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the way side, when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried out, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou son of David. 31 And the multitude rebuked them, f because they should hold their peace : but they cried the more, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou son of David. 32 And Jesus stood still, and called them, and said, What will ye that I shall do unto you? 33 They say unto him, Lord, that our eyes may be opened. 34 So Jesus had compassion on them, and touched their eyes : and immediately 6 their eyes received sight, and (h they] followed him.

XXI. 1 And when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and a Zech. xiv. 4. were come to Bethphagé, unto a the mount of Olives, then f render, that.

& read, they. . homit.

near the site only a miserable village, row the cleansing of the temple took place. Richa or Ericha. 30, 31.] The mul. The account in Luke, which is the fullest titude appear to have silenced them, lest and most graphic of the four, agrees chronothey should be wearisome and annoying logically with that in the text. I would to our Lord; not because they called Him venture to suggest, that the supposition of the Son of David,- for the multitudes the triumphal entry in Mark being related could have no reason for repressing this a day too soon, will bring all into unison. cry, seeing that they themselves (being If this be so, our Lord's first entry into probably for the most part the same per Jerusalem was private : probably the joursons who entered Jerusalem with Jesus) ney was interrupted by a short stay at raised it very soon after : see ch. xxi. 9. Bethany, so that He did not enter the city I have before noticed (on ch. ix. 27) the with the multitudes. That this was the singular occurrence of these words, "Son fact, seems implicd in Mark xi. 11. Then of David,' in the three narratives of heal. it was that, “when He had looked round ing the blind in this Gospel. 32.] called about upon all things," He noticed the them = (literally) “said, call ye himabuse in the temple, which next day He Mark, “ commanded him to be broughtcorrected. Then in the evening He went Luke. 34.] touched their eyes, not back with the twelve to Bethany, and the mentioned in the other Gospels. In supper there, and anointing, took place. both we have the addition of the Lord's Meantime the Jews (John xii. 9) knew saying, thy faith hath saved thee.that he was at Bethany; and many went The question preceding was to elicit their there that evening to see Him and Lazarus. faith.

(Query, had not Lazarus followed Hiin to CHAP. XXI. 1–17.7 TRIUMPHAL EN. Ephraim ?) Then on the morrow multi. TRY INTO JERUSALEM : CLEANSING OF tudes came out to meet Him, and the THE TEMPLE. Mark xi. 1-11, 15. Luke triumphal entry took place, the weeping xix. 29–44. John. xii. 12—36. This over the city (Luke xix. 41), and the occurrence is related by all four Evan- cleansing of the temple. The cursing of gelists, with however some differences, the fig-tree occurred early that morning, doubtless easily accounted for, if we knew as He was leaving Bethany with the twelve, accurately the real detail of the circum- and before the multitude met Him or the stances in chronological order. In John asses were sent for. (On Matthew's nar. (xii. 1),-our Lord came six days before rative of this event see below on ver. 18.) the Passover to Bethany, where the anoint. According to this view, our narrative omits ing (of Matt. xxvi. 6--13) took place : and the supper at Bethany, and the anointing on the morrow, the triumphal entry into (in its right place), and passes to the events Jerusalem was made. According to Mark of the next day. On the day of the week xi. 11,-on the day of the triumphal entry when this entry happened, see note on He only entered the city, went to the John xii. 1. 1. Bethphagé = Heb. the temple, and looked about on all things, - house of figs : a considerable suburb, nearer and then, when now it was late in the even- to Jerusalem than Bethany, and someing, returned to Bethany, and on the mor times reckoned part of the city. No trace

Zecu. ix. 9.

sent Jesus two disciples, 2 saying unto them, Go into the village over against you, and straightway ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her; loose them, and bring them unto me. 3 And if any man say ought unto you, ye shall say, The Lord hath need of them; and straightway he will send them. 4 All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, 5 b Tell ye the b Isa. lxii. 11. daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of i an ass. 6 And the disciples went, and did as Jesus commanded them, 7 and brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set him thereon. 8 € And k a very great multitude spread their garments in c2 Kings ix. the way ; d others cut down branches from the trees, and a see Lev. xxiii. strawed them in the way. 9 And the multitudes that went 1 before, and that followed, cried, saying, e Hosanna to the e Psa. cxviii. son of David : Blessed is he that cometh in the name of ? Ps.cxviii. 26. the Lord; Hosanna in the highest. 10 And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who 8 is this? 11 And the multitude said, This is Jesus 8 the vil. 20 ik.

i render, a beast of burden. k render, the greater part of the multitude. I read, before him.

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Luke vii. 16 John vi. 14: vii. 40: ix. 17.

of it now remains : see « The Land and the where two ways met.Our Lord sat on Book," p. 697. 2, 3.] The village the foal (Mark, Luke), and the mother over against you, i. e. Bethphagé. Mark accompanied, apparently after the manner and Luke mention the colt only, adding of a sumpter, as prophets so riding would whereon never yet man sat(see note on be usually accompanied (but not of course Mark): John “a young ass.” Justin Mar doing the work of a sumpter). That this tyr connects this verse with the prophecy riding and entry were intentional on the in Gen. xlix. 11. The Lord, here, the part of our Lord, is clear: and also that LORD,' Jehovah: most probably a general He did not thereby mean to give any intimation to the owners, that they were countenance to the temporal ideas of His wanted for the service of God. I cannot Messiahship, but solemnly to fulfil the see how this interpretation errs against Scriptures respecting Him, and to prepare decorum, as Stier asserts. The meanest the way for His sufferings, by a public animals might be wanted for the service avowal of His mission. The typical meanof the Lord Jehovah. And after all, what ing also is not to be overlooked. In all difference is there as to decorum, if we probability the evening visit to the temple understand with him “ the Lordto sig. was on the very day when the Paschal nify “the King Messiah ?” The two dis- Lamb was to be taken up-i. e. set apart ciples were perhaps Peter and John: com for the sacrifice. 8, 9.] Which was pare Mark xiv. 13 and Luke xxii. 8. a royal honour: see 2 Kings ix. 13. 4.] A formula of our Evangelist's (see ch. a very great multitude, literally, the i. 22), spoken with reference to the divine greater part of the multitude. counsels, but not to the intention of the Hosanna) from Psalm cxviii. 25; = "save doers of the act; for this application of now,” a formula originally of supplication, prophecy is in John xii. 16 distinctly said but conventionally of gratulation, so that it not to have occurred to the disciples at is followed by “to &c.” and by “in the the time, but after Jesus was glorified highest,” meaning, ‘may it be also ratified

6, 7.] In Mark, they found the in heaven !' see 1 Kings i. 36: Luke ii. colt tied by the door without, in a place 14, where however it is an assertion, not a

26.

h John ii. 16. prophet, of Nazareth of Galilee. 12 h And Jesus went into

the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and

bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the i Deut. xiv. 25, i moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold m doves, i Deut. xiv. 25, k Isa.lvi.7. 13 and said unto them, It is written. k My house shall be 1 Jer. vii. 11. called the house of prayer; ' but ye have made it a den of

thieves. 14 And the blind and the lame came to him in the temple; and he healed them. 15 And when the chief priests and scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children Ocrying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to the son of David; they were sore displeased,

16 and said unto him, Hearest thou what these say? And m Ps. vii. 2. Jesus saith unto them, Yea; have ye never read, m Out of

the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected

praise ? 17 And he left them, and went out of the city n John xi. 18. into → Bethany; and he lodged there. 18 Now in the m render, the doves.

A read, are making. O render, that were crying. wish. Luke has " the king that cometh,these instead of the lambs for a trespassJohn “the king of Israel that cometh.offering, Lev. v. 7; also for the purifica

12.] Compare the notes on John ii. tion of women, Lev. xii. 8: Luke ii. 24. 13—18. The cleansing related in our text

13.] Stier remarks that the verse is totally distinct from that related there. quoted from Jeremiah is in connexion with It is impossible to suppose that St. Matthew the charge of murder, and the shedding or St. John, or any one but moderately of innocent blood (see Jer. vii. 6). On acquainted with the events which he under the intention of this act of our Lord, see took to relate, should have made such a notes on John ii. 15. It was a purely gross error in chronology, as must be laid Messianic act; see Mal. iii. 1-3. to the charge of one or other of them, if 15, 16.] The circumstance that the children these two occurrences were the same. I were crying • Hosanna to the Son of rather view the omission of the first in the David' in the temple, seems to me to fix synoptic accounts as in remarkable con- this event, as above, on the day of the sistency with what we otherwise gather triumphal entry. Psalm viii. is fre. from the three Gospels--that their nar quently cited in the N. T. of Christ : see 1 rative is exclusively Galilæan (with one Cor. xv. 27: Heb. ii. 6: Eph. i. 22. In exception, Luke iv. 44 in our text), until understanding such citations as this, and this last journey to Jerusalem, and conse that in ver. 4, we must bear in mind the quently the first cleansing is passed over important truth, that the external fulfilby them. On the difference from Mark, ment of a prophecy is often itself only a see note on ver. 1. Both comings of type and representation of that inner and Jehovah to His temple were partial fulfils deeper sense of the prophecy which belongs ments of Mal. iii. 1-3,- which shall not to the spiritual dealings of God. receive its final accomplishment till His 17.] If this is to be literally understood of great and decisive visit at the latter day. the village (and not of a district round it, The temple here spoken of was the court including part of the Mount of Olives; of the Gentiles. We have no traces see Luke xxi. 37), this will be the second of this market in the 0. T. It appears to night spent at Bethany. I would rather have first arisen after the captivity, when of the two understand it literally, and many would come from foreign lands to that the spending the nights on the Mount Jerusalem. This would also account for of Olives did not begin till the next night the money-changers, as it was unlawful (Tuesday) (from Exod. xxx. 13) to bring foreign 18-22.7 THE CURSE OF THE BARREN money for the offering of atonement. FIG-TREE. Mark xi. 12-14, 20-26, where doves the poor were allowed to offer see notes. St. Luke omits the incident.

och. xvii. 20.
p James i 0.

morning as he returned into the city, he hungered. 19 And when he saw Pa fig tree in the way, he came to it, and found nothing thereon, but leaves only, and said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever. And presently the fig tree withered away. 20 And when the disciples saw it, they marvelled, saying, How soon is the fig tree withered away! 21 Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily I say unto you, o If ye have faith, and P doubt o samesi 2 not, ye shall not only do this which is done to the fig tree, 9 but also if ye shall say unto this mountain, Be thou re- 91 Cor. xiii. 2. moved, and be thou cast into the sea; it shall be done. 22 And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, be- r ch. vil.7: lieving, ye shall receive.

23 And when he was come into the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people came unto him as he was teaching, and said, By what authority doest thou • Exod. 1. 7%. these things ? and who gave thee this authority ? 24 And

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Luke xi. 9. James v. 10. 1 John iii. 22: v. 14.

8 Exod. ii. 14.

Acts iv. 7:
vii. 97.

P render, one.

The cursing of the fig-tree had in His most notable miracles were wrought. fact taken place on the day before, and It is observable, that such a state of mind the withering of it was now noticed. St. entirely precludes the idea of an arbitrary Mark separates the two accounts, which exercise of power-none such can therefore are here given together. We must re- be intended in our Lord's assertion-but member that this miracle was wholly we must understand,-“ if expedient.” typical and parabolical. The fig-tree was Though we cannot reach this faith in its THE JEWISH PEOPLE-full of the leaves of fulness, yet every approach to it (ver. 21) an useless profession, but without fruit:- shall be endued with some of its wonderful and further, all hypocrites of every kind, power,-in obtaining requests from God. in every age. It is true, as De Wette ob- See the remarkable and important addition serves, that no trace of a parabolic means in Mark xi. 25, 26. ing appears in the narrative (and yet 23–32.] Mark xi. 27—33. Luke xx. strangely enough, he himself a few lines 1-8. OUR LORD'S AUTHORITY QUESafter, denying the truth of the miracle, TIONED. HIS REPLY. Now commences accounts for the narrative by supposing it that series of parables, and discourses of to have arisen out of a parable spoken by our Lord with his enemies, in which He our Lord); but neither does there in that developes more completely than ever beof the driving out the buyers and sellers fore his hostility to their hypocrisy and from the temple, and in those of many iniquity :-and so they are stirred up to other actions which we know to have been compass His death. 23. the chief symbolic. 19.7 one fig tree, i.e. a soli- priests and the elders of the people] tary fig-tree. It was the practice to plant St. Mark and St. Luke add the scribes, and fig-trees by the road-side, because it was so make up the members of the Sanhedrim. thought that the dust, by absorbing the It was an official message, sent with a exuding sap, was conducive to the pro view to make our Saviour declare Himself duction of the fruit. 21, 22.7 This to be a prophet sent from God-in which assurance has occurred before in ch. xvii. case the Sanhedrim had power to take 20. That truest and highest faith, which cognizance of His proceedings, as of a proimplies a mind and will perfectly in unison fessed Teacher. Thus the Sanhedrim sent with that of God, can, even in its least a deputation to John on his appearing as a degree, have been in Him only who spoke Teacher, John i. 19. The question was the these words. And by it, and its elevating result of a combination to destroy Jesus, power orer the functions and laws of inte. Luke xix. 47, 48. They do not now ask, rior natures, we may reverently believe that as in John ii. 18, What sign shewest Thou

VOL. I.

Jesus answered and said unto them, I also will ask you one thing, which if ye tell me, I in like wise will tell you by what authority I do these things. 25 The baptism of John, whence was it ? from heaven, or of men ? And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say unto us, Why did ye not then

believe him? 26 But if we shall say, Of men; we fear the tch. xvi. 3. people ; t for all hold John as a prophet. 27 And they an

swered Jesus, and said, We cannot tell. And he said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things. 28 But what think ye? A certain man had two sons; and he came to the first, and said, 9 Son, go work to day in my vineyard. 29 He answered and said, I will not: but afterward he repented, and went. 30 And he came to the second, and said likewise. And he answered and said, I [r go], sir: and went not. 31 Whether of them twain

did the will of his father? They say [s unto him], The u make vli. 29, first. Jesus saith unto them, u Verily I say unto you, That the publicans and the hariots go into the kingdom of

50.

9 render, My] child. I not expressed in the original.

Somit, unto us, seeing thou doest these things ? of connexion-but doubtless here intended for they had had many signs, which are to help the questioners to the true answer now included in their these things.” The of their difficulty about John's baptism. second question is an expansion of the first. The following parable (peculiar to Mat

25.] The baptism, meaning thereby thew) refers, under the image of the two the whole office and teaching, of which the sons, to two classes of persons, both sumbaptism was the central point and seal. moned by the great Father to “work in If they had recognized the heavenly mis. His vineyard” (see ch. xx. 1); both Jews, sion of John, they must have also acknow and of His family. The first answer the ledged the authority by which Jesus did summons by a direct and open refusalthese things, for John expressly declared these are the open sinners, the publicans that he was sent to testify of Him, and and harlots, who disobey God to His face. bore witness to having seen the Holy Spirit But afterwards, when better thoughts are descend and rest upon Him. John i. 33, suggested, they repent, and go. The second 34. believe him, "give credit to his class receive the summons with a respect. words :' • for those words were testimonies ful assent (not unaccompanied with a selfto Me.' 26, 27.] These “blind leaders of exaltation and contrast to the other, imthe blind' had so far made an insincere plied in the emphatic I, sir)-having howconcession to the people's persuasion, as to ever no intention of obeying (there is no allow John to pass for a prophet; but they mention of a change of mind in this case): shrunk from the reproof which was sure to but go not. These are the Scribes and follow their acknowledging it now. This Pharisees, with their shew of legal obedi. consultation among themselves is related ence, who “ said, and did not” (ch. xxiii. almost verbatim by the three Evangelists. 3). It will of course admit of wider apThe intelligence of it may have been plications—to Jews and Heathens, or any originally derived from Nicodemus or Jo similar pair of classes who may thus be seph of Arimathæa. The neither tell I compared. 31.7 The go.... before you of our Lord is an answer, not to their you may be taken either as declarativeoutward words, “we cannot tell,” but to go before you, in the matter of God's their inward thoughts, “we will not tell.arrangements, or as assertive of the mere

28.] But what think ye? a formula matter of fact, are going before you. I

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