristocrats, who in this and other ened vengeance upon any who should take the afflicted countries seem appointed, like the vacant land; and it is a memorable and in- prophet of old, to stand between the doomed structive fact, that one considerable tract lay and the living, that the plague of depopulaso long tenantless on this account, that it tion may partially be stayed,—these numeracquired and bore the name for many years ically insignificant, though, by the accident of “ the waste land.” But this was in times of birth and the misfortune of monopolising gone by, it may be said ; what of all this to land laws, too mighty men, have shaken all the purpose now? Alas, there are too many popular confidence in property and its tenure, of the landlords of Ireland whom no expe- and will, if they be not timely hindered, rience seems to have any effect upon. “In bring society, in that beautiful and once the principal town of this very county, not mirthful district, to anarchy and ruin. The three months ago, we happen to know that a number of ejectments there, during the pegentleman was unable to get bills of sale riod already named, was, in the superior printed for several days, because, as the courts, above two hundred,

,-a fearful numworkmen stated in excuse, they were engaged ber, bearing in mind the gross population. in manufacturing Notices to Quit, for At what annount shall we venture to predifferent gentlemen.

sume the notices to quit, and ejectments We pass on to another county, still keep- under £50 rent, brought, in the same ing within Leinster, beyond whose limits we mournful period, under the local jurisdicperceive that time and space will not suffe: tions ? Nor are we at liberty to believe that us to travel on the present occasion. Our at the end of that period any cessation or yearnings after the fate and sympathy of the respite was permitted to socieiy, wherein it South, the West, and the North, cannot in the might forget its wrongs and recover its lost same hour be exemplified; but we do not patience. Within the last two years, on a mean to suffer this great subject, which here- single property in that county, thirty fami


lies were turned out of their holdings on the mand of those great changes in the relation same day, and their houses levelled with of landlord and tenant as established by the ground. The scene, as graphically de- law, that the growth of civilization every scribed by an eye-witness, we shall not here where is already developing, but which our repeat. It were utterly impossible to write condition peculiarly requires. If the people it, or to read it, without feelings which we of England are indifferent to such things, fear need no art or eloquence to be kept what is that us? We know what we want, alive among our countrymen; and such and what we want we are grown too many feelings centred, as in details like those we not to have for asking, if we only have the have now in view they must needs be, upon sense to ask it in a proper tone. the heads of one or two individuals, we can- Reinember '82! For fifty years our fanot think either useful or in any way de- thers had been seeking for their rights, and sirable. Again we repeat, the system, as a whispering about their rights, and writing system, is the thing, and the only thing to pamphlets, or reading the most conclusive be effectually assailed. The law, which logical proof that they were entitled to have gives first a monopoly of the land to a few, their rights, and all the usual palaver of poand then invests them with irresponsible litical poltroonery; and all that time they and illimitable powers, makes men oppres- got nothing but kicks and curses, which

as necessarily and as inevitably, as they in some measure deserved. At length moral effect follows moral cause. It is not it caine into their heads to say to one anothe peculiar viciousness of the men. Are ther,-"maybe it were well to try what a dirnot these very men, in other respects, and ferent tone would do; suppose we agree to in all the unpoisoned relations of society, forget our old differences of creed and fachonourable, upright, and humane ? All of tion; suppose we put an end to whiteboythem may not be so, but the majority un- ism by night, and logical remonstrances by doubtedly are. Why? because they are day, and folding our arms constitutionally, not there placed in a false position by the announce to our oppressors that we have laws of the land.

made up our minds as to what we are enFellow countrymen ! think well and deep titled to, and that we intend to have it.” It ly on these things. Fellow countrymen! was said, and it was done. '82 was won with you, and you alone, rests your own without a blow. A calm and united people peaceable and blood-guiltless emancipation is the most horrible vision misgovernment from this terrible oppression,-one which in ever saw. It takes the very breath from it; nought, that is truly good or worthy, bene- its whole witchery and conjuration is emfits your oppressors, but makes you “poor ployed to dispel its appearance; whyindeed." It is for you to change, by the why is it that the cunning of perverse encalm force of irresistible opinion, the evil chantment still prevails to shut out from us parts of long neglected, long unreformed the only revelation of popular power, haplaws. But oh! think as a great and up- piness, and prosperity ? risen people, of the attitude and demeanour Remember also 29 ! Then, for the sethat behts you.

cond time in our history, was the might and By all the sufferings ye have endured majesty of the nation made known, peacewith noble fortitude,-by all the steadfast- ably, triumphantly, in vindication of its suness wherewith ye have hoped even against preine authority. The men of '29, like the hope, and against accumulated provocations men of '82, were unanimous and in earnest; to despair,—by the name and lineage we and their calm determination terror-struck bear in common,—by all we have in unison the heart of despotism; and the moral powas Irishmen,-by every impulse of pride er of physical force being timely manifesand grief, and glory, we do adjure ye, to lay ted, rescued us from the dread alternative of aside the ineffectual resort of personal re

a civil war. venge, and to unite in firm and resolute de

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