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unto them o in the absence of the multitude. 17 Then
e or, without tumult.
The concluding words of the verse 11.) The “goodman of the house” was a may bear either the meaning in the text man of some wealth, and could not be or that in the margin.
identical with the water-carrier (see notes p -- 14.] PREPARATION FOR CELE on Matthew). The Greek word renBRATING THE PASSOVER. Matt. xxvi. dered guestchamber is not here, as in 17-19. Mark xiv, 12-16. Our account ch. ii. 7, an inn, but a room set apart at is the fullest of the three, related however this season of the feast, by residents in nearly to St. Mark's. By came we must Jerusalem, in which parties coming from of course understand that the day was come, the country might eat the Passover. The not, as some would interpret it, was at question therefore would be well underhand. On this whole subject see notes on stood ;—and the room being spread, and Matt. xxvi. 17, and John xviii. 28. when as Mark adds, “prepared,” would be no the passover must be killed literally, sacri. matter of surprise. 14.] The hour ficed), i. e. the legal time of the Passover was evening; see above on ver. 10, and being sacrificed. So the narrators in the Matt. xxvi. 20. three Gospels evidently intend. 8.] 15–18.] Peculiar to Luke. The desire It was a solemn message, and for it were of our Lord to eat this His last Passover chosen the two chief Apostles. In may be explained from ch. xii. 50: not the report of St. Matthew, the suggestion merely from his depth of love for His disis represented as coming from the disciples ciples, though this formed an element in it, themselves. 9.] The question, Where - see John xiii. 1 sq. The for in ver. 16 wilt thou ? was asked, but only in reply gives us the leading reason. This is to the command of our Lord. 10.) the only instance in the Gospels, of the There can, I think, be no question that absolute use of suffer, as in the Creed, this direction was given in super-human ‘He suffered. We have several times foresight, just as that in ch. xix. 30 :-see “suffer many things," ch. ix. 22; xvii. 25; also i Sam. X. 2—8, and Matt. xvii. 27. Matt. xvi. 21 al.; "suffer these things,” ch. This person carrying water would probably xxiv. 26, and “thus to suffer," ditto ver. be a slave, and the time, towards evening, 46. 16.] The full meaning of this the usual hour of fetching in water. declaration is to be sought in the words
Rev. xix. 9.
och. xiv, 15. j thereof, « until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
17 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves : 18 for I say unto you, I will not k drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come. 19 And he took bread, and
gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, d 1 Cor. xi. 24. This is my body which is given for you : d this do lin
remembrance of me. 20 Likewise also the cup after e 1 Cor. I. 16. supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my f Ps. xli. I. blood, which is shed for you. 21 f But, behold, the hand of
him that betrayeth me is with me on the table. 22 11 And 8 Acts li. 23: truly the Son of man goeth 8 as it was determined : but
woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed ! 23 And they
began to enquire among themselves, which of them it was j read, it.
k read, shenceforth] drink. 1 the Vatican MS. has, as a remembrance. 11 read, Because. this passover. It was that particular first cup in the Passover-meal, with which Passover, not merely the Passover gene the whole was introduced. On the rally,—though of course that also,--that possible connexion of this speech of our was to receive its fulfilment in the king. Lord with the celebration of the Passover dom of God. And to this fulfilment our at this particular time, see note on Matt. Lord alludes again in ver. 30. It is to this xxvi. 17 (p. 183, col. 2). After these marriage supper of the Lamb, that the para- verses, in order of time, follows the washing ble Matt. xxii. 1–14 in its ultimate applic of the disciple's feet in John xii. 1-20, cation refers : nor can we help thinking referred to in our ver. 27. on the faithless Apostle at this very supper, 19, 20.7 INSTITUTION OF THE LORD's in verses 11-13 there :-see notes on that SUPPER. Matt. xxvi. 26-29. Mark xiv. place. 17.] Some suppose that it is 22—24. 1 Cor. xi. 23—25. See notes on here implied that our Lord did not drink Matthew. 20.] Here follows, in Matthew of the cup Himself. But surely this can- ver. 29, Mark ver. 25, a second declaration, not be so. The two members of the speech respecting not drinking any more of this are strictly parallel : and if He desired to fruit of the vine. eat the Passover with them, He would 21-23.7 ANNOUNCEMENT OF A BEalso drink of the cup, which formed a usual TRAYER. See notes on Matt. xxvi. 20— part of the ceremonial. This seems to me 25. I would not venture absolutely to to be implied in “ He took the cup," where maintain that this announcement is identhe original has a different word from that tical with that one; but I own the argu. used by all afterwards, when He did not ments of Stier and others to prove them partake of the bread and wine. This distinct, fail to convince me. The expresmost important addition in our narrative, sion But, behold, bears marks of verbal accuamounts, I believe, to a solemn declaration racy, and inclines us to believe that this of the fulfilment of the Passover rite, in announcement was made after the insti. both its usual divisions,--the eating the tution of the cup, as here related. •Notflesh of the lamb, and drinking the cup of withstanding this My declaration of love, thanksgiving. Henceforward, He who in giving My Body and Blood for you, there fulfilled the Law for man will no more is one here present who shall betray Me.' eat and drink of it. I remark this, in on the table) viz. in dipping into order further to observe that this division the dish with the Lord. 22. goeth] A of the cup is not only not identical with, somewhat similar expression to this occurs but has no reference to, the subsequent ch. xiii. 33, “I must walk the Greek word one in ver. 20. That was the institution is the same) to day and to morrow;" but of a new rite;—this the abrogation of an that is used of our Lord's ministerial proold one, now fulfilled, or about to be so, in gress; this of His progress through sufferthe person of the true Lamb of God.
ing to glory. This is generally supposed to have been the
k Matt. XI. 26.
1 Pet. v. 3. I ch. ix. 48.
a Matt. xx. 23.
John xiii. 13, 14. Phil. ii.
o Heb. iv, 15. p Matt. xxiv.
47. ch. xii. 32. 2 Cor. i. 7.
q Matt. viii. 11.
ch. xiv. 15.
Rev. xix. 9. r Ps. xlix. 14.
Matt. xix. 28. 1 Cor. vi. 2.
Rev. iii. 21. 81 Pet. v. 8.
that m should do this thing. 24 h And there was also a strife h Mark 17. 3. among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest. 25 i And he said unto them, The kings of the Mark 1.12. Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors. 26 k But ye shall not be so; 'but he that is greatest among Mpet: 4.:26. you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he lo that doth n serve. 27 m For whether is greater, he that m ch. xil. 37. sitteth at meat, or he that n serveth ? is not he that sitteth at meat ? but I am * o among you as he that serveth. - Mobile 1.3, 28 Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations. 29 And PI appoint unto you a kingdom, as Path wis2. my Father hath appointed unto me; 30 that 4 ye may eat tim. ir 12: and drink at my table in my kingdom, 'and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 31 [P And the Lord * Matt. 5iX.28. said,] Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath a desired to have , Rev. ii. 21.
m literally, was about to do. n literally, minister, and ministereth. o literally, in the midst of you. P omitted by some of the most ancient authorities. I render, prevailed.
24–30.] DISPUTE FOR PRE-EMINENCE. is too clear an allusion to the washing of OUR LORD'S REPLY. Without attempting their feet by the Lord, to have escaped to decide the question whether this inci. even those Commentators who are slow to dent is strictly narrated in order of time, discern such hints. The appeal, if it had or identical with one of those strifes on taken place, is natural and intelligible; this point related Matt. xviii. 1, xx. 20, I but not otherwise. (4) The diction is rewill offer one or two remarks on it as it peatedly allusive to their then employment: here stands. (1) Its having happened at « sitting at meat”_" eat and drink”this time is not altogether unaccountable. “in my Kingdom”-all these have referThey had been just enquiring among them ence to things present, or words spoken, selves (ver. 23), who among them should during that meal.-I therefore infer that do this thing. May it not reasonably be the strife did happen at this time, in the supposed, that some of them (Judas at order related here. 25.] See on Matt. least) would be anxiously employed in XX. 25. The expression here they that self-justification, and that this would lead, exercise authority upon (over) them are in some part of the table to a dispute of called benefactors, also seems to be con. the kind here introduced ? The natural nected with what had just taken place. effect of the Lord's rebuke would be to “Among them, the benefactors are those give rise to a different spirit among them, who exercise authority—but among you, I, and the question, “ Lord, is it I ?” may your benefactor (see vv. 19, 20), do not so, have been the offspring of this better but am in the midst of you as your sermind;- but see note on Matthew vv. 20 vant.' Ptolemy Euergetes (the benefactor) 25. (2) It is surprising to find the very at once occurs to us;-numerous other declaration of our Lord on the former strife examples are given by Wetstein. related in this Gospel (ch. ix. 46—48), re. 27.] Compare John xiii. 13–17. 28.7 peated as having been made at this Paschal These words could hardly have been spoken meal,- by John, xiii. 20. May not this lead except on this occasion, when “the matter us to suppose that there has been a trans concerning me hath an end,” ver. 37. position of some of the circumstances re- 29, 30.] See above, and note on Matt. xix. garding these various contentions among 28, see also Rev. ii. 27. 30.] at my table: the Apostles, and that these words occur- see above, ver. 21, and note on ver. 16. ring in John may possibly point to a 31–34.] APPEAL TO PETER : HIS constrife of this kind ? (3) The “I am in FIDENCE, AND OUR LORD'S REPLY. (See the midst of you as he that ministereth” Matt. xxvi. 30—35: Mark xiv. 26-31:
u John xvii. 9,
11, 15. v Ps. li. 13.
ch. ix. 3: x 4.
t Amos ir lie. you, that he may +sift you as wheat : 32 but u I have t Amos ix. 9. Pas 11.13. prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou John xxi. 15, 10, 17. 8 art converted, strengthen thy brethren. 33 And he said
unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death. 34 And he said, I tell thee, Peter,
the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt w Matt. x. 9. thrice deny that thou knowest me. 35 w And he said unto
them, When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and
I see note : render perhaps, for perspicuity, you [all].
s render, hast turned again. John xiii. 36–38.) The speech appears word, and the cognate substantive, thrice by to proceed continuously. There are marks, St. Peter in his two epistles, 1 Pet. v. 10; in these words of our Lord, of close con- 2 Pet. i. 12; ii. 17, and in the first pasnexion with what has gone before. His sage in a connexion with the mention of way, which the Father appointed to Him, Satan's temptations, is remarkable. is to His Kingdom-but it is through temp. 33, 34.] Whether these words are in close tations. To these, who have been with connexion with the preceding, may I think Him in these trials, He appoints a king. be doubted. They may represent the same dom,-but His way to it must be their reply of our Lord as we have recorded way: and here is the temptation,-the sift. in John xiii. 38. One thing seems ing as wheat. The sudden address to clear, without any attempt at minutely Simon may perhaps have been occasioned harmonizing : that two announcements by some remark of his,-or, which I think were made by our Lord to Peter of his more probable, may have been made in future denial, occasioned by two very consequence of some part taken by him in different professions of his. One,-during the preceding strife for precedence. Such the last meal, i. e. before going out, and sudden and earnest addresses spring forth occasioned by Peter's professed readiness from deep love and concern awakened for to go to prison and to death (“ to lay another. 31.] not only hath de. down his life”) for and with the Lord:sired to have you,' A. V., but hath ob- the other, -on' the way to the Mount of tained you; his desire is granted. Olives, after the declaration that all should
you, all of you : not Siinon alone, as be offended, and occasioned by Peter's sometimes understood, even by preachers, profession that though all should be from the A. V. only. This must include offended, yet would not he. Nothing is Judas, though it does not follow that he more natural or common than the repewas present; the sifting separated the tition, by the warm-hearted and ardent, of chaff from the wheat, which chaff he was, professions like these, in spite of warning; see Amos ix. 9. 32. but I have prayed -and when De Wette calls such an interfor thee] As Peter was the foremost (the pretation a mere shift in difficulty,' all rest are here addressed through him), so that we can say is, to disclaim any wish to he was in the greatest danger. It must clear up difficulties, except by going into not be supposed that our Lord's prayer was their depths, and examining them honestly not heard, because Peter's faith did fail, and diligently. If the above view be corin his denial; this word fail here implies rect, I conceive that the account in John a total extinction, which Peter's faith did of this profession and our Lord's answer, not suffer. Though the you all in- being in strict coherence, and arising out cluded Judas, he is not included in the of the subject of conversation, must be prayer; see John xvii. 6-12. We may no- taken as the exact one: and St. Luke must tice here, that our Lord speaks of the total be supposed to have inserted them here failure of even an Apostle's faith, as pos- without being aware of the intermediate sible. when thou hast turned again) remarks which led to them. This is There can, I think, be little doubt that the only place in the Gospels where our this word is here used in the general N. T. Lord addresses Peter by the name Peter. sense, of returning as a penitent after sin, And it is remarkable, as occurring in the turning to God,-and not in the almost very place where He forewarns him of his expletive meaning which it has in such approaching denial of Himself. passages as Joel ii. 14; Acts vii. 42.
35-38.] FOREWARNING OF PERILS AT strengthen (or confirm)] The use of this HAND. Peculiar to Luke. The mean
Mark A. 28.
shoes, lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing. 36 Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise this scrip: and a he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one. 37 For I say unto you, that this that is written must [uu yet] be accomplished in me, * And he was reckoned among the trans- * Isa. lili. 1. gressors : for the things concerning me have an end. 38 And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough.
t render, a.
a render (see note), he that hath none, let him sell his garment, and buy a sword. uu omit.
most ancient authorities read, the matter concerning me hath. ing of our Lord in this much-controverted myself (see Matt. x. 24, 25) am about to passage appears to be, to forewarn the be reckoned among transgressors.' Apostles of the outward dangers which By the very form of the expression it is will await them henceforward in their evident, that the sword alluded to could mission :-unlike the time when He sent have no reference to that night's danger, them forth without earthly appliances, up or the defending Him from it. the held by His special Providence, they must matter concerning me hath an end] The now make use of common resources for prophecy cited closes the section of Isaiah, sustenance, yea, and even of the sword which eminently predicts the Lord's sufferitself for defence. This they misunder. ings (ch. lii. 13—liü. 12). hath an stand, and point to the two swords which end does not merely mean must be ful. they have, - for which they are rebuked filled,' which would be an assertion with(see below). 35.] See ch. ix. 3; x. out any special reference here—but are 4; also Matt. x. 9. 36.] take was coming to the completion of their accoin. the very word used in the prohibition be. plishment. So “it is finished," John xix. fore. There is a question how this 30. 38.] Two of them were armed, sentence, which is elliptical in the original, either from excess of zeal to defend Him, should be filled up. Very many autho excited by His announcement of His sufrities make a sword understood after ferings during this feast,-or, perhaps be“hath not” (as in A. V.);- but the simpler cause they had brought their weapons construction and better sense is to place from Galilee as protection by the way. hath not in contrast with hath, He that the road from Jericho to Jerusalem (see hath & purse, &c., and he that hath ch. x. 30) was much infested with robbers; none, let him, &c. Thus the sense will ---and it was the custonı for the priests, and be complete,- for he who has a purse, can even for the quiet and ascetic Essenes, to buy a sword, without selling his garment. carry weapons when travelling. ChrysosThe sword of the Spirit' (Olshausen and tom gives a curious explanation of the two others) is wholly out of the question in swords,--that it was probable they had interpreting this command. The saying is knives to cut up the Paschal lamb. This both a description to them of their altered certainly agrees with the number of the situation with reference to the world with- disciples sent to get ready the Passover: out, and a declaration that self-defence but it has nothing else to recommend it. and self-provision would henceforward be They exhibit their swords, misunderstandnecessary. It forms a decisive testimony, ing His words, and supposing them to from the mouth of the Lord Himself, apply to that night. Our Lord breaks off against the views of the Quakers and some the matter with It is enough,--not they other sects on these points. But it does are sufficient;'-but, It is well,- we are not warrant aggression by Christians, nor, sufficiently provided it was not to this as some R. Catholics, spreading the Gospel that My words referred. The rebuke is by the sword. 37.] The connexion is parallel with, though milder than, the one this : ‘your situation among men will be in Mark viii. 17,--as the misunderstanding one of neglect and even of danger ;- for I was somewhat similar.