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& Rom. viii. 17.

1 Pet, i. 4, 9: iii. 9. Rev.

tch. XX. 23.

1 Cor. ii. 9. Heb. xi. 16. u Isa. iviii. 7.

James i. 27.

1 2 Tim. i. 16.

Prov. xiv. 31 : xix. 17. ch.

goats on the left. 34 Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, s inherit Rome. wilt, b? the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the . .. world : 35 u for I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: Hebr.6. I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: "I was a stranger, “ Ezek. xviii.7. and ye took me in : 36 w naked, and ye clothed me: I was Hebrain. 2.

3 Job 5. sick, and ye visited me: *I was in prison, and ye came "16 me

w James ii. 15, unto me. 37 Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink? 38 when saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee ? 39 or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee? 40 And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, o Inasmuch as ye h have done it unto y Prov. xiv, 31: one of the least of these my brethren, ye h have done it 1.13. Heb.

h render, did it. 34.] THE King—here for the first John xvii. 24 : 1 Pet. i. 20. 35. took and only time does the Lord give Himself me in the idea of the word is, ‘numbered this name : see Rev, xix. 16 : Rom. xiv. 9. me among your own circle. 37 - 40.]

Come Whatever of good these per The answer of these righteous appears to sons had done, was all from Him from me to shew plainly that they are not to be whom cometh every good gift- and the understood as being the covenanted serfruit of his Spirit. And this Spirit is vants of Christ. Such an answer it would only purchased for man by the work of be impossible for them to make, who had the Son, in whom the Father is well done all distinctly with reference to Christ, pleased : and to whom all judgment is and for his sake, and with bis declaration committed. And thus they are the blessed of ch. X. 40–42 before them. Such a supof the Father, and those for whom this position would remove all reality, as indeed kingdom is prepared. It is not to the it has generally done, from our Lord's purpose to say that those blessed of ..... description. See the remarkable difference must be the elect of God in the stricter in the answer of the faithful servants, vv. sense (the Father)--and that, because the 20, 22. The saints are already in His Kingdom has been prepared for them glory-judging the world with Him (1 from the foundation of the world. For Cor. vi. 2) - accounted as parts of, repreevidently this would, in the divine omni sentatives of, Himself (ver. 40)-in this science, be true of every single man judgment they are not the judged (John who shall come to salvation, whether be- v. 24: 1 Cor. xi. 31). But these who are longing to those who shall be found worthy the judged, know not that all their deeds to share the first resurrection or not. The of love have been done to and for ChristScripture assures us of two resurrections: they are overwhelmed with the sight of the first, of the dead in Christ, to meet the grace which has been working in and Him and reign with Him, and hold (1 Cor. for them, and the glory which is now their vi. 2) judgment over the world: the second, blessed portion. And notice, that it is not of all the dead, to be judged according to the works, as such, but the love which their works. And to what purpose would prompted them- that love which was their be a judgment, if all were to be con. faith,which felt its way, though in dark. demned ? And if any escape condemna. ness, to Him who is Love-which is comtion, to them might the words of this mended. 40. my brethren. Not necesverse be used : so that this objection to sarily the saints with Him in glorythe interpretation does not apply.

though primarily those -- but also any of Election to life is the universal doctrine the great family of man. Many of those of Scripture; but not the reprobation of here judged may never have had an opporthe wicked: see below, on ver. 41. On tunity of doing these things to the saints from the foundation of the world, see of Christ properly so called.

In this VOL. I.

N

ch. vii. 23. a ch. xiii. 40,

42. b 2 Pet. ii. 4.

Jude 6.

xvii. 5. Zech.

John v. 20.
Rom. ii. 7 ff.

unto me. 41 Then shall he say also unto them on the left z Ps: visos z Ps. vi. 8. hand, ? Depart from me, ye cursed, a into i everlasting fire,

prepared for b the devil and his angels : 42 for I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink : 43 I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not. 44 Then shall they also answer [ him], saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and

did not minister unto thee? 45 Then shall he answer e Prov. xiy 87: them, saying, Verily I say unto you, o Inasmuch as ye did

ii. 8. Acts it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me. a Dan, wild 46 And a these shall go away into leverlasting punishment :

*. but the righteous into life eternal.

XXVI. 1 And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished i render, the eternal fire which hath been prepared.

k omit. I render, eternal (the word is the same in both places). is fulfilled the covenant of God to Abra have lived in love-everlastingly punishing ham, “in thy seed shall all the nations those who have quenched it in an unof the earth(so in LXX) be blessed.” loving and selfish life-and in the accomGen. xxii. 18. 41–43.] It is very plishment of his mediatorial office, causing, important to observe the distinction be- even from out of the iniquities of a rebeltween the blessing, ver. 34, and the curse lious world, his sovereign mercy to rehere. • Blessed- of my Father :'- but not joice against judgment. 46.] See

cursed of my Father.' because all man's John v. 28, 29; and as taking up the pro. salvation is of God-all his condemnation phetic history at this point, Rev. xxi. from himself. The Kingdom, prepared 1-8. Observe, the same epithet is used for you :' but the fire, which has been in the original for punishment and lifeprepared for the devil and his angels' which are here contraries—for the life [greater definiteness could not be given here spoken of is not bare existence, which than by the words in the original : that would have annihilation for its opposite; particular fire, that eternal fire, created but blessedness and reward, to which for a special purpose-not, for you : be- punishment and misery are antagonist cause there is election to life-but there is terms. As regards the interpretation of no reprobation to death : a book of Life this chapter, the coincidence of these por - but no book of Death ; no hell for man tions of Scripture prophecy with the pro-because the blood of Jesus hath pur- cess of the great last things in Rev. xx. chased life for all : but they who will and xxi. is never to be overlooked, and serve the devil, must share with him in the should be our guide to their explanation, end. The repetition of all these par- however distrustful we may be of its certiculars shews how exact even for every tainty. Those who set this coincidence individual the judgment will be. Stier aside, and interpret each portion by itself, excellently remarks, that the curse shews without connexion with the rest, are clearly the termination of the High Priesthood of wrong. The only alternative view seems Christ, in which office He only intercedes to be that which regards this as the judgand blesses. Henceforth He is King and ment at the time of Israel's deliverance, Lord— his enemies being now for ever put previous to the Millennium. This has been under his feet. 44, 45.] See note urged on me lately by a very able coron ver. 37.

The sublimity of this respondent: but I cannot see how it description surpasses all imagination agrees with the great features of the Christ, as the Son of Man, the Shepherd, description as pointed out above. the King, the Judge--as the centre and CHAP. XXVI. 1, 2.7 FINAL ANNOUNCEend of all human love, bringing out and MENT OF HIS SUFFERINGS, NOW CLOSE AT rewarding his latent grace in those who HAND. Mark xiv. 1. Luke xxii. 1. The

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John xi. 47.

Acts iv. 25, &c.

all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, 2 Ye know that
after two days is the feast of the passover, and the Son of
man is m betrayed to be crucified. 3 a Then assembled a Pooli
together the chief priests, [n and the scribes,] and the elders
of the people, unto the palace of the high priest, who was
called Caiaphas, 4 and consulted that they might take
Jesus by subtilty, and kill him. 5 But they said, Not o on
the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the people.

6 6 Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of . S.

b John xi, 1, 2:

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c

ch. xxi. 17.

mor, delivered up: it is the same word as in ver. 15, 16, 21, fc.
1 omit.

O render, during the feast. public office of our Lord as a Teacher logical table in introduction to Acts. having been now fulfilled, His priestly who was called does not mean who was office begins to be entered upon. He had surnamed, but (see ver. 14) implies that not completed all his discourses, for He some name is to follow, which is more delivered, after this, those contained in than, or different from, the real one of the John xiv.-xvii.—but not in public; only person. Not during the feast] This to the inner circle of his disciples. From expression must be taken as meaning the this point commences THE NARRATIVE OF whole period of the feast-the seven days. HIS PASSION. 2. after two days) On the feast-day (A. V.), i.e. the day on This gives no certainty as to the time which the passover was sacrificed, they when the words were said: we do not could not lay hold of and slay any one, know whether the current day was in. as it was a day of sabbatical obligation cluded or otherwise. But thus much of (Exod. xii. 16). See note on ver. 17. importance we learn from them : that the 6–13.] THE ANOINTING AT BETHANY. delivery of our Lord to be crucified, and Mark xiv. 349. John xii. 148. On the taking place of the Passover, strictly Luke vii. 36–50, see note there. This coincided. The solemn mention of them history of the anointing of our Lord is here in this connexion is equivalent to a decla- inserted out of its chronological place. ration from Himself, if it were needed, of It occurred six days before the Passover, the identity, both of time and meaning, John xii. l. It perhaps can hardly be of the two sacrifices; and serves as the said that in its position here, it accounts fixed point in the difficult chronological in any degree for the subsequent aparrangement of the history of the plication of Judas to the Sanhedrim Passion. The latter clause, and the (vv. 14-16), since his name is not even Son of man ...., depends on ye know mentioned in it: but I can hardly doubt as well as the former. Our Lord had that it originally was placed where it doubtless before joined these two events here stands by one who was aware of together in His announcements to his dis its connexion with that application. The ciples. To separate this clause from the paragraphs in the beginning of this former, seems to me to do violence to the chapter come in regular sequence, thus : construction. It would require and then Jesus announces his approaching Passion : the Son. ...

the chief priests, &c. meet and plot His 3-5.7 CONSPIRACY OF THE JEWISH capture, but not during the feast : but AUTHORITIES. Mark xiv. 1. Luke xxii. when Jesus was in Bethany, &c. occasion 2. This assembling has no connexion was given for an offer to be made to with what has just been related, but them, which led to its being effected, after follows rather on the end of ch. xxiii. all, during the feast. On the rebuke given,

who was called Caiaphas is in to Judas at this time having led to his Josephus, “ Joseph, who is also Caiaphas.putting into effect his intention of betray. Valerius Gratus, Procurator of Judæa, had ing our Lord, see note on John xii. 4. appointed him instead of Simon ben The trace of what I believe to have been Kamith. He continued through the pro- the original reason of the anointing being curatorship of Pontius Pilate, and was inserted in this place, is still further lost displaced by the proconsul Vitellius, A.D. in St. Mark, who instead of when Jesus 37. See note on Luke iii. 2, and chrono. was ... has “and being.... just as

Simon the leper, 7 there came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat at meat. 8 But when his disciples saw it, they had indignation, saying, To what purpose is this waste? 9 For this [Pointment] might have been sold for much, and given to the poor. 10 When Jesus under

stood it, he said unto them, Why trouble ye the woman? a Deut. Iv. 11. for she hath wrought a good work upon me. 11 d For ye e see ch. xviii. have the poor always with you ; but eme ye have not

Loui. Johniv. always. 12 For in that she hath poured this ointment on 28: xvii.'i.. my body, she did it for my burial. 13 Verily I say unto

you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, that this woman hath done, be told for a memorial of her.

20: Ixviii.

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xiii. 33: xiv. Mway
19: xvi.5,
28: xvii. 11.

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P omit.

if the narrative were continued; and at John xiii. 23,-may not have observed it. the end, instead of our then . . . Judas If so, the independent origin of the two ... went .... has “and Judas ... accounts is even more strikingly shewn. went.... as if there were no con

waste] Bengel remarks, that the nexion between the two. It certainly word (literally, perdition) is the same cannot be said of St. Matthew, that as that by which Judas himself is he relates the anointing as taking place called. John xvii. 12. 9. for much two days before the Passover : of St. 300 denarii (John),-even more than that Mark it might be said. It may be ob. (Mark). On the singular relation which served that St. Luke relates nothing of these three accounts bear to one another, our Lord's visits to Bethany. 6. Si- see notes on Mark. 10.] It was not mon the leper] Not at this time a leper, only a good work, but a noble act of or he could not be at his house receiving love, which should be spoken of in all the guests. It is at least possible, that he churches to the end of time. On ver. 11, may have been healed by our Lord. .Who see notes on Mark, where it is more fully he was, is wholly uncertain. From Martha expressed. 12. I can hardly think serving (John xii. 2), it would appear as that our Lord would have said this, unless if she were at home in the house (Luke there had been in Mary's mind a distinct x. 38 sqq.); and that Lazarus was one of reference to His burial, in doing the act. them that sat at meat need not necessarily All the company surely knew well that imply that he was a guest properly so His death, and that by crucifixion, was called. He had been probably (see John near at hand : can we suppose one who xii. 9) absent with Jesus at Ephraim, and so closely observed his words as Mary, not on this account, and naturally for other to have been possessed with the thought reasons, would be an object of interest, and of that which was about to happen? The one of the sitters at table. 7. an she is come aforehand to anointof alabaster box] It was the usual cruse or Mark (xiv. 8), and the against the day pot for ointment, with a long narrow neck, of my burying hath she kept thisof John and sealed at the top. It was thought (xii. 7), point even more strongly to her that the ointment kept best in these cruses. intention. 13.] The only case in On the nature of the ointment, see note which our Lord has made such a proon “spikenard,Mark xiv. 3. his mise. We cannot but be struck with head] His feet, according to John xii. 3. the majesty of this prophetic announceSee Luke vii. 38, and note there. ment: introduced with the peculiar and 8. his disciples) Judas alone is mentioned, weighty verily I say unto you,-conJohn xii. 4. It may have been that some veving, by implication, the whole mystery were found ready to second his remark, but of the gospel which should go forth from that John, from his peculiar position at the His Death as its source,--looking forward table,-if, as is probable, the same as in to the end of time, when it shall have

14 Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests, 15 and said unto them, What will Zecharias. ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you? And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver. 16 And from that time he sought opportunity to betray him.

been preached in the whole world,—and as over the others, who were more disposed specifying the fact that this deed should be to the reception of divine things. In prorecorded wherever it is preached. We may portion as he found our Lord's progress notice (1) that this announcement is a dis. disappoint his greedy anticipations, did his tinct prophetic recognition by our Lord attachment to Him give place to coldness of the existence of written records, in and aversion. The exhibition of miracles which the deed should be related ; for in alone could not keep him faithful, when no other conceivable way could the univer- once the deeper appreciation of the Lord's sality of mention be brought about: (2) divine Person failed. We find by implica. that we have here (if indeed we needed it) tion a remarkable example of this in John a convincing argument against that view vi. 60–66, 70, 71, where the denunciation of our three first Gospels which supposes of the one unfaithful among the Twelve them to have been compiled from an ori. seems to point to the (then) state of his ginal document; for if there had been such mind, as already beginning to be scandalized a document, it must have contained this at Christ. Add to this, that latterly the narrative, and no one using such a Gospel increasing clearness of the Lord's ancould have failed to insert this narrative, nouncements of His approaching passion accompanied by such a promise, in his and death, while they gradually opened the own work,- which St. Luke has not done: eyes of the other Apostles to some terrible (3) that the same consideration is equally event to come, without shaking their decisive against St. Luke having used, or attachment to Him, was calculated to ineven seen, our present Gospels of Matthew volve in more bitter disappointment and and Mark. (4) As regards the practical disgust one so disposed to Him as Judas use of the announcement, we see that was. The actually exciting causes of though the honourable mention of a noble the deed of treachery at this particular deed is thereby recognized by our Lord as time may have been many. The reproof a legitimate source of joy to us, yet by administered at Bethany (on the Saturday the very nature of the case all regard to evening probably),—disappointment at seesuch mention as a motive is excluded. The ing the triumphal entry followed, not by motive was love alone.

the adhesion, but by the more bitter enmity 14-16.] COMPACT OF JUDAS WITH of the Jewish authorities,-the denunciaTHE CHIEF PRIESTS TO BETRAY HIM. tions of our Lord in ch. xxii. xxiii. render. Mark xiv. 10, 11. Luke xxii. 3-6. (Seeing the breach irreparable,- and perhaps also John xiii. 2.) When this took place, His last announcement in ver. 2, making does not appear. In all probability, im- it certain that his death would soon take mediately after the conclusion of our Lord's place, and sharpening the eagerness of the discourses, and therefore coincidently with traitor to profit by it :-all these may the meeting of the Sanhedrin in ver. 3. have influenced him to apply to the chief As these verses bring before us the first priests as he did. With regard to his overt act of Judas's treachery, I will give motive in general, I cannot think that he here what appears to me the true estimate had any design but that of sordid gain, to of bis character and motives. In the main, be achieved by the darkest treachery. See my view agrees with that given by Nean- further on this the note on ch. xxvii. 3. der. I believe that Judas at first became

15.] The verb rendered covenanted attached to our Lord with much the same .... for, may mean either weighed out, or view as the other Apostles. He appears to appointed. That the money was paid to have been a man with a practical talent for Judas (ch. xxvii. 3) is no decisive argument this world's business, which gave occasion for the former meaning; for it may have to his being appointed the Treasurer, or been paid on the delivery of Jesus to the Bursar, of the company (John xii. 6; süi. Sanhedrim. The "covenantedof St. Luke 29). But the self-seeking, sensuous ele. and “promisedof St. Mark would lead us ment, which his character had in common to prefer the other. thirty pieces of with that of the other Apostles, was deeper silver] Thirty shekels, the price of the life rooted in him; and the spirit and love of of a servant, Exod. xxi. 32. Between three Christ gained no such influence over him and four pounds of our money. St. Matthew

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