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paradise. 44 And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. 45 And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple

was rent in the midst. 46 And when Jesus had cried with w Ps. XIII. 5. a loud voice, he said, "Father, into thy hands I com

f better, deliver up. this day: before the close of this natural but it is a degree of bliss compared to day. The attempt to join it with I say which their former degree was but as imunto thee (" I say unto thee this day"), prisonment. This work of the Lord considering that it not only violates com. I believe to have been accomplished on the mon sense, but destroys the force of our instant of His death, and the penitent to Lord's promise, is surely something worse have followed Him at his death-which than silly; see below. shalt thou be took place some little time after-into the with me can bear no other meaning than Paradise of God. That our Lord returned the ordinary sense of the words, ' I shall to take His glorified Body, was in accord. be in Paradise, and thou with Me.

ance with His design, and He became in paradise] On these words rests the thereby the firstfruits of the holy dead, whole explanation of the saying. What who shall like Him put on the body of is this PARADISE ? The word is used of the resurrection, and be translated from the garden of Eden by the LXX, Gen. disembodied and imperfect bliss in the ii. 8, &c., and subsequently became, in the Paradise of God, to the perfection of Jewish theology, the name for that part glorified humanity in His glory, and with of Hadës, the abode of the dead, where Him, not in Paradise, but at God's right the souls of the righteous await the resur- hand.

44-46.] Our account is rection. It was also the name for a very short and epitomizing-containing supernal or heavenly abode, see 2 Cor. however, peculiar to itself, the last word xii. 4: Rev. ii. 7, which are the only other of our Lord on the cross. The impresplaces in which it occurs in the New sion conveyed by this account, if we had Testament. The former of these is, I no other, would be that the veil was rent believe, here primarily to be understood ;- before the death of Jesus :—but the more but only as introductory, and that imme- detailed account of St. Matthew corrects diately, to the latter. By the death of this. 45.] The words the sun was Christ only was Paradise first opened, in darkened are probably added to give sothe true sense of the word. He Himself, lemnity to the preceding, assigning its when speaking of Lazarus (ch. xvi. 22), reason. It can hardly be, as Meyer, that does not place him in Paradise, but in the earth was darkened till the ninth Abraham's bosom-in that place which hour, and then the sun became dark also. the Jews called Paradise, but by an anti

46.] The use of with a loud cipation which our Lord did not sanction. voice shews that this was the cry to I believe the matter to have been thus. which St. Matthew and St. Mark allude. Our Lord spoke to the thief so as He The words uttered are from the LXX, knew the thief would understand Him; varying however from the cominon readbut He spoke with a fuller and more ingI will commend,and giving the blessed meaning than he could understand verb in the present, which is also the ren. then. For that day, on that very evening, dering of the Hebrew. These words was · Paradise' truly “regained :'-opened have in them an important and deep meanby the death of Christ. We know (1 Pet. ing. They accompany that, which in our iii. 18, 19, where see note; iv. 6) that our Lord's case was strictly speaking the act Lord went down into the depths of death, of death. It was His own act-not feel-announced His triumph-(for His death ing the approach of death,' as some, not was His triumph) to the imprisoned apprehending the matter, have commented; spirits, -and in that moment--for change but a determinate delivering up of His of state, to the disembodied, is possibly all spirit to the Father.He delivered up that change of place implies—they per. His spirit,” John : see John x. 18—“no haps were in the Paradise of God,-- in the man taketh it from Me, but I lay it down blessed heavenly place, implied by the of Myself.None of the Evangelists say word, 2 Cor. xii. That this is not fulness He died :' although that expression is of glory as yet, is evident ;-for the glori. ever after used of His death stated as one fied body is not yet joined to their spirits, great fact:-but it is, yielded up His - they are not yet perfect (Heb. xi. 40); spirit,” Matthew ; breathed His last,

mend my spirit; and having said thus, he 8 gave up the ghost. 47 Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly h this was a righteous man. 48 And all the i people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which k were done, smote their breasts, and returned. 49 * And all his acquaintance, and the Po: auxviii. women that I followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.

50 And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a good man and a just: 51 the same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them; he was of Arimathæa, a city of the Jews : " who [m also yeh. ti. 25, 38. himself] waited for the kingdom of God. 52 This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. 53 And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid. 54 And n that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on. 55 And the women also,

8 render, breathed his last. See on Mark xv. 37. b render, this man was righteous.

i render, multitudes. k better, came to pass. I render, had followed. m omit.

n read and render, it was the day of. O literally, was dawning: see note. Mark, Luke ; delivered up His spirit,what be relates the Centurion to have said, John. The spirit here is the Personality and made 'a righteous man' (St. Luke), -the human soul informed by the Spirit, stand in the place of the Son of God' in union :-not separated, so that His soul (St. Mark) ;—whereas the words only give went to Hadës, and His spirit to the Father, the general sense of the persuasion of the as Olshausen thinks. Both are delivered centurion. Truly, this man was innocent: into the hand of the Father ; by Whom -and if innocent (nay, more, just, truthquickened, He worked His great victory ful), He was the Son of God, for He had over death and Hell. See again 1 Pet. asserted it. 48.) Peculiar to Luke. iii. 18, 19 and notes, and Rom. viii. 10, 11.

the things which came to pass are The latter part of the verse in the darkness and other prodigies, after Ps. xxxi. for Thou hast redeemed me, O which we have no more raillery :- men's Lord, thou God of truth,' is not applicable tempers are changed, and we here see the here. The whole Psalm is not strictly result. smote their breasts .... a prophetic, but is applied by the Lord sign of self-accusation, at least for the to Himself. 47–49.] Our account, time,- which is renewed on the preaching as well as that of St. Mark, ascribes the of Peter, Acts ii. 37. 49.] See on impression made on the centurion to that Mattbew and Mark. which took place at the death of Jesus, 50-56.] BURIAL OF THE BODY OF

i.e. that He thus breathed His last.JESUS BY JOSEPH OF ARIMATHÆA. Matt. Something in the manner and words con- xxvii. 57–61. Mark xv. 42-47. John vinced him that this man was the Son of xix. 38–42: see notes on Matthew. God; which expression he used doubtless 51. the same had not consented ....7 with reference to what he had before heard, Peculiar to Luke. The meaning is, he but especially to the words just uttered - had absented himself, and taken no part Father, into Thy hands I commend my in their (the council's) determination spirit.” St. Luke has not expressed the against Jesus. 54.] preparationwords exactly the same :—but the A. V. has the day before the sabbath,' --which now wrongly and ungrammatically rendered drew on (was dawning);-a natural word,

in the spices which And then

b ver. 23.

they ented it came ta,

e Acts 1. 10.

xvii. 23. ch. in. 29.

2 ch. viil. 2. ?which P came with him from Galilee, followed after, and

beheld the sepulchre, and how his body was laid. 56 And

they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and zz Exod. &1. 10. rested the sabbath day z2 according to the commandment.

XXIV. 1 Now upon the first day of the week, 9 very

early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, a ch. xxiii. 56. a bringing the spices which they had prepared [r, and cer

tain others with them). 2 And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre. 3 b And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus. 4 And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, . behold, two men 8 stood by them in shining garments :.5 and as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth,

they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the a Matt. xvi. 21: dead ? 6 He is not here, but is risen : d remember how he

spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee, 7 saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful

men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again. e John ii. 22. 8 And e they remembered his words, I and returned from

P render, had come. I literally, at deep (i.e. dusk) dawn.
I omit.

S render, came upon them. used of the conventional (Jewish) day 2.] This agrees with the more detailed beginning at sunset. There is no reference account in Mark :-and, as regards the to the lighting of candles in the evening majority of the women, may also with that or on the sabbath. Lightfoot has shown in Matthew :- but not as regards the two that such use of the word was common Maries. 4.] The narrative does not, among the Jews, who called the evening as the A. V. (stood by them ), determine (the beginning) of a day, light.

the position of the angels. It says merely 55.] Only Mary Magdalene and that they came upon them, or that they Mary, the mother of Joses (“the other appeared to them; the same Greek word Mary,' Matthew),-Mark. 56.] They is used in ch. ii. 9. On the two angels bought their spices &c. in the short time here, see note on Mark ver. 5; to which before sunset.

I will just add, that the Harmonistic CHAP XXIV. 1-12.] THE WOMEN view, as represented by Greswell, strangely COMING TO THE SEPULCHRE LEARN THAT enough puts together the angel in Mat. HE IS RISEN, AND ANNOUNCE IT TO THE thew, and the angel in Mark, and makes APOSTLES, BUT ARE DISBELIEVED. Matt. the two angels in Luke: see Acts i. 10. xxviii. 1–10. Mark xvi. 1-8. John. xx. men-to all appearance; the Evan1-10: see notes on Matthew. 1.] gelist does not mean that they were such, at deep dawn, i.e. just beginning to dawn: as clearly appears from what follows. while it was yet dark" John, “as it be. 5.] They call the Lord simply the living, gan to dawn toward the first day of the - Him who liveth, as addressed to the week” Matthew, and “very earlyMark; women; but Olshausen's view of a deeper but not “when the sun had risen" Mark meaning in the words should be borne in also : see potes there.

they came mind; for, as Origen truly observes, “ Life, the same women as those afterwards men- in its highest sense, is His alone." tioned (ver. 10) who told the Apostles the 6,7.] See ch. ix. 22; xviii. 32. The menintelligence. The reference is to ch. xxiii. tion of Galilee is remarkable, as occurring 55. spices, which (ch. xxii. 56) they in the angelic speeches in Matthew and had made ready before the sabbath; in Mark in quite another connexion. Here Mark xvi. 1, had bought the evening be- it is said to the women, as being from fore, when the sabbath was past.

Galilee, see ch. xxiii. 55-and meaning,

the sepulchre, and told all these things unto the eleven, and to all the rest. 10 It was Mary Magdalene, and * Joanna, and Mary [t the mother] of James, and other ich. vii. 3. women that were with them, which told these things unto the apostles. 11 & And tt their words seemed to them as idle ver. 25. tales, and they believed them not. 12 a Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and v departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.

13 And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs. 14 And they talked together of all these things which had happened. 15 And it came to pass, that, while they communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them. 16 But their t not expressed in the original.

tt read, these. U render, But Peter arose. render, went away home, wondering at. when he was yet with you. 9.] See from Clopas, Jolin xix. 25: see note note on Mark ver. 8. 10.] It seems on Matt. x. 3). Who the other was, as if the testimony of one of the disciples is idle to conjecture. Origen, in sevewho went to Emmaus had been the ground ral places, calls him Simon; apparently of the whole former part- perhaps of the from having understood “saying " in ver. whole-of this chapter. We find conse. 34 to refer to the two from Emmaus, and quently this account exactly agreeing with referring “hath appeared unto Simonto his report afterwards, vv. 23, 24.

the present appearance. Epiphanius says Joanna was the wife of Chuza, Herod's it was Nathanael ; Theophylact, St. Luke steward, ch. viii. 2. 12.] This verse himself. This may shew what such recannot well have been interpolated from ports are worth. Wieseler believes the two John xx., for the only reason for the in- to have been, James the son of Alphæus or sertion would be, to tally with ver. 24, and Clopas or Cleopas (but see above) journey. in that case it certainly would not men ing with his father, and the appearance on tion Peter alone. That Cleopas says, the road to Emmaus to be the same as ver. 24, certain of them that were with was seen of James,1 Cor. xv. 7. Our us went, &c. must not be pressed too narrative seems to have been from the remuch, although it does certainly look as port of Cleopas. Emmaus) Josephus if he knew of more than one (see note also mentions this Emmaus as sixty furlongs there). The similarity in diction to John from Jerusalem. There were two other xx. 5, 10—(stooping down he beheld the places of the same name: (1) a town afterlinen clothes laid by themselves," and wards called Nicopolis, twenty-two Roman “ went away home," being common to the miles from Jerusalem, where Judas Mactwo passages) indicates a common origin, cabeus defeated the Syrian general Gor. and, if I mistake not, one distinct from the gias : see 1 Macc. iii. 40-57. (2) Another rest of the narrative in this chapter.

Emmaus is mentioned by Josephus as being 13–35.] JESUS APPEARS TO TWO OF in front of the sea of Tiberias: and he THE DISCIPLES AT EMMAUS. Peculiar to adds, that Emmaus means, that there were Luke :-the incident (but from another warm springs there. This was the case source) is alluded to ju the fragmentary also with the other places of the name. addition to Mark xvi. (ver. 12.) 13.] Our Einmaus is now called Cubeibi (?). of them, not of the Apostles—the last 15.] Jesus himself, of whom they had mentioned were " the eleven, and all the been speaking, drew near to them. But rest,ver. 9: see also ver. 22, “ of us this expression forbids the supposition that (of our company ). One of them He was here, strictly speaking, in another ver. 18, was called Kleopas (equivalent form, as we find it less precisely expressed to Kleopatros, probably a different name in Mark xvi. 12. The reason why they

eyes were holden that they should not know him. 17 And he said unto them, What manner of w communications are these that ye have one x to another, as ye walk, Y and are sad ? 18 And [yy the] one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answering said unto him, ? Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days? 19 And he said unto them,

What things ? And they said unto him, Concerning h Matt: 27. 11. Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet i mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 20 kand how the Acto vii. 2. chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned

11. 27, to death, and [a have] crucified him. 21 But we b trusted a ch. 1.68: liso that it had been he which should have a redeemed Israel :

and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done. 22 Yea, and certain women also of our

h Matt. xxi. 11.

ch. vii. 16. John iii. 2: iv. 19: vi. 14. Acts ii. 22.

kch. xviii. 1.


38. Acts i.o.

W render, disputes.

>render, with. y the reading is doubtful. The Vatican MS. has, And they stood looking sad. yy omit.

z render, Dost thou sojourn alone.

b literally, hoped.

& omit.

did not know Him was (ver. 16), that from Jer. Taylor below, on ver. 29.) He their eyes were supernaturally influenced, does not assert, that He was one of the 80 that they could not ;-see also ver. 31. strangers at this feast at Jerusalem, nor No change took place in Him-nor ap- does He deny that He knew what had been parently in them, beyond a power upon done there in those days, but He puts the them, which prevented the recognition question by, with what things? just so much as to delay it till aroused 19. they said unto him] Either, one spoke by the well-known action and manner of and the other assented; or perhaps each His breaking the bread. The cause of spoke, sometimes one and sometimes the this was the will of the Lord himself, who other ;-only we must not break up these would not be seen by them till the time verses, and allot an imagined portion to when He saw fit. drew near-from each. They contain the substance of what behind : see ver. 18, where they take Him was said, as the reporter of the incident for an inhabitant of Jerusalem.

afterwards put it together. which 17.) He had apparently been walking with was a prophet ...: see a similar general them some little time before this was description of Him to the Jewish people, said. The term used by our Lord implies Acts ii. 22. They had repeatedly acknowthat they had been disputing with some ledged Him as a Prophet: see especially earnestness : but there is no blame implied Matt. xxi. 11, 46. The phrase "mighty in the word. Possibly, though both were in words and in deedsoccurs of Moses, sad, they may have taken different riews: Acts vii. 22. 20.] The how follows -and in the answer of Cleopas we have on the hast not known, ver. 18. that of the one who was most disposed to our rulers] Therefore the two disciples abandon all hope. 18.] They took were Jews, not Grecian converts, as some Him (but we must not think of a peculiar have supposed. delivered him, to dialect as giving that impression) for one Pilate. 21.) hoped is a word of who had been at Jerusalem at the feast :- weakened trust, and shrinking from the and asked, Dost thou lodge (sojourn) alone avowal that they believed' this. at Jerusalem ? 19-24.] Stier well redeemed-in the theocratic sense-inremarks, that the Lord here gives us an in cluding both the spiritual and political structive example how far, in the wisdom kingdoin : see ch. i. 68, 69, 74, 75, and of love, we may carry dissimulation, with compare Acts i. 6. to day is the third out speaking untruth. (See the citation day) literally, he is now in the third

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