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14: xiv. 3. John ix. 10.

Pharisees said unto them, Why do ye that a which is not a Exod. XI. 10. lawful to do on the sabbath days ? 3 And Jesus answering them said, Have ye not read so much as this, what b 1 Sam. xii. David did, when himself was an hungred, and they which were with him ; 4 how he went into the house of God, and did take and eat the shewbread, and gave also to them that were with him ; which it is not lawful to eat but for e Lev. xxiv.9. the priests alone? 5 And he said unto them, That the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath. 6 d And it came to d see ch. xil. pass [Valso] on another sabbath, that he entered into the John ix. 16. synagogue and taught: and there was a man whose right hand was withered. 7 And the scribes and Pharisees watched him, whether he would heal on the sabbath day; that they might find an accusation against him. 8 But he knew their w thoughts, and said to the man which had the withered hand, Rise up, and stand forth in the midst. And he arose and stood forth. 9 Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing ; Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do good, or to do evil ? to save life, or to destroy it? 10 And looking round about upon them all,

V omitted by the most ancient authorities.
W see above on ch. v. 22: the word is the same.

x read, I ask you whether it is. hands is a detail peculiar to Luke: rub. Mark and St. Luke have preserved the bing them and blowing away the chaff. exact narrative here. St. Matthew, as we

2.) In Matthew and Mark, the see, describes the watching of the Pharisees Pharisees address our Lord, 'Why do Thy (their thoughts, or reasonings, ver. 8) as disciples,' &c. ? 3.] Have ye not read words actually spoken, and relates that 80 much as this ? i. e., 'Are ye so utterly they asked the question : which certainly ignorant of the spirit of Scripture ?' See arises from an imperfect report of what Mark xii. 10, where the same expression took place, the question itself being verbaoccurs. In one of our ancient authorities, tim that which our Lord asked on that the Cambridge MS., the following is the other occasion, Luke xiv. 3, and followed form of ver. 5: On the same day he beheld by a similar appeal about an animal. Thero a certain man working on the sabbath, can hardly be a doubt that in St. Matthew's and said unto him, O man, if thou know narrative the two occurrences are blended : est what thou art doing, blessed art thou: and this may have taken place from the but if thou knowest not, accarsed, and a very circumstance of the question about transgressor of the law. This remarkable an animal having been asked on both oc. substitution seems to be an interpolation, casions; St. Luke omitting it here, because but hardly an invention of a later time. he reports it there--St. Matthew joining to Its form and contents speak for its origi. it the question asked there, because he was nality, and, I am disposed to believe, its not aware of another similar incident. authenticity.

right hand is a mark of accuracy, 6-11.7 HEALING OF THE WITHERED and from an eye-witness. 9.7 After the HAND. Matt. xii. 9-14. Mark iii. 1- question, St. Mark adds But they held 6. See on Matthew. 6.] The circum their peace"--as they did after the question stances related in ch. xiv. 1-6 are very just referred to in ch. xx. 3, because they similar to these; and there St. Luke has were in a dilemma, and either answer inserted the question of Matthew, vv. 11, would have convicted them. 10.7 St. 12. I should be disposed to think that St. Mark adds with anger, being grieved at

e Matt. xiv. 23.

he said unto y the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he did so: and his hand was restored [z whole] [a as the other). 11 And they were filled with b madness ; and communed

one with another what they might do to Jesus. e Matt. xiv. 28. 12 e And it came to pass in C those days, that he went out

into da mountain to pray, and continued all night in e prayer to God. 13 And when it was day, he called unto

him his disciples : and of them he chose twelve, whom also 1 John i. 42. he named apostles ; 14 Simon, 'whom he also named Peter,

and Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, 15 Matthew and Thomas, James [f the son] of Alphæus, and Simon called Zelotes, 16 and Judas [f the brother] of James, and Judas Iscariot, which [8 also] was

the traitor. 17 And he came down with them, and stood y read, him.

z omitted by all the most ancient authorities. & omitted by some ancient authorities, b render, foolishness.

C render, these. d render, the.

e render, his prayer. * not expressed in the original.

& omit. the hardness of their hearts"-one of the an integral part of the narration in its premost striking and graphic descriptions in sent sequence. This of course in no way the Gospels. It was thus that He bare affects the accuracy of the circumstances (see Matt. viii. 17), even while on earth, therein related, which nearly coincide in our sins and infirmities. Their hearts were this and the cognate, though independent, hardened,—but He grieved for it. 11. account of Mark. . went out-viz. foolishness] It does not appear that this from Capernaum. 'the mountain-see word can ever mean, as in A. V. ‘madness,' on Matt. v. 1. to pray- see note on or as some explain it, rage of a senseless ch. v. 16. and continued all night in kind. The proper meaning, senseless. his prayer to God] This is the right renness,' 'wicked folly,' must be kept to dering. The fancy that by the words ren

communed - viz. the Pharisees and dered in his prayer to Godis meant in Herodians : Mark, ver. 6, where see note. a house of prayer, is quite baseless.

12-19.] CALLING AND NAMES OF THE 13, he called unto him his disciples] TWELVE APOSTLES. Peculiar (in this expressed in Mark, “He calleth to him form) to Luke: see Matt. xii. 15—21; whom he would-i. e. He summoned to Mark iii. 13–19. We may observe, that Him a certain larger number, out of whom St. Matthew does not relate the choosing He selected Twelve. We are not to supof the Apostles, but only takes occasion to pose that this selection was now first made give a list of them on their being sent out, out of a miscellaneous number - but now ch. x. 1 ff.; and that St. Mark and St. first formally announced ; the Apostles, or Luke agree in the time of their being most of them, had had each their special chosen, placing it immediately after the individual calling to be, in a peculiar healing on the sabbath,—but with no very manner, followers of the Lord, before this. definite note of time, 12.] in these

he named] not at a previous, or days is vague in date, and may belong to subsequent period; but at this time, any part of the period of our Lord's minis 14.] On the catalogue, see notes on Matt. try now before us. I believe it to be a x. i ff. 16.) Judas of James - usually, form of acknowledgment on the part of the and I believe rightly, rendered Jude the Evangelist, that he did not determineexactly brother of James : see Introduction to into what part of this period to bring the Jude. On the question who this James incident so introduced. Indeed the whole was, see on Matt. x. 3, and xiii. 55. of this paragraph is of a supplementary and 17.] Having descended from the mounindefinite character, serving more as a pre- tain, He stood on a level place-i. e. pos. face to the discourse which follows, than as sibly, as has been suggested by some, on a

g Matt. iv, 25.

Mark iii. 7.

h in the plain, and i the company of his disciples, & and a 6 Matt iv. 25. great k multitude of people out of all Judæa and Jerusalem, and from the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon, which came to hear him, and to be healed of their diseases; 18 and 1 they that were vered with unclean spirits : and they were healed. 19 And the whole multitude h sought to touch h Matt. xiv. 38. him : for i there went m virtue out of him, and healed them i Markiv.se. all. 20 And he lifted up his eyes on his disciples, and said, * Blessed n be ye poor: for your's is the kingdom of God. "James ii. 5. A 1 Blessed are ye that hunger now: for ye shall be filled. v. s. m Blessed are ye that weep now: for ye shall laugh." 22 n Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, and when "klet: .1.1. they shall separate you from their company, and shall ovoh

m

Isa. Lxi. 3.

m

n 1 Pet. ii. 19:

iii. 14: iv. 14. John xvi. 2.

b render, upon a level place.

i render, a multitude. k render, number of the people.

I read and render, and they that were vexed were cured of unclean spirits. m render, power.

n render, are.

flat ledge or shelf on the side of the moun, because sayings known to have been uttain ; but more naturally below the moun- tered together at one time, might be tain: see on Matt. v.l. Whether St. Luke thrown together with sayings spoken at could thus have written with the Gospel of another, with some one common link per. St. Matthew before him, I leave the reader haps connecting the two groups. to judge: premising, that is, the identity 20. on his disciples] The discourse was of the two discourses. 19.] St. Luke spoken to the disciples generally,—to the uses the same expression, of power going Twelve particularly,-to the people proforth froin our Lord, in ch. viii. 46.

spectively; and its subject, both here and 20–49.] SERMON ON THE Mount (?). in Matthew, is, the state and duties of a Peculiar (in this form) to Luke, answering disciple of Christ. ye poor] To sup. to Matt. v.-vii. On the whole question pose that St. Luke's report of this discourse of the identity or diversity of the two dis. refers only to this world's poverty, &c.courses, see on Matt. y. I. In Matthew I and the blessings to anticipated outward cannot doubt that we have the whole dis. prosperity in the Messiah's Kingdom, is course much as it was spoken; the con- surely quite a misapprehension. Comnexion is intimate throughout; the ar- paring these expressions with other pag. rangement wonderfully consistent and ad- sages in St. Luke himself, we must have mirable. Here, on the other hand, the concluded, even without St. Matthew's rediscourse is only reported in fragments— port, that they bore a spiritual sense ; there is a wide gap between vv. 26 and 27, see ch. xvi. 11, where he speaks of the and there are many omissions in other parts; true riches,' and ch. xii. 21, where we besides which, sayings of our Lord, be- have rich towards God. And who would longing apparently to other occasions, are apply such an interpretation to our ver. inserted; see vv. 39, 40, 45. At the same 21 ? See on each of these beatitudes time we must remember, that such central the corresponding notes in Matthew. sayings would probably be frequently ut the kingdom of God] the kingdom of tered by Him, and might very likely form heaven,” Matthew, but it does not thence part of this discourse originally. His follow that heaven” is the same as teaching was not studious of novelty like God," but the two are different ways of that of men, but speaking with authority designating the same kingdom—the one as He did, He would doubtless utter by its situation-in heaven, where its again and again the same weighty sen- polity is (Jerusalem which is above, Gal. tences when occasion occurred. Hence iv. 26), the other by Him, whose it is. may have arisen much of the difference of

22.] Separate and cast out must arrangement observable in the reports- not be understood of Jewish excommunica

P Acts y. 41.

Col. i. 24.

James 1.2. 9 Acts vii. 51.

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sch. xii. 21.
t Matt. vi. 2,5,

10. ch. xvi.

25. u Isa. lxv. 13. v John xv. 19.

1 John iv. 5.

xxv. 21.

Acts vii.00.

z Deut. xv. 7,

8, 10. Prov. xxi. 26.

reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son P Acts V:41. of man's sake. 23 p Rejoice ye in that day, and leap for q Aets vii.ši. joy : for, behold, your reward is great in heaven : for 9 in

the like manner did their fathers unto the prophets. r Amos vi. 1. 24 : But woe unto you s that are rich, for 'ye o have received i Matt. v1.2,5, your consolation. 25 u Woe unto you that are P full, for ye

shall hunger. Woe unto you that laugh now, for ye shall * 1John'.mourn and weep. 26 v Woe unto you, when all men shall

speak well of you: for so did their fathers to the false wExodxiii. prophets. 27 w But I say unto you which hear, Love your

Rom. xii. 20. enemies, do good to them which hate you, 28 bless them x ch. szili. 86. that curse you, [9 and] *pray for them which despitefully

use you. 29 And unto him that smiteth thee on the one 1 Cor. vi.7. cheek offer also the other; Y and him that taketh away thy z Deut. xv.7. cloke forbid not to take thy-coat also. 30 z Give to every

man that asketh of thee; and of him that taketh away thy goods ask them not again. 31 And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise. 32 r For if ye love them which love you, what thank have ye? for sinners also love those that love them. 33 And if ye do good to them which do good to you, what thank have ye? for sinners also do even the same. 34 And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye?

for sinners also lend to sinners, to receive as much again. oleh Penció: 35 But a love ye your enemies, and do good, and blend,

o have received is the saine word rendered have in Matt. vi. 2, 5, 16 : see notes there, P read, full now. I omit. r render, And. tion only, but of all kinds of expulsion false prophets shews this, and should have from society. your name :-either prevented the blunder from being made. your collective name as Christians,- to The mention of “prophetsand “false which St. Peter seems to refer, 1 Pet. iv. prophetshas reference to the disciples' 14-16;-or, your individual name. office as the salt of the earth. The address 23.) in that day, not in the most solemn in ver. 27 is not (Meyer) a turning of the sense of the words (see Matt. vii. 22), but discourse to His own disciples, but I say in the day when men shall do thus to unto you which hear is equivalent to you. 24.] Of course I cannot assent But I say unto you,which introduces to any such view as that taken by Meyer the same command Matt. iv. 44,--and that and others, that these woes' are inserted hear serves the purpose of the I-to you from later tradition; in other words, were who now hear me. The discourse being in never spoken by our Lord at all :-either an abridged form, the strong antithesis could we must suppose that they ought to follow not be brought out. 29.) See Matt. v. Matt. v. 12, which is from the context 39 ff. 31.) Matt. vii. 12; but here most improbable, -or that they and per- it seems somewhat out of connexion, haps the four preceding beatitudes with for the sense of vv. 29, 30, has been rethem, were on some occasion spoken by sist not evil, whereas this precept refers our Lord in this exact form, and so have to the duty of man to man, injury being been here placed in that form.

out of the question. 32.] This verse 26.] Not said to the rich, but to the dis again belongs to ver. 28, not to ver. 31; see ciples. The very warning conveyed in Matt. v. 46 ff. 33ff.] thank corresponds

a ver. 27.

hoping for nothing again ; and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be 8 the children of the Highest : for he is kind unto the unthankful and to the evil. 36 Be ye [t therefore] merciful, as your Father also is merciful. 37 a Judge not, and ye shall not be judged : au condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned : forgive, and ye shall be forgiven : 38 give, and it shall be given unto you; good o Prov. xix. 17. measure, pressed down, [Vand] shaken together, [Vand] running over, shall w men give into your d bosom. For d Ps. lxxix. 12. e with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be e Markiv: 245 measured to you again. 39 And he > spake a parable unto s render, sons.

t omitted by many ancient authorities. a render, And judge not. uu render, and condemn not. vomit.

W not expressed in the original. Better, shall they give, leaving the persons uncertain : see note.

I render, spake also.

to "reward,” Matthew (see note on Matt. 38.7 The similitude is taken from a very v. 12). 35. hoping for nothing again) full measure of some dry thing, such as The original word is a difficult one. Three corn. That no liquid is intended by runrenderings of it have been given-(1) the ning over, as Bengel supposes, is evidentordinary one, as in the text, not expecting for the three present participles all apply any payment from them : 80 Euthymius to the same good measure, and form a and others. This meaning of the word is climax. shall they give] The subject unexampled, though agreeing with the of this verb answers to the unexpressed context. (2) 'causing no one to despair,' agents of it shall be measured again; i.e. refusing no one; so the ancient Syriac such agents being indefinite, and the version renders it. (3) 'not despairing,' meaning thereby rendered solemn and emi.e. 'without anxiety about the result.' phatic; see on ch. xii. 20. If we are This last sense of the word is best sup to find a wom., it should be the Angels, ported by examples. But as it is a word who are in this matter the ministers of only once occurring in the New Testament, the divine purposes. This saying perhaps the force of the context should is found with a totally different import prevail, and the ordinary interpretation be Mark iv. 24; one of the many instances adopted, as there is nothing in analogy how the Lord turned about, so to speak, to forbid the meaning. sons of the the Light of Truth contained in His deHighest] Meyer maintains that this must clarations, so as to shine upon different mean 'sons of God” in the sense of par- departments of life and thought. 39.] takers of the glory of the Messiah's King. From this verse to the end is in the closest dom, but without reference to the state of connexion, and it it impossible that it believers in this life, which last he says is should consist of sayings thrown together according to the usage of St. Paul, not of and uttered at different times. The the three first Evangelists. But surely connexion with what went before is not so this is sufficiently answered by your Father evident, indeed the spake a parable unto in the next verse, where the actual present them seems to shew a break. The parasonship to our heavenly Father is a reason bolic saying, implying the unfitness of an why we should imitate Him. 36.] uncbaritable and unjustly condemning merciful-equivalent to perfect,Matt. leader (the Lord was speaking primarily v. 48, which last is the larger description, to His Apostles) to perform his office, leads comprehending in it charity and mercy; to the assertion (ver. 40] that no Christian see note there. 37.] Matt. vii. 1, 2. ought to assume in this respect an office of The saying is much enriched and expanded judging which his Master never assumed ; here; perhaps it was so uttered by our but rather will every well-instructed Chris. Lord on some other occasion ; for the con- tian strive to be humble as his Master was. nexion is very strict in Matthew, and Then follows the reproof of vv. 41-43; would hardly bear this expansion of what and, vv. 44, 45 and 46-49 shew us, exis not in that place the leading idea. panded in different images, what the beam

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