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xxvi. 63, 01.
Rom. i. 4.
power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called i the Son of God. 36 And, behold, thy t cousin Elisabeth, i Matt. Aim:83: she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is yourki: 3 the sixth month with her, who u was called barren. 37 For lil, 37 k with God nothing shall be impossible. 38 And Mary k Gen. xviii. 14. said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her. chavili. . 39 And Mary arose in w those days, and went into the hill country with haste, 'into a city of Juda; 40 and entered 1 Josh, xxi. 9, into the house of Zacharias, and saluted Elisabeth. 41 And t render, kinswoman.
u render, is called. render, no word.
W render, these.
Jer. xxxii. 17. Zech. viji. . Matt, xix. 26. Mark X. 21.
Rom. iv. 21.
As Christ was made of the substance of will, but (see ver. 45), in humility and the Virgin, so He was not made of the faith, a fellow-worker with the purpose of substance of the Holy Ghost, Whose es- the Father; and therefore her own unity sence cannot at all be made. And because with that purpose was required, and is the Holy Ghost did not beget Him by any here recorded. 39–56.] VISITATION communication of His essence, therefore He OP ELISABETH BY MARY. 39.7 The is not the Father of Him, though He were situation of Elisabeth was not before this conceived by Him.” (Pearson on the known to Mary; and on the intelligence Creed, p. 165, 166.) shall overshadow of it from the angel, she arose and went thee] The figure is perhaps from a bird to congratulate her kinswoman. But (as Grotius : see Ps. xci. 4), or from a before this the events related in Matt. i. cloud : see Mark ix. 7. holy thing] 18–25 had happened. Mary being Some render, that which shall be born (of betrothed to Joseph, had no communicathee) shall be called holy, the Son of God. tions with him, except through the bridesBut it is more simple to take it as A. V., maids ; who, on the first indications of her that holy thing, &c. 36. thy kins, pregnancy, represented it to him. This woman] What relation, nowhere appears would not take longer time than the exin Scripture; and traditions are not worth pression might include-possibly three or recounting. But we must take the word four weeks. Then happened Matt. i. 19, in the narrower sense, not in the wider 20; and immediately Joseph took her reference of Rom. ix. 3. Elisabeth was of home. As a betrothed virgin she could the tribe of Levi : but this need not hinder not travel : but now immediately, and connexion by marriage with other tribes. perhaps for the very reason of the cirAaron himself married into Judah, Exod. cumstances under which Joseph had taken vi. 23. We find in Judges xvii. 7 a young her home, she visits Elisabeth – remaining man of the family of Judah who was a with her about three months, ver. 56. So Levite. Philo says, “ Moses ordered the that we have, five months, during which high priest to marry not only a virgin, Elisabeth hid herself, together with the but one of priestly descent... but the sixth month, during which takes place other priests were permitted to marry other the Annunciation, the discovery of Mary's than the daughters of priests." 38.] pregnancy, her taking home by Joseph, Her own faithful and humble assent is here together with three months visit of Mary, given to the divine announcement which making up together nine months, nearly had been made to her. I believe that her her full time : see ver. 57. The words conception of the Lord is to be dated from rendered a city of Juda may possibly the utterance of these words. So Eu- mean “ the city of Juttah," which (Josh. thymius, and similarly Irenæus, Tertullian, xxi. 16) was given, together with Hebron Athanasius, Maldonatus, Grotius. Light. (in the hill country of Judæa : ib. ver. 11), foot, Lolding a different opinion, says, “I and other neighbouring cities, to the own, that it is the general opinion, that children of Aaron the priest. But it the Virgin conceived at Nazareth, in the may also mean a city of Juda ;' and instant when the Angel spoke with her.” this is perhaps more likely, as no place of She was no unconscious vessel of the divine residence is mentioned for Zacharias in
ver. 28. Judg. y. 24.
nl Sam. ii. 1.
3: xxxv. 9.
Hab. iii. 18. 01 Sam. i. 11,
it came to pass, that, when Elisabeth heard > the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elisabeth was
filled with the Holy Ghost : 42 and she spake out with a mjer: 28. 2loud y voice, and said, m Blessed art thou among women,
and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. 43 And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? 44 For lo, as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb z for joy. 45 And blessed is she that believed: for there shall
be a performance of those things which were told her nb Sam.i;. from the Lord. 46 And Mary said, n My soul doth magnify Nab. 11. 18. the Lord, 47 and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Ps. cxxxviii. Saviour. 48 For o he hath regarded the low estate of his
x render for perspicuity (see note), Mary's salutation.
z render, in exultation. ver. 23,—and one would hardly be intro- margin of A. V., blessed is she that beduced so abruptly here.
It is not lieved that there shall be. The last is Jerusalem; for that would hardly have maintained by Bengel and De Wette, and been described as in the hill country; and supported by Acts xxvii. 25. I much from vv. 23, 65, the Evangelist clearly in- prefer the former rendering, as agreeable dicates some other place than Jerusalem likewise to the analogy of Scripture, where as the residence of the parents of John. faith, in the recipient of the divine purposes,
41.] The salutation uttered by is so often represented as a co-ordinate cause Elisabeth is certainly implied to have been of the fulfilment of those purposes. Lightan inspiration of the Holy Spirit. No foot well suggests, that there may have been intimation had been made to her of the present to the mind of Elisabeth the unbelief situation of Mary. The movement of the of her husband, as contrasted with Mary's babe in her womb (possibly for the first faith. 46—55.] Compare throughtime) was part of the effect of the same out the song of Hannah, 1 Sam. i. 1-10. spiritual influence. The known mysterious As connected with the defence of the effects of sympathy in such cases, at least hymns contained in these two chapters, we lead us to believe that there may be cor- may observe, taking the very lowest ground, responding effects where the causes are of that there is nothing improbable, as matter a kind beyond our common experience. of fact, in holy persons, full of the thoughts
• The salutation of Mary' might be which run through the 0. T. prophecies, taken to mean the Annunciation : better breaking out into such songs of praise as therefore as in margin, Mary's salutation. these, which are grounded on and almost
42.] The word rendered Blessed has expressed in the words of Scripture. The a double meaning : that of blessed,-from Christian believer however will take a above-blessed among women, i.e. beyond higher view than this, and attribute to the other women; and praised, from below mother of our Lord that same inspiration -i.e. called blessed by women. The former of the Holy Spirit which filled Elisabeth (ver. is the best rendering here: and then among 41) and Zacharias (ver. 67). 46. My women will be the Hebrew superlative, as soul .., my spirit] the whole inner being : in Jer. xlix. 15, and Song of Sol. i. 8. see on 1 Thess. v. 23. my Saviour]
43.] The word Lord, as applied to not merely “Deliverer from degradation, the unborn babe, can no otherwise be as a daughter of David'-- but, in a explained than as uttered in the spirit of higher sense, author of that salvation prophecy, and expressing the divine nature which God's people expected : among of our Lord: see especially Ps. cx. 1, whom the Holy Virgin reckons herself. from which Bleek thinks the expression is Only sinners need a Saviour. 48.] adopted. 45.] The words may be regarded, i.e. looked upon. Bleek re.. rendered either as in A. V. (so also the marks, that “ look upon my son” in Luke Vulgate, Erasmus, Beza, Meyer), blessed ix. 38, is “have mercy on my son" is she that believed, for, &c.- or as in in Matt. xvii. 15. low estate, or con
che xi. 27. q Ps.lxxi. 19:
cxxvi. 2, 3.
s Gen. xvii. 7. Exod. xx. 6. Ps. ciii. 17,
18. t Ps. xcviii. 1:
Isa. xl. 10:
11.9: lii. 10.
1 Pet. v. 5.
w 1 Sam. ii. 5.
Ps. xxxiv. 10. x Ps. xcviii. 3.
handmaiden : for, behold, from henceforth Pall generations p Mal. 111, 12. shall a call me blessed. 49 For he that is mighty 9 hath q Ps. lyxi. 10: done to me great things ; and "holy is his name. 50 And *Ps. cxi. •. s his mercy b is on them that fear him from generation to sen xvii. Z: generation. 51 + He hath shewed strength with his arm; is: ei u he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their exviii. 13.. hearts. 52 v He hath put down the mighty from their u BOX.CO. seats, and exalted them of low degree. 53 w He hath filled v 1 Sam. i.', the hungry with good things; and the rich he hath sent hi. Ps. cxiii. empty away. 54 He hath holpen his servant Israel, * in " IS.amxit. 10. remembrance of his mercy 55 (y as he spake to our fathers) Jer. xxxi. 3, to Abraham, and to his seed for ever. 56 And Mary abode pe ex. 1. with her about three months, and returned to her own Gal. ii. 16. house. 57 Now Elisabeth's full time came that she should be delivered ; and she brought forth a son. 58 And her neighbours and her d cousins heard how the Lord had shewed great mercy upon her; and 2 they rejoiced with z rer. 14. her. 59 And it came to pass, that a on the eighth day they a Gen. xvii, 12. came e to circumcise the child; and they called him Zacharias, after the name of his father. 60 And his mother answered and said, “Not so; but he shall be called John. b ver. 13. 61 And they said unto her, There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name. 62 And they made signs to his father, how he would have him called. 63 And he asked for a writing table, and wrote, saying, "His name is o ver. 13.
y Gen. xvii. 19.
a literally, shall congratulate me, or account me happy.
b render and read, is unto generations and generations to them that fear him. C render, potentates from thrones.
d render, kinsfolk. e render, for the purpose of circumcising; to avoid the ambiguity in came to.
render, were calling.
dition, not humility; the noun is an objec. tive one. - Ver. 55 is not rendered in the A. V. according to the construction; from Ps. xcvii. 3 it will be seen that in remembrance of his mercy to Abraham are to be joined together, and therefore as he spake to our fathers will be parenthetical. See Micah vij. 20. 57–79.7 BIRTH AND NAMING OF JOHN TIE BAPTIST. 59.7 they were calling wished to call : the imperfect tense is here in its strict meaning, as in Matt. viii. 24. The names of children were given at circumcision, because, at the institution of that rite, the names of Abram and Sarai
were changed to Abraham and Sarah, Gen. xvii. 5, 15. 60.] There is no reason for supposing, with some Commentators, that Elisabeth bad had the name supernaturally intimated to her. She must necessarily have learnt it, in the course of communication by writing, from her husband.
62.7 The natural inference (see on ver. 22) from this verse is, that Zacharias was deaf as well as dumb; nor do I think that the objectors have succeeded in invalidating this inference. There could have been no reason for beckoning, had Zacharias been able to hear articulate words.
63. a writing table] A
d ver. 20.
e ver. 39. fch. ii. 19, 51. 8 Gen. xxxix. 2.
Ps. lxxx. 17: lxxxix. 21.
il Kings i. 48.
cvi. 18. k Exod. iii. 16
iv. 31. Ps. cxi. 9. ch. vii.
1 Ps. cxxxii. 17. m Jer. xxii1.5,
6: XXX. 10. Dan. ix. 24. Acts iii. 21.
n Lev. xxvi. 42.
Ps. xcviii. 3: cv. 8, 9: cái. 45. Ezek. xvi. 60. ver. 54.
p Rom. vi. 18,
g Jer. Xxii. 30,
40. Eph. iv. 24. 2 Thess.
i. 9. Tit. ii. 12.
John. And they marvelled all. 64 d And his mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue [8 loosed], and he spake, and praised God. 65 And fear came on all that
dwelt round about them : and all these sayings were noised fethull. 10, 51. abroad throughout all e the hill country of Judæa. 66 And
Ps. Ixar, 17: all they that heard them laid them up in their hearts, h ICON IV. 23. saying, What manner of child shall this be! h And & the
u 18:* hand of the Lord was with him. 67 And his father Zae modelli18; charias " was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied,
exi. O.ch. vii. saying, 68 i Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for khe neckwitz hath visited and i redeemed his people, 60 land hath raised San. %. up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant Rom. 1.2, David ; 70 m as he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, Possible which have been since the world began : 71 that we should
vi. 60. Ver. be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all that Gen. xii. 3i. hate us; 72 n to perform k the mercy promised to our vl. 15; 17.6. fathers, and to remember his holy covenant; 73 ° the oath
. Heb. ix. which he sware to our father Abraham, 74 that he would que Eph. 19. grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of 1:13 2 Tim. our enemies might P serve him without fear, 75 9 in holiness
Pet. I. 16. and righteousness before him, all the days of our life. wa. Hii.. 76 1 And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the 11. 10. ver. Highest: for 'thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to
8 not in the original. h read, For also.
i render, wrought redemption for. k literally, mercy with our fathers.
I read, Moreover. tablet smeared with wax, on which they Ghost. It is entirely Hebrew in its cast wrote with a style, or sharp iron point. and idioms, and might be rendered in that
they marvelled all] This also con- language almost word for word. It serves, firms the view that Zacharias was deaf. besides its own immediate interest to There would be nothing wonderful in his every Christian, to show to us the exact acceding to his wife's suggestion, if he religious view under which John was had known it: the coincidence, apparently educated by his father. 69.7 an horn without this knowledge, was the matter of -a metaphor from horned beasts, who are wonder. 64.] For now first had the weak and defenceless without, but forangel's words, “ thou shalt call his name midable with their horns. There does not John,” ver. 13, received their fulfilment. seem to be any allusion to the horns of the
66. For also ...] A remark inserted altar-the mere notion of a refuge is by the Evangelist himself, not a further never connected with the Messiah's King. saying of the speakers in the verse before, dom. 74, 75.] The attempts to reas Kuinoel and others maintain. The for move the Jewish worship by Antiochus refers back to the question just asked, Epiphanes and by the Romans, had been * And they might well enquire thus, for most calamitous to the people. This &c. 68-79.] This Hymn of thanks in holiness and righteousness sufficiently giving appears to have been uttered at the refutes the idea of some, that the whole time of the circumcision of the child (in subject of this song is the temporal theowhich case the matters related in vv. 65, cratic greatness of the Messiah. 76.] 66 are parenthetical and anticipatory) - It is not necessary to interpret the Lord and, as the Magnificat, under the imme. of the Messiah : it may be said of God, diate influence of inspiration of the Holy whose people (ver. 77) Israel was. But
iv. 5. Matt.
s Marki. 4.
ch. iii, 3. Num. xxiv.
prepare his ways; 77 to give knowledge of salvation unto
II. 1 And it came to pass in those days, that there went
1. Zech. iii. 8: vi. 12.
Mal, iv.2. t Isa. ix. 2:
xlii. 7: xlix. 9. Matt. iv. 10. Acts
xxvi. 18. uch. ij. 40. v Matt.fii. 1:
the believing Christian will find it far should be inconsistent with dogmatic more natural thus to apply it, especially in truth, is impossible : that it should unfold connexion with Matt. i. 21. 77.j in it minutely, is in the highest degree im. remission, the element in which the former probable, 80.] A very similar conblessing was to be conferred. The remis. clusion to those in ch. ii. 40, 52, and sion of sin is the first opening for the denoting probably the termination of that knowledge of salvation : see ch. iii. 7. record or document of the birth of the
78. dayspring] The springing up, Baptist, which the Evangelist has hitherto or, the East, is in Jer. xxiii. 5, Zech. iii. been translating, or perhaps transcribing 9, vi. 12, the LXX rendering for the already translated. That this first Hebrew word for a branch or sprout-and chapter is such a separate document, thus, that which springs up or rises, as appears from its very distinct style. Light :- which, from the clauses following, Whether it had been preserved in the seems to be the meaning here. from holy family, or how otherwise obtained by on high may be taken with dayspring, St. Luke, no trace now appears. It has a as in A. V.:-or perhaps with the verb to certain relation to, and at the same time give light. But however taken, the ex. is distinguished from, the narration of the pression is not quite easy to understand., next chapter. The Old Testament spirit The word had come apparently to be a ' is stronger here, and the very phraseology name for the Messiah : thus in Zech. iii. more in unison with Hebrew usage. 9 (LXX. see above), behold a man, his in the deserts) The hill country of Judæa name is “the springing up,” or “the East” was very near this wilderness, and from (the A.V. has the branch): and then figures the character of John's official life afterarising from the meaning of the word wards, it is probable that in youth he itself, became mixed with that which was would be given to solitude and abstemious. said of Him. The dayspring does not ness. It cannot be supposed that the come from on high, but from beneath the Essenes, dwelling in those parts, had any, horizon ; but the Messiah does. Again, or only the most general kind of influence to give light, &c. of the next verse belongs over him, as their views were wholly different to the dayspring, and only figuratively from his. his shewing] i. e. the opening to the Messiah. 79.] Care must be of his official life: the same word is used of taken on the one hand not to degrade the the appointment of the seventy in ch. x. 1. expressions of this song of praise into mere CHAP. II. 1-20.7 BIRTH OF CHRIST. anticipations of temporal prosperity, nor, Its ANNOUNCEMENT AND CELEBRATION on the other, to find in it (except in so far BY THE HOSTS OF HEAVEN. as they are involved in the inner and 1, 2.) We go back again now to the birth deeper sense of the words, unknown save of John, or shortly after it. In an. to the Spirit who prompted them) the notating on these verses, I will first state minute doctrinal distinctions of the writ. the difficulty in which they appear to be ings of St. Paul. It is the expression of involved,—then the remarkable way in the aspirations and hopes of a pious Jew, which a solution has recently been found. waiting for the salvation of the Lord, find.
The assertion in these verses is ing that salvation brought near, and utter this--that a decree went forth, &c., and ing his thankfulness in Old Testament that this enrolment first took place when language, with which he was familiar, and Cyrenius (Quirinus) was governor of Syria. at the same time under prophetic influence It would then appear, either that this of the Holy Spirit. That such a song very enrolment took place under Quirinus,