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Heb. vi. 4:
Matt. vii. 21. ch. viii. :1. James i. 25 Matt. xii. 8, $9.
me scattereth. 24 ° When the unclean spirit is gone out of o Matt. xii. 43. a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest; and finding none, he saith, I will return unto my house whence I came out. 25 And when he cometh, he findeth it swept and garnished. 26 Then goeth he, and taketh to him seven other spirits more wicked than himself; and they enter in, and dwell there : and P the last state of that man p John v. 14. is worse than the first.
27 And it came to pass, as he spake these things, a certain woman t of the company lifted up her voice, and said unto him, 9 Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and 4 ch. i. 28, 48. the paps which thou hast sucked. 29 But he said, Yea, r rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and Matt. will.?! keep it. 29 & And when the u people were gathered thick s Mutt. iii.28, together, he began to say, "This is an evil generation :
t render, from among the multitude.
V read, This generation. loosed for the final conflict by His suffer- in being His mother, as in her lowly ance, shall cast him overthrown into the and faithful observance of the word of the lake of fire for ever. Rev. xx. 14.
Lord spoken to her; see ch. ii. 19, 51. 23.] See on Matthew, ver. 30. 24–26.] Nor again does He deny that to have See on Matt. xii. 43.
27, 28.] This borne Him was an honour-yea, rather : little but most instructive incident, here -- yes, indeed, but.' (4) In prophetic interposed, serves to shew the originality discernment. It will be seen that this of St. Luke's account, and that, whatever answer cuts at the root of all worship of its position may be, it is itself of the high- Mary, and shews us in what the true est authority. The woman apparently was honour of that holy woman consisted, - in influenced by nothing but common place faith and obedience. As the mother of and unintelligent wonder at the sayings the Lord, she represents our human race, and doings of Jesus :-and she broke out, unto whom a child is born, a son is given; with true womanly feeling, into a blessing no individual exclusive honour is due to of the mother who bare such a wonder her, any more than to Cornelius, who was ful Teacher. Such seems to be the ac. singled out from the Gentile world, and count of the incident itself. Our honoured by an angelic message relative Lord's reply is indeed wonderful :-(1) In to the divine purposes :- if she were, as reproof. He corrects in her the un- there is every reason to conclude she was, apprehensiveness of His word, which had a believer in her Son, the Son of man, she caused her to go no further into the bore Christ in a far higher and more meaning of it than this ordinary eulogy blessed sense than by being His mother in imported, -and gives her an admonition His humanity. And this honour may all how to profit better by it in future.
believers in Him partake of with her; (2) In humility. He disclaims all this therefore the Lord says not “she that kind of admiration, for his humanity: and heareth ..." but they that hear. The last says not 'my word,' but the word of God, and boldest perversion of these words of which is in fact the same, but takes the our Lord by Father Newman, viz., that view off from Him in His abasement, unto He thus does but still further exalt her the Father who sent Him. (3) In honour, in that, besides being His mother, truth. He does not deny the honour she heard His word and kept it, need only hereby pronounced upon His mother, but be mentioned, to show the follies to which beautifully turns it to its true side- viz. able men are abandoned, who once desert that which was given her long since – truth and simplicity. 29.] This is blessed is she that believed, ch. i. 45. now in answer to those who sought of Him Her blessedness consisted not so much a sign from Heaven. when the mul.
y Matt. v. 15.
Mark iv. 21.
w they seek a sign; and there shall no sign be given it, but Jonah i. 17: the sign of Jonas [x the prophet]. 30 For as · Jonas was a
sign unto the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of man be to u 1 Kings 2. 1. this generation. 31 u The queen of the south shall rise up
in the judgment with the men of this generation, and condemņ them : for she came from the utmost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, y a greater than Solomon is here. 32 The men of Nineve shall
rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall Jonah iii. . condemn it: for * they repented at the preaching of Jonas : * Matt. v. 15. and, behold, 2 a greater than Jonas is here. 33 y No man, ch. viii. 10. when he hath lighted a candle, putteth it in a secret place,
neither under a a bushel, but on a a candlestick, that they z Matt. vi. 22. which come in may see the light. 34 z The blight of the
body is bb the eye: [c therefore] when thine eye is single, thy whole body also is co full of light; but when thine eye is evil, thy body also is d full of darkness. 35 Take heed therefore that the light which is in thee be not darkness. 36 If thy
whole body therefore be cc full of light, having no part w render, it seeketh.
X omit. y render, there is more than Solomon here. z render, there is more than Jonas here. a render, the : and correct similarly in Matt, v. 15.
b render, candle. It is the same word as that so rendered above, and is used in allusion to that.
bb read, thine. Comit. cc render, light. d render, dark. titudes were gathering ... perhaps in ex. for the undervaluing and not appreciating pectation, as He paused in His discourse, His wisdom, will not lie so heavy on them that the sign was now about to be shewn: in the judgment, as the rejection of His - see notes on Matthew for the main sub- preaching of repentance. 33–36.] ject. Here we have one part of the Our Lord goes on to speak of His teaching sign of Jonas brought out, which is not and miracles, which this generation detouched on in Matthew, viz. his preaching spised, and demanded a sign from heaven in after his resurrection to the Ninevites, preference; He tells them that they will announcing - for that would necessarily be not see the significance of them, because involved in that preaching—the wonderful they shut the eyes of their understanding, judgment of God in bringing him there,– which should be the light of the soul ; and thus making his own deliverance, that this is set before them in a parable conhe might preach to them, a sign to that cerning the light of the body, which is the people ; which sign (ver. 32) they received, outward eye. The sentences are repeated and repented ;- but more than Jonas, a from the Sermon on the Mount, see Matt. greater sign by far, this generation shall v. 15; vi. 22 f. (where see notes on all that reject.
32.] Not a greater than is coinmon), and ch. viii. 16; but, as has Jonas,' or 'than Solomon but Jonah been shewn, the truth shines from a difhere is used as equivalent to the sign of ferent side of them here. 33.] a seJonah, so that more applies to Him who cret place---more properly, a crypt, or is the sign to this generation :- a sign, covered passage. 36.] It has been greater, both in its actuality, its signifi. said of this verse by a very able expositor cance, and its consequences. The order, (De Wette) that it is “ tautological : the here, seems to be for the sake of climax ;- second member contains the same assertion
dark, the whole shall be ce full of light, as when e the bright shining of a candle doth give thee light. 37 And as he spake, a certain Pharisee besought him to f dine with him ; and he went in, and sat down to meat. 38 And a when the a Mark vii. 3. Pharisee saw it, he marvelled that he had not first washed before f dinner. 39 b And the Lord said unto him, Now do b Matt. xxiii. ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the
e render, a candle lighteneth thee with its brightness.
I see note. as the first.”—Let us examine this. When parts of that discourse, with which He thine eye is single (ver. 34),-i. e. simple, afterwards solemnly closed His public -straight and single-seeing,—thy whole ministry. See thrcughout, notes on Matt. body will be light.' Then (ver. 36),if xxiii. . 37. to dine) This meal, as this be so,-if thy whole body be light, also that in John xxi. 12, 15, was not having no part dark,—then it shall all be what we now understand by dinner, an light as when a lamp with its brightness afternoon meal, but the first meal of the illuminates thee.' Of what is our Lord day, the breakfast or dejeuner in the speaking? Of His teaching, as appre- prime of the morning. We may retain hended by the simple, single-seeing soul. dine (indeed we have no other fitting If then the sonl be so,-having no part word) provided we remember this. darkened by prejudice or selfish lusts, and 38.] The expression of this wonder is approach thus to His teaching, it shall be not stated, but it is probable that it wholly illuminated by it, as by the candle found expression in some open way. of the Lord, searching its inward parts. Our Lord would hardly have so sudSo this saying, which, even as it stands, is denly begun, ye Pharisees, unless somenot tautological,- for the second clause thing had been said, to which by asexpresses the further result and waxing sent they were parties. See His pro. on ward of the shining light, arising from ceeding when nothing was said,---ch. vii. the singleness of the eye,- becomes, in its 39, 40. washed] literally baptized. spiritual significance, a weighty declara. This use of the word shews that it tion of truth, answering to ch. viii. 15 : did not imply necessarily immersion of see also John viii. 12.
the whole body ;-for it was only the 37-54.] DISCOURSE AGAINST THE hands which the Pharisees washed be. PAARISEES. There can be no antecedent fore meat. 39.] There is not the improbability in the supposition that our least improbability or incongruity in our Lord spoke on various occasions, and with Lord's having thus spoken as a guest at a various incidental references, the compo. meal (as some of the German Commentators nent parts of that great anti-pharisaic dis- maintain) ;-His solemn work of reproof course contained in Matt. xxii. That was and teaching was never suspended out of spoken in the temple, during the last week mere compliment, - nor were the intenof His ministry; it formed the solemn tions of the Pharisees towards Him so close of His public teaching,and at the friendly as these invitations seem to imply. end of it He departed out of the temple to They were given mostly from deference to return no more. I do not think it possible popular opinion, and from no love to Him; to suppose any part of that discourse in --sometimes even with a directly hostile Matthew to be related otherwise than in object. See vv. 53, 54, and compare also its true place; all probability is against ch. vii. 44–46. Observe also, that the such an idea,- and so is the character of severest parts of the discourse in Matthew the reports of discourses in that Gospel, (vv. 13-22, 33) were not uttered on this in general so strictly coherent and exact. occasion. Now, i.e. as instanced by There is then but one supposition left, unless your present conduct-Here is an inwe suppose St. Luke to have put together stance of your, &c. the cup and the at random a number of fragments, and to platter-understand, 'in the proverb'-or have inserted them here, creating an occa perhaps the application is left to be enthysion for them (for it amounts to this), which mematically filled up, for the next clause is equally inconceivable. And that is, that presupposes it. the outside and the our Lord spoke at this meal, the occasion inward part of a mun, are not the outside being the wonder of the Pharisee at His and inside of the body—but the outside - not washing before sitting down to meat, apparent conduct, and the inner unseen VOL. I.
Dan. iv. 27. ch. xii. 33.
e Matt, xxiii.
c Titus i. 16. platter; but your inward part is full of 8 ravening and
wickedness. 40 Ye fools, did not he that made that which a Isa. Iyili.7 is without make that which is within also ? 41 d But rather
give alms of such things as ye have; and, behold, all things are clean unto you. 42 e But woe unto you, Pharisees, for ye tithe mint and rue and all manner of herbs, and pass over judgment and the love of God: these ought
ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone. f Matt Smiline. 43 ? Woe unto you, Pharisees, for ye love the uppermost
seats in the synagogues, and greetings in the markets. 8 Matt. xxiii. 44 : Woe unto you, [h scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites !]
h for ye are as graves which appear not, and the men that walk over them are not aware of them. 45 Then answered one of the lawyers, and said unto him, Master, thus saying
thou reproachest us also. 46 And he said, Woe unto you i Matt. xxiii. s. also, ye lawyers, ' for ye lade men with burdens grievous 8 i, e. plunder.
Mark xii. 38, 59.
27. h Ps. v. 9.
motives. Some difficulty has been the things inside) are the contents of the found in the parallelism of the outside of vessel, which vessel (ver. 39: see note the cup and platter and your inward part. above) is the men themselves : and is thereBut the fact is, that the parable and its fore equivalent in its meaning to that ye interpretation are intermixed throughout have of ch. xii. 33,--and the all things the whole, the mind of the hearer being are clean answers to the treasure in left to find its own way in allotting each heaven of that verse, the result of which its part. 40.] seems clearly to me to is the “heart in heaven;" and such perbe a question, and to mean, as A. V., Did sons being pure in heart, to them, as to not He, who made the outside, make the the pure, all things are pure (Titus i. 15). inside also ?-i.e. if His works bave be
42.] But woe unto you, for ye come unclean and polluted through sin, do not this,—but make the most trilling what is the use of only partially purging payments, &c. The connexion, which is them,- not accomplishing the purgation thus so close, is quite destroyed by the -must not the cleansing, to be good for ironical interpretation of ver. 41. See any thing, extend to the whole ? See, on note on Matt. xxiii. 23. 43.] Matt. a proposal otherwise to understand it, the xxij. 6, 7. There doubtless was ample note in my Greek Test. 41.] Many illustration of this at the time and place Commentators, from whom I am compelled when it was spoken. 44.] See Matthew, entirely to differ, understand this as ironi. ver. 27;-but here the point of comparison cal-'but ye give alms of their contents, is different. There (see note) the sepul. and, behold, all things are clean (in your chres are whited, that men may not pass estimation) to you. But this would be over them unawares : and the comparison altogether irrelevant to the matter in is to the outside fairness, and inside hand, which was reproof to the Pharisees abomination. Here, the graves are not for their care about outward cleanliness, seen, and men thinking they are walking when the inside was left unclean. It on clean ground are defiled by passing would also be altogether contrary to our over them. Perhaps the difference of exLord's usual habit of speaking about pression may have been occasioned by the giving alms, to make Him cast a slur on greater wealth and splendour and display it, as this would do: see Mark x. 21 ; ch. of the Pharisees in the metropolis, where xii. 33, where the expression is very simi- Matt. xxiï. was spoken. 45.] This lar to this. The command is a rebuke man appears to have been not a common for their covetousness (see ch. xvi. 14), Pharisee merely, but besides, a lawyer, which follows in close connexion with whose duty it especially was to interpret ravening (plunder) and wickedness, ver. the law. Perhaps he found himself in39. such things as yo have (literally, volved in the censure of ver. 42; or gene
2 Chron. xxiv. 20, 21.
to be borne, and ye yourselves touch not the burdens with
i render, bear witness to, and.
I render, yea. m render, took away. n read, when he was gone out. rally among the other Pharisees. 46.7 Lord..... And when he died, he said, See on Matthew, ver. 4. 47.] See The Lord look upon it, and require it.' on Matthew,vv. 29–32. 48.) See The words in our text are not indeed a on Matthew, vv. 34-36. We have citation, but an amplification of ver. 19 here a remarkable variation of expression there—a paraphrase of them, giving the in ver. 49, the wisdom of God said is true sense of what the wisdom of God in. expressed by “I” in Matthew. Various tended by them ;- enlarging the mere hisexplanations have been given of this. The torical notice which laid hold of God's difficulty is not the variation just noticed, purpose only by one thread let down to so much as that no such passage exists in the earth, into the divine revelation of the the 0. T. But I have little doubt that whole purpose of God as the counsel of the true explanation is this :-the whole His will in heaven. In Matthew, the Lord saying is a reference to 2 Chron. xxiv. Jesus Himself, as became the solemnity of 18–22, and so marked a one, that I am that final and awful close of His testimony surprised that no Commentators but to His own who received Him not, stands Olshausen and Stier should have observed forth as the doer of this work, the sender it, and they not thoroughly. That pas- of the Prophets and Apostles. (On 'son sage opens with remarks of the sacred of Barachias,' see on Matthew, ver. 35.) historian on the delinquency of Judah and
52. ye took away the key of knowJerusalem after the death of Jehoiada the ledge] “Ye shut up the kingdom of heaven priest : then ver. 19, *He sent prophets to against men,” Matthew, ver. 13, which words them, to bring them again to the Lord; are the best explanation of our text :- the and they testified against them : but they key of knowledge (i.e. not of, as admitting would not give ear. And the Spirit of to, knowledge--but the key is the knowGod came upon Zechariah the son of Je. ledge), being that right understanding of hoiada the priest, which stood above the the Law and Prophets, which should shew people, and said unto them .... And Him to the people, of whom they testified; they conspired against him, and stoned this the expounders of Scripture had him with stones at the commandment of taken away, neither themselves entering, the king in the court of the house of the nor permitting those to enter who were