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xviii. 14. James iv.o. 1 Pet. v.5.
10 Neither be ye called masters : for one is your w Master, even Christ. 11 But 8 he that is greatest among you shall 8 ch. IX. 20, 27. be your X servant. 12 h And whosoever shall exalt himself - Joburxii. su: shall be abased ; and he that shall humble himself shall be Luke xiv. 11: exalted.
13 But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven 9 against men : for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in. z [14 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a 12 Tim. il. 6. pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.] 15 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the a child of hell than yourselves. 16 Woe unto you, kye blind guides, which say, 'Whosoever shall swear by kch. xv, 14. the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by Ich. v. 33, 84. V render, leaders.
w render, leader.
Life, p. 441, and the opening of the Author's dedication of the book). 11.) It may serve to shew us how little the letter of a precept has to do with its true observance, if we reflect that he who of all the Heads of sects has most notably violated this whole command, and caused others to do so, calls himself .servus ser. vorum Dei' (“ servant of the servants of God”).-It must be noted (see margin) that the word here rendered “servant” in the A. V., is not that usually so translated (doulos), which properly means slave or bondsman : but diaconos, which is in the same version rendered minister in chap. xx. 26. 12.] This often-repeated saying points here not only to the universal character of God's dealings, but to the speedy humiliation of the lofty Pharisees ; and as such finds a most striking parallel in Ezek. xxi. 26, 27. 13.7 In Luke xi. 52 it is added “ ye have taken away the key of knowledge”-the Key being, not the Key of, i. e. admitting to, Knowledge, but the Key which is the Knowledge itself, the true simple interpretation of Scripture, which would have admitted them, and caused them to admit others, into the Kingdom of Heaven, by the recognition of Him of whom the Scriptures testify; whereas now by their perverse interpretations they had shut
out both themselves and others from it. See a notable instance of this latter in John ix. 24. They shut the door as it were in men's faces who were entering. [On the interpolated ver. 14, see notes on Mark (xii. 40). It is wanting in almost all the oldest authorities. It appears to have been inserted here by the copyists from Mark, as above, or from Luke xx. 47.]
15.) And with all this betrayal of your trust as the teachers of Israel (John iii. 10 literally), as if all your work at home were done. This was their work of supererogation—not commanded them, nor in the spirit of their law. The Lord speaks not here of those pious Godfearing men, who were found dwelling among the Jews, favouring and often attending their worship—but of the proselytes of righteousness, so called, who by persuasion of the Pharisees, took on them the whole Jewish law and its observances. These were rare - and it was to the credit of our nature that they were. For what could such a proselyte, made by such teachers, become ? A disciple of hypocrisy merely-neither a sincere heathen nor a sincere Jew-doubly the child of hell : condemned by the religion which he had left-condemned again by that which he had taken. 16–22.] The Lord forbade all swearing to His own
01 Kings viii.
13. 2 Chron. vi. 2. Ps. xxvi. 8:
cxxxii, 14. p Ps. xi. 4.
ch. v. 34. Acts vii. 49.
Hos. vi, 6. Micah vi. 8. ch. II.13: xii. 7.
the gold of the temple, he is a debtor. 17 Ye fools, and m Exod. xix. blind : for b whether is greater, the gold, mor the temple
that c sanctifieth the gold ? 18 And, Whosoever shall swear -by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever d sweareth by
the gift that is upon it, he is guilty. 19 Ye [e fools and] n Exod. xxix. blind : for b whether is greater, the gift, or the n altar that
sanctifieth the gift ? 23 Whoso therefore I shall swear by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon. 21 And
whoso f shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by • 1 Kings wi.. him that 8 °dwelleth therein. 22 And he that shall swear
by heaven, sweareth by P the throne of God, and by him P Pavil that sitteth thereon. 23 Woe unto you, scribes and Pha
· risees, hypocrites! for ye h pay tithe of mint and anise and 9 1 Sam .. 22. cummin, and I have omitted the weightier matters of the
law, judgment, mercy, and faith : these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone. 24 Ye blind
guides, i which strain at a gnat, and k swallow a camel. r Mark vii. 4. 25 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! ' for
bine, which of the two. Cread, hath sanctified.
k render, swallowing the. disciples, ch. v. 34; and by the very same oath, but that all these things are called reasoning—because every oath is really and in to do so because of sanctity belonging to eventually an oath by God-shews these them, of which God is the primary source : Pharisees the validity and solemnity of the order likewise of the things hal. every oath. This subterfuge became noto lowed, being, in their foolish estimate of rious at Rome. See citation in my Gr. Test. them, reversed : for the gold must be less
The reading dwelt in ver. 21 is than the temple which hallows it, and the remarkable; God did not then dwell in gift than the altar-not as if this were of the Temple, nor had He done so since the any real consequence, except to shew their Captivity. 23, 24.] It was doubtful, folly—for vv. 20-22, every oath is really whether Levit. xxvii. 30 applied to every an oath by God. But these men were smallest garden herb: but the Pharisees, servants only of the temple (“your house,” in their over-rigidity in externals, stretched ver. 38) and the altar, and had forgotten it to this, letting go the heavier, more dif. God. The straining the gnat is not a ficult, and more important (see ver. 4) mere proverbial saying. The Jews (as do matters of the Law. In the threefold now the Buddists in Ceylon and Hindostan) enumeration, our Lord refers to Micah vi. strained their wine, &c., carefully that they 8 (see also Hosea xii. 6)—where to do might not violate Levit. xi. 20, 23, 41, justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly 42 (and, it might be added, Levit. xvii. with God, are described as being better 10-14). The “strain at a gnat” in our than all offerings. these - these last, present auth. vers. for “strain out a gnat” are the great points on which your exer. of the earlier English vss., seems not to tions should have been spent-and then, if have been a mistake, as sometimes supfor the sake of these they be observed, the posed, but a deliberate alteration, meanothers should not be neglected. The gold ing, “ strain (out the wine at (the occurhere is probably not the ornamental gold, rence of] a gnat." The camel is not only but the Corban-the sacred treasure. They opposed, as of immense size, but is also were fools and blind, not to know and see, joined with the other as being equally unthat no inanimate thing can witness an clean. 25—28.] This woe is founded
62. 1 Thess. ii. 15.
1 Thess. ii.
ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess. 26 Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first I that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also. 27 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! s for : Acts xxiii. 3. ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 28 Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 29 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous, 30 and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. 31 Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the m children of them which n killed * Acts vii, 5.1 the prophets. 32 u Fill ye up ° then the measure of your u Gen. xv. 16. fathers. 33 Ye serpents, ye p ' generation of vipers, how can . . ye escape the 9 damnation of hell ?
34 w Wherefore behold I send unto you prophets, and wise web sxi. 8 I render, the inside of. m render, sons. Brender, murdered.
o render, also. P render, offspring. I render, judgment. not on a literally, but a typically denoted persecutors, forms the matter of the last practice of the Pharisees. Our Lord, in Woe. The burden of this hypocrisy is, that the ever-deepening denunciation of His they, being one with their fathers, treading discourse, has now arrived at the delinea. in their steps, but vainly disavowing their tion of their whole character and practices deeds, were, by the very act of building by a parabolic similitude. are full of] the sepulchres of the prophets, joined with The straining out of the gnat is a cleansing their prophet-persecuting acts, convicting pertaining to the outside, as compared with themselves of continuity with their fathers' the inner composition of the wine itself, wickedness. See, as clearly setting forth of which the cup is full : see Rev. xviii. 3. this view, Luke xi. Instead of the peniThe exterior is not in reality pure when tent confession, “We have sinned, we and the interior is foul : it is not 'a clean cup,' our fathers,” this last and worst generation unless both exterior and interior be clean. in vain protests against their participation Observe, the emphasis is on be: “that its in their fathers' guilt, which they are meanexterior also may not appear to be, but while developing to the utmost, and filling really become, pure.” 27.] The Jews up its measure (Acts vii. 52).' Stier. Again used once a year (on the fifteenth of the notice the emphasis, which is now markedly month Adar) to whitewash the spots where on sons; thus bringing out that relation in graves were, that persons might not be all its fulness and consequences. 32.] liable to uncleanness by passing over them Fill ye up also (as well as they) the mea(see Num. xix. 16). This goes to the root sure (of iniquity) of your fathers. of the mischief at once : “your heart is not Ver. 33 repeats almost verbatim the first a temple of the living God, but a grave of denunciation of the Baptist-in this, the last pestilent corruption : not a heaven, but a discourse of the Lord: thus denoting the hell. And your religion is but the white- unchanged state of these men, on whom the wash-hardly skin-deep.” 29-33.] whole preaching of repentance had now been The guilt resting on these present Phari. expended. One weighty difference however sees, from being the last in a progressive there is : then it was, “ who hath warned series of generations of such hypocrites and you to flee ?” the wonder was, how they be
x Acts v. 40:
xxii, 19. y ch. A. 17.
b 2 Chron.
x Acts 1,40 men, and scribes : and some of them ye shall kill and
vii. 58, 59: y ch. 2. 17. crucify; and y some of them shall ye scourge in your 2 Cor. xi. 24,
synagogues, and persecute them from city to city : 35 z that z Rev. xviii.
upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the a Gen, ix19 earth, a from the blood of righteous Abel unto b the blood of xiv. 20, 21. 2.V.:20, 21. Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the
temple and the altar. 36 Verily I say unto you, All these thought themselves of escaping-now, how first, they must bear the vengeance of the shall yo escape ? On serpents, see Rev. whole in God's day of wrath. Who xii. 9. 34. From the similar place in Zacharias son of Barachias is has been the former discourse (Luke xi. 49, see notes much disputed. We may conclude with there) it would appear that the wherefore certainty that it cannot be (as Augustine refers to the whole last denunciation :-- and Greswell suppose) a future Zacharias, “since ye are bent upon filling up the iniqui- mentioned by Josephus, as son of Baruch, ties of your fathers, in God's inscrutable pur- and slain in the temple just before the deposes ye shall go on rejecting His messen- struction of Jerusalem—for our Lord evigers.' Notice the difference between “ the dently speaks of an event past, and never wisdom of God” in Luke xi. 49, and I, with prophesies in this manner elsewhere. Oriits emphasis, here. These words are no- gen las preserved a tradition, that Zachawhere written in Scripture, nor is it neces- rias father of John the Baptist was slain sary to suppose that to be our Lord's mean by them in the temple; but in the absence ing. He speaks this as Head of His Church, of all other authority, this must be sus, of those whom He was about to send: see pected as having arisen from the difficulty Acts xii. 1:1 Cor. xii. 8: Eph. iii. 5. He of the allusion here. Most likely (see cannot, as some think, include Himself Lightfoot in loc., and note on Luke xi. 49) among those whom He sends—the Jews it is Zacharias the son of Jehoiada, who may have crucified many Christian teachers was killed there, 2 Chron. xxiv. 21, and of before the destruction of Jerusalem. And whose blood the Jews had a saying, that Eusebius relates from Hegesippus the cru- it never was washed away till the temple cifixion of Symeon son of Clopas, in the was burnt at the captivity. son of reign of Trajan. The and takes out the Barachias does not occur in Luke xi. 51, “crucify,” the special, from the “kill," and perhaps was not uttered by the Lord the general; with, of course, somewhat of Himself, but may have been inserted by emphasis : "yea, and even crucify." The mistake, as Zachariah the prophet was prophets were the Apostles, who, in rela- son of Barachiah, see Zech. i. 1. tion to the Jews, were such-the wise between the temple and the altar] He men, Stephen and such like, men full of was killed in the priest's court, where the the Holy Ghost-the scribes, Apollos, Paul altar of burnt-offerings was. On ver. 36, (who indeed was all of these together), and see note on ch. xxiv. 34. It is no objecsuch. On scourge in your synagogues, tion to the interpretation there mainsee Acts v. 40 ; xxii. 19; xxvi. 11.
tained, that the whole period of the Jewish 35.] that, not in such a way that,' as course of crime is not filled up by it: some: but strictly in order that.
the death of Abel can by no explanation righteous (or innocent) blood is a common be brought within its limits or responsiexpression in the 0. T. See 2 Kings xxi. bility; and our Lord's saying reaches far 16; xxiv. 4: Jer. xxvi. 15; and more deeper than a mere announcement of their especially Lam. iv. 13, which perhaps our responsibility for what they themselves had Lord referred to in speaking this.
done. The Jews stood in the central point all the .... blood] Thus in Babylon, Rev. of God's dealings with men ; and as they xviii. 24, is found the blood of all that were the chosen for the election of grace, were slain upon the earth. Every such so, rejecting God and His messengers, signal judgment is the judgment for a they became, in an especial and awful series of long.crying crimes--and these manner, vessels of wrath. Our Lord judgments do not exhaust God's anger, mentions this last murder, not as being Isa. ix. 12, 17, 21. The murder of Abel the last even before His own day, but was the first in the strife between un- because it was connected specially with righteousness and holiness, and as these the cry of the dying man, The Lord look Jews represent, in their conduct both in upon it and require it. Compare Gen. former times and now, the murderer of the iv. 10. This death of Zacharias was the
8 PSA. cxviii.
20.ch. xxi. 9.
things shall come upon this generation. 37 ° O Jerusalem, c Luke xiii. 34. Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, d and stonest them d2 Chron. which are sent unto thee, how often would e I have gathered e Deut. xxxii. thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens * under her wings, and ye would not! 38 Behold, your Ps xvii. 8: house is left unto you desolate. 39 For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, 8 Blessed is 8 Psacavilla. he that cometh in the name of the Lord.
XXIV. 1 And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to him for to shew him the buildings of the temple. 2 And r Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things ? verily I say unto you, a There ^ Kings in shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall Lúke xix. 4. not be thrown down. 3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples
r read, he answered and said.
Jer. xxvi, 18. Micah iii. 19, Luke xix. 44
last in the arrangement of the Hebrew HIS COMING, AND OF THE TIMES OF THE Canon of the 0. T., though chronologically END. Mark xiii. 1–37. Luke xxi. 5–36. that of Urijah, Jer. xxvi. 23, was later. Matt. omits the incident of the widow's
37.] These words were before spoken mite, Mark xii. 41–44. Luke xxi. 1–4. by our Lord, Luke xiii. 34: see notes there,
1, 2.] St. Mark expresses their re. and compare ch. xxiv. 28. how often marks on the buildings; see note there :would I have gathered must be under they were probably occasioned by ver. 38 stood of all the messages of repentance and of the last chapter. Josephus writes, mercy sent by the prophets, for our Lord's “Cæsar gave orders to pull down the words embrace the whole time comprised whole city and the temple .... and all in the historic survey of ver. 35, as well the area of the city was so levelled by the as His own ministry. On the similitude, workmen, that a traveller would never see Deut. xxxii. 11: Ps. xvii. 8; xxxvi. 7; believe that it had been inhabited.” lvii. 1; lxi. 4: Isa. xxxi. 5: Mal. iv. 2. 3.7 From Mark we learn that it was Peter ye would not] See Isa. xxviii. 12; xxx. 15. and James and John and Andrew who The tears of our Lord over the perverse. asked this question. With regard to the ness of Jerusalem are witnesses of the free qnestion itself, we must, I think, be caredom of man's will to resist the grace of ful not to press the clauses of it too much,
so as to make them bear separate meanings 38, 39.] This is our Lord's last and corresponding to the arrangements of our solemn departure from the temple—the Lord's discourse. As expressed in the true “Let us depart hence.” your other Evangelists, the question was conhouse - no more God's, but your house cerning the time, and the sign, of these -said primarily of the temple,-then of things happening, viz. the overthrow of Jerusalem,—and then of the whole land in the temple and desolation of Judæa, with which ye dwell. Ye shall not see me, which, in the then idea of the Apostles, He did not shew Himself to all the people our Lord's coming and the end of the after His resurrection, but only to chosen world were connected. Against this mis. witnesses, Acts x. 41. till ye shall take He warns them, vv. 6, 14,- Luke say] until that day, the subject of all ver. 24,- and also in the two first parables prophecy, when your repentant people shall in our ch. xxv. For the understand. turn with true and loyal Hosannas and ing of this necessarily difficult prophetic blessings to greet · Him whom they have discourse, it must be borne in mind that pierced : see Deut. iv. 30, 31: Hosea iii. the whole is spoken in the pregnant lan4, 5: Zech. xii. 10; xiv. 8-11. Stier guage of prophecy, in which various fulfilwell remarks, 'He who reads not this in the ments are involved. (1) The view of the prophets, reads not yet the prophets aright. Jewish Church and its fortunes, as repreCHAP. XXIV, 1–51.] PROPHECY OF senting the Christian Church and its his