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from an earlier period, dim discrowned roy- pany; and wide as the throat of conquest is, alty was still retained as an implement of its instinct of repletion has occasionally taxation; but power, rank, influence, sover- been found to cry-enough! and grant an eignty, or even personal independence,-the involuntary respite, where there was neither heirs of these once haughty thrones have heart to compassionate, nor wish to spare. none; and as befel the too pitiably famous It takes no ordinary powers of imperial prince of the Carnatic, they will in due appetite to take in upwards of 100,000 time cease to be maintained, even for the square miles of prey at a meal, even though vile uses they are now applied to. By and diversity of names and characteristics probye they will be kept no longer.
voke desire, and stimulate digestion. Until Munro, writing to George Canning in these should be thoroughly masticated and 1820, says,—“ Hyderabad and Nagpore* absorbed, gentle nature could not proceed were once great independent states. But in its vocation ; and Scindiah was reserved both are now as completely dependent upon for a more convenient season. Meanwhile, us, as Mysore. They must at some period however, his dependency was anxiously seor other fall entirely into our hands; and cured. “After witnessing the ruin of the the internal administration must in the Paishwah, his dreams of grandeur were mean time be chiefly directed by our Resi- laid aside for ever. He entered into close dents. No skill can make a country pros- alliance with the English, abandoning the perous under such a system.”+
old associations of his race; for he was As for Scindiah, his fate was somewhat only able to preserve his dominions, by a different. His power, as the head of a departure from all that is deemed honour great confederacy, had no longer an exist- by his tribe. He has submitted to the
The lesser chieftainries had lain be- great revolution that has occurred; and tween his kingdom and that of the Com- viewing the struggle for superiority as past,
is forward to recognise the permanent sway
of the British government."* • The dominions of the Nizam and the Rajah the contemplative musings of the conqueror. of Berar, of which Hyderabad and Nagpore were the capitals. † Munro, vol. ii. p. 52.
* Malcolm, vol. i. chap. vii.
The tall and lovely Cypris, as I slept,
Drew near my couch; in her white hand she led
Still on the ground, and thus the Goddess said :-
My infant Eros: teach him how to sing.
To teach the willing imp our rustic lays ;
How Hermes gave the lyre in mythic days;
Apollo for the harp; whereat the child
Tossed his superior head in scorn, and smiled.
And sung to me of love ; and deftly taught
In sooth, what wonder that I soon forgot
ART-UNIONS AT HOME AND ABROAD.
In instituting any comparison between on the contrary, we would, in the strongest these societies, as indicated by our heading, terms, record our sense of the disinterested we are influenced by three motives,—an ar- zeal, and the unwearied exertions exhibited dent desire for the success of the Art-union by its early promoters,—more particularly established amongst us,—a conviction that by its excellent Honorary Secretary. To from its present constitution, it must fail that gentleman's zeal and taste for the to obtain the great objects of its formation, fine arts, we are indebted for the first —and an equally sincere conviction that, effectual starting of this society; and to by the adoption of the leading principles his unremitting exertions to obtain supof the Scottish and other Art-unions, such port, for a degree of success, quoad funds, a constitution may be given to our Irish which has exceeded in its first year the Society, as will not wear out in the work- most sanguine expectations of its proing, but will gather force as it rolls on, jectors. Indeed, such have been the zeal and ensure a lasting prosperity.
and activity exhibited so far as it has gone, In entering upon a subject that awakens that we should be almost disposed to trust our warmest interest,-one on which the to the Society's righting itself in its proadvancement of the fine arts in Ireland gress—did we not feel that its ultimate now mainly depends,—so many subjects success or failure must now be a quesforce themselves upon our consideration,- tion of national importance,—that, clogged so many visions Aoat before our fancy's with the present errors of constitution, its eye, so many reasonings rush upon us, as course must be impeded,—and that now, to render it necessary that we should re- whilst both the society and its errors are duce the heterogeneous mass of thought in their infancy, is the best time, when it to order; and to this end, we shall divide is most easy to amend the latter, and our subject into heads. We shall, in the thereby render essential benefit to the first place, glance at the general purposes infant society. and original formation of Art-unions; se To whatever cause attributable, it is condly, we shall endeavour to give some very evident that the fine arts have at statistical account of the history and pro- all times excited
livelier and more pergress of these societies, as established in manent interest amongst our Continental Scotland and England; and lastly, having, neighbours, than in our “cloud capped” as we trust we shall, by our résumé of isles; whether this is to be accounted for what has been done,- prepared our readers by the difference of temperament resulting for the true and unbiassed view of the sub- from different temperatures of climate, in ject, we shall point out what we conceive which latter our neighbours have a manito be erroneous or defective in the consti- fest advantage over us,—or, by their setution of our society, and shew what there niority in the march of civilization, inis in the peculiar state of the arts in Ire- volving in its course the rise and fall of land, to require the adoption and strict nations, which, even in their fallen greatadherence to the Scottish principle of ness, shed an odour of refinement over the “home” patronage,-and how, by a slight more barbarous tastes of their destroyers, remodelling, the necessary reform may be would be a question of philosophical reobtained.
search, not uninteresting, but misplaced Here, in limine, we beg to disclaim any, here; perhaps, in the end, it would be the slightest intention to undervalue the found to be the result of these conjoint exertions that have been made to establish causes. There is, doubtless, much in the the Irish Society, or to underrate the atmosphere about us, that through our success which, so far, it has obtained : 1 physical frame, affects our moral tastes; without circumscribing genius within the tronage, in the year of grace 1835-6, the limits of mere geographical distinctions, House of Commons directed a committee -a general cultivation of tastes,-a rari- to enquire into the state of the fine arts in fication, as it were, of the human spirit, Great Britain, with reference—still the will be generally admitted to be more com- « cui bono" test-to their influence on mapatible with sunny climes, than with fog nufactures. Many eminent artists were and frost-bound regions. In fact, though examined, and much interesting matter is genius be of no country, the diffusion of to be found in the printed report of that a taste for its appreciation and encourage- committee ; good has so far resulted therement will be found to be materially affected from, that schools of design have been inby the circumstances of clime, as rendering stituted for education in the elementary us more or less chained to the mere ne- principles; proportionate improvement and cessaries of life, and conversely, more classical variety of design may therefore or less alive to intellectual gratification; be looked for in our manufactures. It is above all things, our social position, our to be hoped that the arts, thus brought education, and our habits, in which we are home to our household gods, may gradually but creatures of imilation,-superinduced disseminate a taste and ambition for excelby what chain of circumstances they may lence in their higher departments, and that be,-affect essentially our tastes. That their value in the internal decorations of life was given to be enjoyed, not endured, our temples or public buildings of whatever —that labour is necessary for the mainten- class, may soon be recognized. It is this ance of life, and recreation for its enjoy that, more than any thing else, affords a ment, seems to be the very practical stimulus to Continental artists, and gives and sound philosophy of the Continental employment to the chisel and the pencil. people; hence, national recreation becomes The history of great passing events is perwith them an essential,—and hence, the petuated in living colours on the walls of diffusion of the taste for, and the zeal in their public edifices, and in the galleries of the cultivation of those arts, which, through their palaces, whilst the pages of Holy the medium of a pleased sense, rejoice and Writ, translated into the glowing language refine the intellect: but the converse phi- of art, supply appropriate adornment for losophy, which views life with an utilita- their temples. By these means, occupation rian eye, as one long, long toil.-deems has been and is afforded in the higher dewealth the summum bonum, and labour, partments of art; and a further encouragethe means of its acquirement,-by the ap- ment has been given by those wealthy inplication of its “cui bono" test, raises an dividuals, whose cultivated tastes sought almost invincible barrier to the cultivation the productions of art to decorate their of intellectual recreations,—“not dreamt mansions, and whose wealth enables them of in such philosophy."
to exercise their tastes. Still, a much more Thus, the fine arts, combining in an extended encouragement was necessary; eminent degree the useful and the agree- the artist must be supported and encouable, are centred in the affections of the raged in his progress; it is not enough people of more favoured climes; and the that he can look forward with confidence governments of those countries, aware of to his reward, when he shall have climbed the importance of those arts, as influen- the weary steep of fame,—that when a cing the perfection of all manufactures, certain degree of excellence shall have as also of their refining power over the been attained, he can be assured of occuhabits of the people, in substituting high, pation,—that his chefs d'ouvre shall be moral, intellectual enjoyment for mere sen- greedily purchased up,—no, he must be sual pleasures,—have legislated for their tended on the way; his spirit, often faintcultivation,mand, by the establishment of ing in the weary task, must be soothed national galleries, and national academies, and stimulated to success; his works of by prizes, and other public encouragement, promise, with all their faults, must find a have sought to disseminate a taste for the market, or he faint upon his way. Again, arts, and to stimulate to the attainment of on the Continent numbers are induced to excellence therein.
follow the profession, from the evident Even in utilitarian and money-loving success of others, who perhaps have misEngland, the importance of these great taken their powers, and at best rise not arts has at last been felt, and after having beyond mediocrity: in Paris, the artists been long left to struggle as best they might, number three tho
thousand, of whom not under a very trifling share of royal pa- I three hundred may probably rise to eminence,-yet, the remaining number hav- small amount of local benefit, soon became ing wedded themselves to the profession, valuable assistants to the more general and have it only to look to for support. On diffused encouragement of national art; the other hand, a very large portion of and thus we find, that Art-unions originsociety, whose tastes had been cultivated ating in an increasing public desire to by the constant observation and enjoyment possess works of art, conjoined with a of works of art in public galleries, but whose liberal wish to foster native talent, were means prohibited them individually from only intended to act as succedanea to more the purchase of such works, (which, if they extended national patronage, and the exbe of merit at all, are, for the most part, ercise of individual munificence, guided by of necessity, of a price beyond moderate refineil taste,-by which means the obmeans to afford) were nevertheless anxious ject of high art can best be advanced. to gratify their tastes, whilst they en- In the transplanting such institutions couraged deserving artists ; and thus the into British soil, it is evident some great system of Art-unions, or the combination change was to be looked for, either in the of individual small subscriptions into one constitution of these societies, or in the large sum to be expended in the purchase new purposes to which they were to be apof works of art, was first struck out to plied; since, whereas they originally remeet these contingencies.
sulted from an increasing public taste, with The advantages of the coöperative sys- perhaps an overstocked supply, they must tem, as applied in Art-unionz, became at in these countries be regarded as a means once manifest, as may be evidenced from of creating an increase both of supply and Professor Waagen's testimony before the demand, -as, in short, an experiment to committee of the house in 1835-6, when he produce in these countries the same effects talks “ of those (Kunst-verein) which were which in other countries had called them established in Berlin by a number of indi- into existence. That the system has been viduals, about ten years ago, under the eminently successful, is sufficiently proved patronage of the king, and the presidency by a single glance at the unparallelled proof the minister Humboldt, which have had gress of the first institution established in such success, with the annual subscription Great Britain,—the Scottish Art-union, of 15s.; the annual income is now £1,200, founded in 1834. The experiment was by which means several meritorious artists first tried in Scotland, and as a statefind employment, and good works of art ment of the annual amount of funds, up are spread over the country; and this Ver to the present year, will best shew the raein has given so much satisfaction, that pidity with which it has gained ground since then, eight others have been estab- in public estimation—we subjoin a table lished in the provinces of Prussia. Fur- of its receipts and expenditure, from which ther, in Bavaria, Saxony, Wirtemburgh, may at once be gathered, the mode of and Hanover, similar institutions have since its operation, the rapidity of its increase arisen, by which a feeling for, and an in- in funds, and the total amount of pecuterest in the arts have been extended in niary encouragement which it has conan extraordinary degree in Germany." ferred on the arts. These institutions, by the addition of their
Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland, established in 1834.
In contemplating the progress of this of £8800, to which if we add £6396*, the society, we are naturally led to inquire amount of the old Scottish association's into the causes of its very great success; subscription, we have a total of £15,196 and, independent of the general merits of collected for and expended in the encouthe institution, based on the amount of ragement of the fine arts. This, in the inpleasure which its proposed objects must fancy of art-unions amongst us, is no always give the human mind, we are con- inconsiderable sum, and with the assumed vinced that the main cause of its rapid prospect of its rapid increase to an annual progression is, its decidedly national ciia- income commensurate with the commercial racter. The arts were drooping in Scot- importance of these realms, is calculated to land; the exhibitions were not well sup- call forth the energies of British artists and plied, since there was but little market, and to stimulate to exertion; it not only probadly attended, for the public were com- mises a market for numberless works of paratively indifferent to the subject. The merit, which might not otherwise have found Art-union was established to encourage purchasers; but it gives to the artist, who Scottish talent,—to found a national school aims at excellence in the higher walks, an of art at home, and Scotchmen every where almost assurance that the public mind, thus responded to the call of home. It was ob- gradually drawn to the contemplation of ligatory that the works purchased should art—enlightened and refined by acquaintbe the production of native or resident ance therewith, will naturally look to the artists, exhibited in the Scottish Academy; best means of encouraging the highest deby which increased attendance to the exhi- gree of excellence ; that accustomed to the bition is ensured and private purchase sti- daily enjoyment of art in their own manmulated; and so far has the just regard to sions, they will inevitably look for a similar the natural first calls of family claim seemed but higher source of pleasure in the emanything but unjustly exclusive or illiberal, bellishment of their temples and other pubthat the Scottish Art-union numbers among lic edifices. its subscribers, inhabitants of all portions of We have already alluded to the estabthe three kingdoms ; from Dublin alone its lishment in Edinburgh of a new association subscribers for the past year amount to 148. for the promotion of the fine arts in Scotland It will be seen that in the second year a new —this was in the year '37-8, and originated feature was introduced into the institution, in dissatisfaction with the working of part of namely, devoting a portion of the funds to the system of the old society, which was an engraving, of which each subscriber ob- the selection of the works of art by a comtains a copy. This was a happy thought, mittee. The new society, in common with and, no doubt, has done much to swell the the London, and most of the art-unions estabsubscription lists : by it a threefold object lished in England, started on the principle is obtained ; while a portion of the funds of dividing its funds into large and small goes thus to encourage the art of engraving, sums—to be drawn for by the shareholders a prize is held out to the artists—won by the winners being entitled to select him whose work is selected to be engraved, pictures from the exhibitions to the amount and each subscriber receives in addition to of the several prizes : that this is the true his chance of a prize, a print equal in value system we are convinced on many grounds. to the amount of bis subscription. The advantages to the subscriber are mani
The advantages of such institutions seem fold; it induces him to visit—not onceto have made a strong and deepening im- but frequently, the exhibition; it obliges pression on the public mind, since we now him to study and compare the various find that most of the principal towns in Eng- merits—his taste must be exercised and land have established art-unions; London, ultimately improved : it enables him to seLiverpool, Birmingham, Bristol, Man- lect a work suitable in size and subject to chester, Newcastle and we doubt not, his mansion and its general arrangements, others of which we have not heard, have —and being selected to gratify his particueach their association for the promotion of lar taste, bis prize is more likely to be conthe fine arts. In Edinburgh a new associ- stantly regarded with pleasure, to be cared ation has sprung up; and Dublin has its for and estimated at an increased value --Royal Irish Art-union. Allowing the average subscriptions of these eight societies for this year to have been £1100, which in which is included balance from last year, bank
Different from amount as in the table given, we believe under the mark—we have a sum interest, &c.
VOL. III. NO. XVI.