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Matt.iii. 6. Luke i. 17, 76. 77:
iii, 3, 4. u Matt. iii. 16.
Mark i. 10. Luke iii. 22. cb. v. 32.
* Matt. lii. 11.
+ Malili.. should be made manifest to. Israel, therefore 8 am I come
monke. 17, baptizing with water. 32 u And John bare h record, saying, u Matt. tit.16. I i saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and Luke ji. 22. it k abode upon him. 33 And I knew him not: but he that
sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me,
Upon l whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and * Matt. 11:11. remaining on him, * the same is he which baptizeth with
the Holy Ghost. 34 And I m saw, and n bare record that
h render, witness.
k better, remained. I render, whomsoever.
m render, have seen. render, have borne witness. indeed may have in his own mind be. others, who were not themselves yet the lieved Him to be the Christ :--but having bearers, but the recipients of testimony:(ver. 33) a special sign appointed him, by “ It was seen, in a kind of spiritual vision, which to recognize Him as such,-until by John alone.” Theodore of Mopsuestia. that sign was given, he, like the rest of the
I have beheld, in reference to the people (the words may be rendered, I also, sign divinely intimated to him, in the as well as you, see ver. 26), had no certain abiding fulfilment of which he now stood. knowledge of Him. De Wette gives the So again, below, ver. 34. it remained sense well: “ This testimony (ver. 30) does upon him) By some appearance which is not rest upon my long personal acquaintance not described, the Holy Spirit was maniwith Him, but on that which happened fested to John as not removing from during my work of baptizing." but that Jesus again, but remaining on Him. But he should be made manifest] Justin Martyr we are not to understand that he had represents Trypho the Jew saying, “ Even seen the Spirit descending on others, and if Christ has been born and exists some- not remaining; for (see ch. vii. 39; Acts i. where, he is unknown, and is not even con- 5; xix. 2 ff. (the gift of the Holy Spirit scious of his own identity, until Elias shall did not ordinarily accompany John's bapcome and anoint him, and make him mani- tism, but only in this one case; and its fest to all.” But our narrative is not occurrence was to point out to him the built upon any such Jewish belief, for it is Messiah. the same is he which bapevidently only as a spiritual preparation, tizeth with the Holy Ghost] Here again through repentance, for the knowledge of we seem to have a reference to the cycle Him, that John regarded his baptism, not of narratives of the three other Gospels, as any thing making Him manifest to all. for our Evangelist has not before men.
32, 33.] “What follows, is testi- tioned this office of the Messiah. mony, properly so called : what is said 34.] A solemn reiteration of his testi. from ver. 29 f. was demonstration follow mony, after the mention of the giving of ing on testimony. In the continued dis. this token by Him who sent him ;- And course of the Baptist the Evangelist as it I have seen (accordingly) &c. were interposes a parenthesis, ' And John The token must have been given to the bare witness, saying,'” Bengel. The Baptist by a special revelation, which also occurrence related by John happened at revealed to him his own errand and office; the baptism of Jesus, which is therefore so Luke iii. 2, “ The word of God came here pre-supposed as known. Although unto John the son of Zacharias in the this has been questioned, I cannot see how wilderness." The perfect tense in this it can be reasonably doubted. We cannot verse is stronger than the present, -I have surely suppose that such a sign was twice seen (on the perf. see above ver. 32) and shewn. On the appearance itself, see note bave borne witness- it is a reference to Matt. iii. 16. The account here given con- his testimony at the time, as a thing on firms the view which I have there main record in their memories, and as still contained, that the appearance was confined tinuing. the Son of ūod) See ver. 18 to our Lord and the Baptist: he was to = the Word made flesh, the Messiah. receive the sign, and then to testify to the On the import of the descent of the Spirit
35 Again the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples; 36 and looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, y Behold the Lamb of God! 37 And the two dis- y ver. so. ciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus. 38 o Then Jesus turned, and saw them following, and saith unto them, What seek ye? They said unto him, Rabbi, (which is to say, being interpreted, Master,) where dwellest thou ? 39 He saith unto them, Come and see. They came and saw where he dwelt, and abode with him that day : [P for] it was about the tenth hour. 40 One of the two which heard John speak, and followed him, was ? Andrew, Simon , Matt. 1v. 18. Peter's brother. 41 He first findeth his own brother Simon,
O render, But.
P omit. on Jesus at his baptism, I may remark, of men's minds, but that He might attach that the Personal Word, Who became flesh them to Himself by the enquiry, and give in our Lord, and was subjected to all the them confidence. It is likely that they laws of human development in infancy, were bashful as yet and in perplexity, as childhood, youth,-evermore in an especial being unacquainted with Him." degree under the leading of the Holy They ask where dwellest thou? wishing Spirit, by whose agency the Incarnation to find Him alone and in quiet. Euthy. had taken place,- was the Recipient of mius. They enquire after his place of this fulness of the indwelling of the Holy lodging for the night, intending to visit Ghost : and that herein consisted the real Him there; or perhaps He was then appa. depth and propriety of this sign ;-the rently going thither, as it was late in the abiding of the Spirit without measure day. But He furthers their wish by in(ch. iii. 34) on Him indicated beyond viting them to follow, and they will see. doubt that He was the Word become 39. about the tenth hour]i.e. 4 P.M., flesh-for no mere huinan intelligence according to the Jewish reckoning; not, could be thus receptive of the Holy Spirit as some have thought, 10 A.M., according of God ;-we receive Him only as we can, to that of the Romans. Our Evangelist only as far as our receptivity extends, appears always to reckon according to the by measure ; but He, into the very ful. Jewish method, see ch. iv. 6, 52; xix. ness and infinite capacities of His divine 14, and notes, but especially ch. xi. 9. Being.
And as Lücke remarks, even among the 35-43.7 On account of the testimony Romans, the division of the day into twelve of John, first Andrew, and another of his equal hours was, though not the civil, the disciples, and through Andrew, Simon popular way of computing time. Peter, become acquainted with Jesus. They remained with Him the rest of that 35. the next day after] See on ver. 29. day, which would be four or five hours, I can hardly suppose, with De Wette, that and need not strictly be limited by sunset. these two had been absent on the preceding
40.] Who the other disciple was, is day. Rather, what they then heard seems not certain : but considering (1) that the to have made a powerful impression on Evangelist never names himself in his their minds, so that the repetition of the Gospel, and (2) that this account is so notice is now the signal for them to follow minutely accurate as to specify even the Jesus. (On the second disciple, see below hours of the day, and in all respects bears on ver. 40.) 37.] We must not un marks of an eye-witness, and again (3) derstand followed in the narrower sense that this other disciple, from this last cir. which it bears when they left all and fol. cumstance, certainly would have been lowed Him; but here only of mechanical named, had not the name been suppressed going after Him, “wishing to know some for some especial reason, we are justified what of Him," as Euthymius says.
in inferring that it was the Evangelist 38.] On What seek yo ? Euthymius re- himself. And such has been the general marks, “ This was not asked in ignorance, opinion. Euthymius, mentioning this, gives seeing that He witnesses the inner thoughts an alternative which is hardly probable : VOL. I.
cch. xxi. 2.
vii. 14: ix.
Xxiv. 27. (Matt.ji, 23.
Luke il. 4.
and saith unto him, We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, [P the] Christ. 42 And he brought him
to Jesus. 9 And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art - Matt. xvi. 18. Simon the son of " Jona : a thou shalt be called Cephas, bch. xii, 11. which is by interpretation, s A stone. b ch. xii. 21. å Gen. ill. 16: 43 The day following Jesus t would go forth into Galilee, Deut. xviii. Det and findeth Philip, and saith unto him, Follow me. xxiv, 27. o 1S. i n. 44 Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and
liii. 2. 2. Peter. 45 Philip findeth · Nathanael, and saith unto him, Mic. v. 2. Zech. vi. 19: ix. 9. Luke
Le Luke We have found him, of whom a Moses in the law, and s Matte i23the prophets, did write, a Jesus of Nazareth, the son of P omit.
a render, But Jesus looked on him and said. r render, Jonas. 8 render, Peter. t render, was minded to.
u render, Jesus, the son of Joseph, which is from Nazareth. that this disciple may have been one of is on the point of setting out from the those who were but little known or dis- valley of the Jordan to Galilee, and finds tinguished. 41. Messias] Heb., the Philip, with whom there is every reason Anointed: the well-known name of the to believe He was previously acquainted expected Deliverer. In the interpretation, (see ver. 45). Here we find Jesus himself it should be Christ, not the Christ: it is calling a disciple, for the first time. But the two words which are here identified, Follow me does not here bear its strict not the two titles. 42.] This is evi. apostolic sense; the expression, “We have dently the first bestowal of the new name found” afterwards, and the going to search on Simon : and it is done from our Lord's for others to be disciples, unites Philip to prophetic knowledge of his future cha the company of those who have been before racter ; see note on Matt. xvi. 18.
mentioned, who we know were not immeKapha in Aramaic, Kaph in Hebrew, & diately or inseparably attached as followers stone. But the rendering of Petros in to Jesus. 44.1 This is Bethsaida on this verse should be as in margin, Peter, the Western bank of the lake of Gennenot as in A. V., a stone. The Greek name saret; another Bethsaida (Julias) lay at Peter became the prevalent one in the apos the top of the lake, on the Jordan. See tolic Church very soon : St. Paul uses both note on Luke ix. 10. 45.] It does names indiscriminately. I own I can. not appear where Nathanael was found : not but think that the knowledge of Simon but he is described, ch. xxi. 2, as of Cana shewn by the Lord is intended to be mira. of Galilee : and as we find Jesus there in culous. So also Stier, “I know who and ch. ii. 1, it is probable the call may have what thou art from thy birth till thy pre taken place in its neighbourhood. Nathasent coming to me. . . . . I name thee, I nael (meaning, “the gift of God," corregive thee a new name, I know what I will sponding to Theodore or Theodosius in make of thee in thy following of Me and Greek) is mentioned only in these troo for my Kingdom.” The emphatic use of places. From them we should gather looked on him here (it is not so emphatic that he was an apostle ; and as his name in ver. 36, but still even there may imply is nowhere found in the catalogues of the fixed contemplation, in the power of the twelve, but Philip is associated in three Spirit, who suggested the testimony) is of them, Matt. x. 3: Mark iii. 18: Luke hardly accountable except on this explana. vi. 14, with Bartholomew, it has been suption of supernatural knowledge. Similarly posed that Nathanael and Bartholomew Abram, Sara, Jacob, received new names were the same person (see note on Matt. in reference to the covenant and promises X. 3). This is however mere conjecture. of God to them.
Moses in the law] Probably in Deut. 43–52.] The calling of Philip and Na. xviii. 15; but also in the promises to Abrathanael. 43. The day following] Appa- ham, Gen. xvii. 7 al.: and in the prophecy rently, the day after the naming of Peter; of Jacob, Gen. xlix. 10, and the prophets, and if so, the next but one after the visit passim ; see the references. the son of Andrew and the other disciple, and the of Joseph, which is from Nazareth] This fourth day after ver, 19. Our Lord expression seems to shew previous acquaint.
ch. xviii. 37 : xir. .
Joseph. 46 And Nathanael said unto him, & Can there 8 ch. vii. 41,
8 ch. vii. 41,
42, 52 any good thing come out of Nazareth ? Philip saith unto him, Come and see. 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and saith of him, Behold h an Israelite indeed, in 1 Po. wuxil. 2: whom is no guile. 48 Nathanael saith unto him, Whence kom. 11.%
29: ix. 6. knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the
i Matt. xiv. 33. fig tree, I saw thee. 49 Nathanael answered and said unto k Matte. IX.S:
k Matt. xxi. 5:
Ixvii. 11, 42. him, Rabbi, i thou art the Son of God; thou art k the chi svil: 57: ance on the part of Philip with Jesus. No Our Lord probably referred to Ps. xv. stress can be laid, as has been most unfairly
48. The remark was overheard by done, on Jesus being called by Philip, the Nathanael, and recognized as indicating son of Joseph, as indicating that the his. perfect knowledge of his character. The tory of His birth and childhood, as related question, Whence knowest thou me? is one by St. Matthew and St. Luke, was unknown of astonishment, but not perhaps yet of to St. John. Philip expresses what was suspicion of any thing supernatural. Our the prevailing belief, in the ordinary words, Lord's answer first opens this to him. as Olshausen remarks. In an admirable Before that &c.] The whole form of our note, Neander remarks, that by combining Lord's answer seems to indicate that the the two declarations of John, that in Jesus place where Philip called Nathanael was the Eternal Word of God became flesh not now in sight, nor had been. The de(ver. 14), and that that which is born of claration that Jesus had seen him there, at the flesh is flesh' (ch. iii. 6), we cannot cs- ouce brings the conviction which he ex: cape the inference, that a supernatural presses in the next verse. This would working of God in the conception of the not have been the case, unless the sight Man Christ Jesus is implied. 46.] had been evidently and unquestionably As Lücke observes, the meaning of this supernatural: and unless the words “ when question is simpler than at first sight thou wast under the fig tree" involved this. appears. It is impossible that Nathanael, Had Jesus merely seen Nathanael without himself a Galilæan, could speak from any being seen by him, or had “ I saw thee” feeling of contempt for Galilee generally: only expressed, “I knew thy character,' and we have no evidence that Nazareth was at first sight, although at a distance, no held in contempt among the Galilæans. such immediate conviction would have folHe alluded therefore to the smallness and lowed when thou wast under the insignificance of the town in proportion fig tree, says Wordsw., “is something more to the great things which were now pre than merely under the fig tree' would dicated of it. Nazareth is never named in be: it indicates retirement thither as well the 0. T. nor in Josephus. 47.] The as concealment there,- perhaps for purEvangelist certainly intends a supernatural poses of prayer and meditation.” In fact insight by the Lord into Nathanael's cha. it contains in it, 'when thou wentest under racter to be here understood; and there is the fig tree, and while thou wert there.' probably no reference at all to the ques. 49.] The answer expresses, 'Thou art the tion which Nathanael had just asked." To Messiah ;' see Ps. ii. 7: ch. xi. 27: Matt. suppose that Jesus overheard that ques. xvi. 16: Luke xxii. 70. Olshausen maintion, is just one of those perfectly gra- tains that the Son of God was not a Jewish tuitous assumptions which the very com appellation for the Messiah,-on account mentators who here make this supposition of the Jews taking up stones to cast at are usually the first to blame. Compare Jesus when He so called Himself, ch. x. 33. ch. ii. 25. an Israelite indeed] - An But as Lücke observes, it was not for the Israelite who truly answers to the inner and mere use of this Name,- but for using it honourable meaning of the name. When in a close and literal sense which was unwe reflect what was contained in that intelligible and appeared blasphemous to name, and Who it is that speaks, we can them, I and My Father are one,'--that hardly agree with De Wette that the they wished to stone Him; see note on words are spoken merely in the spirit in ch. x. 36. It was certainly not so common which every nation attaches some peculiar a name as the Son of David,'for the Mes. virtue, and especially those of openness siah. Nathanael can hardly have meant and straightforwardness, to itself.
the name in other than its popular mean
1 Gen. xxvill
King of Israel. 50 Jesus answered and said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, believest thou? thou shalt see greater things than these.
51 And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, 1 Gen. Mart. [1 Hereafter] ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of 12. Matt. Luke 11.0... God ascending and descending upon the Son of man. univ. II. 1 And the third day there was a marriage in Cana
V render, From henceforth : but several of our oldest authorities omit the word. ing; and the synonymous and better known The opening of heaven is a symbolical appellation which he adds, confirms this. expression, signifying the imparting of
50.] Our Lord says this not in divine grace, help, and revelation. See blame, rather in praise of the simple and Gen. xxviii. 10–17: Ezek. i. 1 : Isa. vi. honest expression of Nathanael's convic. 1: Mal. iii. 10: Isa. lxiv. 1: also Dent. tion; but principally to shew him, that if xi. 17: 1 Kings viii. 35. The words he believed by reason of this comparatively have a plain reference to the ladder of small proof of His divine power, his faith Jacob, and imply that what he then saw would increase from strength to strength was now to receive its fulfilment: that at the greater proofs which should from He, the Son of Man, was the dwelling of that time forward be given. There is God and the gate of Heaven, and that no need to understand our Lord's reply as through Him, and on Him in the first a question; it may be, thou believest. place, was to descend all communication The question is perhaps most natural here: of help and grace from above. That but see notes on the similar sentences, ch. no allusion is meant to the Transfigura. xvi. 31, and ch. xx. 29. 51.] Verily, tion, or the Agony, is plain; for all those verily is peculiar to St. John. The other here addressed did not witness these apEvangelists use • verily' once only in such pearances, but Peter and John only; nor asseverations. Stier remarks, that the to the Ascension, for they did not see Verily, verily, I say unto you of the Lord, heaven opened, nor did angels ascend nor is spoken in His coequality with the Father: descend. The above has, remarks not as the “Thus saith the Lord' of the Olshausen, been the interpretation of all prophets. unto you] The words fol Commentators of any depth in all times : lowing are then spoken to all the disciples Origen as well as Augustine, Luther as present, not only to Nathanael. With well as Calvin, Lücke as well as Tholuck : or without From henceforth, the meaning and I may add, De Wette as well as Stier. will be much the same. The glories of a
the Son of map] An expression period beginning from the opening of the originally (as appears) derived, in its Mes. Lord's public ministry, and at this day sianic sense, from Dan. vii. 13, 14, and not yet completed, are described. For it thenceforward used as one of the titles of is not the outward visible opening of the the Messiah (see ch. xii. 34). It is never material heavens, nor ascent and descent predicated of our Lord by any but Hiniself, of angels in the sight of men, which our except in Acts vii. 56 by Stephen, in alluLord here announces; but the series of glo. sion apparently to Matt. xxvi. 64, andries which was about to be unfolded in His which is hardly an exception-in the pasPerson and Work from that time forward. sages of the Revelation (ch. i. 13; xiv. 14) Luther beautifully says: “When Christ which are almost citations from Daniel. became man and had entered on His minis- CHAP. II. 1-11.] The miracle of turnterial office and begun to preach, then was ing water into wine : the first fulfilment the heaven opened, and remains open; and of the announcement in ch. i. 51. see ver. has from that time, since the baptism of 11. 1.] the third day-reckoned Christ in the Jordan, never been shut, and from the day of Nathanael's calling. never will be shut, although we do not see. There would thus be but one day between it with our bodily eyes . . . Christ says that event and the marriage. this : • Ye are now heavenly citizens, and Cana of Galilee, see ch. iv. 46 ;—not far have your citizenship above in the heavenly from Capernaum. Josephus calls it “a Jerusalem, and are in communion with the village of Galilee." There is a Kanah holy angels, who shall without intermission in Josh. xix. 28, in the tribe of Asher, Ascend and descond about you.'”
which must be distinct from this. Jerome