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of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there : % and w both Jesus was called, and his disciples, to the marriage. 3 And when * they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith

W render, Jesus also was bidden.

I render, the wine failed. however believes it to have been the same. which the contagion is perilous.” And This was the residence, and probably birth- such is the general verdict of inodern place, of Nathanael. If his calling took religionism, which would keep the leaven place in its neighbourhood, our Lord may distinct from the lump, for fear it should have gone on and spent the intervening become unleavened. The especial honour day at Nazareth. Dr. Robinson satis. conferred upon marriage by the Lord factorily establishes that Kåna-el-Jelîl, should also be noticed. "He here adorned about 3 hours N. } E. from Nazareth, is and beautified it with his presence, and the site of this miracle. The name is iden- first miracle that he wrought.” tical, and so stands in the Arabic Version 3.] There is no necessity to suppose that of the N. T. He shews this to have been the feast had lasted several days, as De recognized in early tradition, and its Wette and Lücke do. It has been sughonour to have been only recently usurped gested that the unexpected presence of by Kefr Kenna, a village 11 hour N.E. the disciples may have occasioned a failure from Nazareth, on one of the roads to in the previously sufficient supply: a gloss Tiberias. See a very interesting descrip in one of the old Latin MSS. bas, “ And tion of Kâna-el-Jelil in “ The Land and the it came to pass, that through the great Book,” pp. 426, 427. the mother of number of guests the wine was used up." Jesus] St. John never names her, as being

The mother of Jesus evidently is in already well known : or perhaps more pro- a position of authority (see ver. 5) in the bably froin his own intimate connexion house, which was probably that of a near with her, in pursuance of the injunction relative. The conjectures and traditions ch. xix. 26, 27. He never names either on the subject are many, and wholly unhimself, or his own brother, James.

satisfactory. A graver question arises 2. and his disciples] It does not appear as to the intent with which this, They have who these were, unless we assuine that they no wine, was said. She cannot have had were those called in ch. i., which seems from experience any reason to suppose most probable. John himself was most that her Son would work a miracle, for likely present. He does not relate so cir- this (ver. 11) was His first. Chrysostom cumstantially any thing which he had not and others suggest that, knowing Him to witnessed. In this case, there must be Who He was, she had been by the have been some other reason for the in- recent divine acknowledgment of Him vitation, besides mere previous acquaint. and His calling disciples to Himself, led to ance. This would be the probable reason expect the manifestation of His Messianic for Jesus himself being invited; but the power about this time; and here seemed disciples, being from various places in the an occasion for it. Some of the other district, can hardly all have been (De explanations are: “that she had always Wette) friends of the family. The fact found Him a wise counsellor, and men. of Jesus having attached disciples to Him. tioned the want to Him merely that He self must have been known, and they might suggest some way of remedying it." were doubtless invited from consideration Cocceius. “Do thou depart, that the to Him. Our Lord at once opens other guests may do the same, before the His ministry with the character which lack of wine is noticed.” Bengel. " That He gives of himself, Matt. xi. 18, 19, as by some pious exhortation He might predistinguished from the asceticism of John. vent the guests from feeling annoyance, He also, as Trench adinirably remarks and at the same time spare the bride(Miracles, edn. 2, p. 98, note), gives us his groom's shame.” Calvin. “Jesus had own testimony against the tendency which wrought miracles, but in secret, beforo our indolence ever favours, of giving up this." Tholuck. On the whole, the those things and occasions to the world most probable explanation is that of Lücke, and the devil, which we have not Christian which somewhat modifies the first here boldness to mingle in and purify. Even mentioned, -that our Lord Himself had Cyprian, for instance, proscribes such fes. recently given some reason to expect that tivals,—" Let the wicked feasts and licen. He would shew forth His glory by won. tious banquets at marriages be avoided, of derful works. So, very nearly, Stier.

a ch. xix, 20. b So 2 Sam.

xvi. 10:

xix. 22. och. vii. 6.

unto him, They have no wine. 4 Jesus saith unto her, a Woman, bwhat have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come. 5 His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it. 6 And there were set there six waterpots of stone, è after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins

d Mark vii. 8.

4.7 The answer of our Lord is beyond known depth of all His early sayings question one of reproof, and disclaimer of forbids as from attaching only this meanparticipation in the grounds on which the ing to it;-and he sees in it a reference to request was made. See instances, besides the great marriage-feast and the new reff., in Josh. xxii. 24: Mark i. 24. And fruit of the vine in the Kingdom of God. so all the early expositors understood it. If this be so, it can be only in the backIrenæus says, “ The Lord, repelling her ground; the words must have had a unseasonable urgency, said,” &c. ;-and present meaning, and I believe it to be, Chrysostom, “She wished .... to gain 'My time, the time at which, from the glory to herself by means of her Son,” Father's appointment and my own conand therefore He “auswered her with curring will, I am to begin miraculous severity.” The Romanist expositors working, is not yet arrived : forestall it mostly endeavour to divest the answer not.' Very similarly he speaks, ch. vii. 6, of any aspect of rebuke, and maintain to His brethren, and yet afterwards goes that it was so uttered for our sakes up to the feast. The notion that mine alone, to teach us that He did not perform hour refers to the hour of our Lord's His miracles from regard to human affinity, human infirmity on the Cross when (ch. but solely from love and His object of xix. 27) He “acknowledged her as His manifesting His glory. So Maldonatus. mother,” Wordsw., seems wholly unAnd this is true:--but first among those founded. Where do we find any such to be taught this, was she herself, who had special acknowledgment there ? And why tempted Him to work a miracle from that should we go out of our way for a fanciful regard. It has perhaps not been sense of words which bear an excellent enough noticed, that in this answer the meaning as referring to circumstances Lord declares His period of subjection to then present ?

5.] There certainly her as His esothly parent to be at an end. seems beneath this narrative to lie some Henceforth His thoughts are not her incident which is not told us. For not thoughts. At twelve years of age, see only is Mary not repelled by the answer Luke ii. 49, He answers, “thy father and just given, but she is convinced that the 1,' by My Father:'-now, He is to be no miracle will be wrought, and she is not longer before the world as Mary's son, without an anticipation of the method of but as sanctified by the Father and sent working it: for how should He require into the world :-compare Matt. xii. 48 the aid of the servants, except the miracle 50, and Luke xi. 27, 28. Woman) were to take place according to the form There is no reproach in this term : but here related ? I believe we shall find, rather respect. The Lord henceforth uses when all things are opened to us, that it towards her, not calling her mother,' there had been a previous hint given her, even on the Cross (see ch. xix. 26), doubt. where or how I would not presume to less for the reason alleged above.. mine sny,--by our Lord, of His intention and hour is not yet come] This expression, mine the manner of performing it, and that her hour, is generally used in John of the time fault was, the too rash hastening on of of the Death of Christ :-see reff. But it what had been Ris fixed purpose. is only so used because His death is in those 6.] These vessels were for the washings passages the subject naturally underlying usual at feasts : see Mark vii. 4. There the narrative. It is, any fixed or ap- could be no collusion or imposture here, as pointed time ;--and therefore here, the they were water-vessels, and could have appointed time of His self-manifestation no remnants of wine in them (see also ver. by miracles. This time was not yet come, 10). And the large quantity which they but was close at hand. Some have sup- held could not have been brought in unobposed that the wine was not yet wholly served. The word here rendered firkin is exhausted, and that our Lord would wait probably equivalent to tbe Jewish “bath" till the miracle should be undoubted (so (which held 8 gall. 7.4 pints), and stands for Trench): but Stier well remarks that the it in the LXX, ref. 2 Chron. According

apiece. 7 Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim. 8 And he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the y governor of the feast. And they bare it. 9 z When the ruler of the feast [a had] tasted the water b that was made wine, and knew not whence it was : (but the servants which drew the water knew ;) the 9 governor of the feast called the bridegroom, 10 and saith unto him, Every man d at the beginning doth set forth good wine ; and when men

y render, as below, ruler.

z render, But when.
& omit.

b render, now become.
C render, had drawn.
d render, setteth on the good wine first.

to this, the quantity of wine thus created wine to be produced, we have the growth would be 6 times | 2 or 3 times 8 gallons and ripening of the grape; the crushing 7.4 pints: i.e. 6 times | 17 or 25 gallons : of it in proper vessels; the fermentation; i. e. (say, taking the mean,) 6 times 21 —but here all these are in a moment gallons : i. e. 126 gallons. The large brought about in their results, by the quantity thus created has been cavilled at same Power which made the laws of nature, by unbelievers. We may leave them to and created and unfolded the capacities their cavils with just one remark,--that of man. See below on ver. 11. He who creates abundance enough in this 8.] The ruler of the feast seems to be the earth to “put temptation in men's way,” same with the “master of a feastspoken acted on this occasion analogously with of Ecclus. xxxii. 1, and with the Latin His known method of dealing. We may “king,or master,of the feast.It answer an error on the other side (if it would seem, from the place in Ecclesiastibe on the other side), by saying that the cus, that he was one of the guests raised to Lord here most effectually and once for the post of presiding over the arrrangeall stamps with His condemnation that ments of the feast. This is however doubted false system of moral reformation, which by the older Commentators, who make would commence by pledges to abstain him not one of the guests, but a person from intoxicating liquors. He pours out holding this especial office, and attending His bounty for all, and He vouchsafes on feasts. Here, he tastes the wine ; and His grace to each for guidance; and to therefore probably was a guest himself. endeavour to evade the work which He 10.] The saying of the ruler of the feast bas appointed for each man,-by refusing is a general one, not applicable to the the bounty, to save the trouble of seeking company then present. We may be the grace, is an attempt which must ever sure that the Lord would not have sanc. end in degradation of the individual mo. tioned, nor ministered to, actual drunkentives, and in social demoralization, -what- ness. Only those who can conceive this, ever present apparent effects may follow will find any difficulty here; and they will its first promulgation. One visible sign find difficulties every where. The acof this degradation, in its intellectual count of the practice referred to is, that form, is the miserable attempt made by the palates of men become after a while some of the advocates of this movement, dull, and cannot distinguish between good to shew that the wine here and in other wine and bad. Pliny speaks of persons places of Scripture is unfermented wine, “who even give their guests other wine not possessing the power of intoxication. than they drink themselves, or bring it in

The filling with water, and draw. as the banquet proceeds.But the pracing out wine, is all that is related. The tice here described is not precisely that of moment of the miracle,' says Lücke, is which Pliny speaks, nor is there any meanrather understood than expressed. It ness to be charged on it: it is only that, seems to lie between vv. 7 and 8' (i. 471). when a man has some kinds of wine choicer The process of it is wholly out of the than others, he naturally produces the region of our imagination. In order for choicest, to suit the most disoriminating

8 Exod. xii. 14

Deut. xvi.
1, 10.
ver. 23.
ch, v.1:
Vi. 4: xi. 58.

have e well drunk, then that which is worse ; [f but] thou

hast kept the good wine until now. 11 This beginning of och. t. 14. & miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, eand manifested

[h forth] his glory; and his disciples believed on him.

12 After this he went down to Capernaum, he, and his (Matt. xii. 46.

att vilis mother, and his brethren, and his disciples : and they 1,167** continued there not many days.

13 8 And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus e render, freely.

Tomit. 8 render, his miracles; his signs.

homit. taste. The word rendered have freely to the wresters of Scripture :-never was drunk, in its common meaning, implies, simple historical veracity more strikingly “are intoxicated," " are drunken :" but stamped on any miracle than on this. And while there is no reason here to press its doubtless this is providentially so arranged : ordinary meaning, so neither is there any see the objections to it treated, and some to shrink from it, as uttered by the ruler admirable concluding remarks, in Lücke, of the feast. The safest rendering is that i. 478. To those who yet seek some sufof Tyndall and Cranmer, “when men be ficient cause for the miracle being wrought, dronke :" and so it is in the Vulgate also. we may-besides the conclusive answer that

11.] The words may also be rendered we are not in a position to treat this quesaccording to the reading of most of our tion satisfactorily,-assign the unmistakeancient M$S., This wrought Jesus as the able spiritual import of the change here beginning of his miracles. This as. made, as indicating the general nature of sertion of St. John excludes all the apocry. the beneficent work which the Lord came phal miracles of the Gospel of the Infancy, on earth to do. So Cornelius a Lapide: and such like works, from credit. “ Christ, at the beginning of His ministry, The word sign, which occasionally occurs by changing water into wine, signified, in the other Gospels and the Acts in this that He was about to change the Mosaic absolute sense of a miracle (e. g. in the law, insipid and cold as water, into the original of Mark xvi. 17, 20; Luke xxiii. Gospel of Grace, which is as wine, gene8; Acts iv, 16, 22; viii. 6), is St. John's rous, full-flavoured, ardent, and powerful.” ordinary word for it. his glory] The Similarly Eusebius, Augustine, Bernard, glory, namely, which is referred to in ch. i. and Gregory the Great. 14, where see note. It was a miracle emi. II. 12—IV. 54.] FIRST MANIFESTAnently shewing forth the glory of the TION OF HIMSELF AS THE SON OF GOD: Word, by whom all things were made, in -and herein, ii. 13-üi. 36, IN JERUSA. His state of having become flesh. And LEM AND JUDÆA. this believing on Him,' here predicated 12.] went down, because Capernaum lay of the disciples, was certainly a higher on the lake,-Cana higher up the country. faith than that which first led them to There is no certainty as to this visit, wheHim. They obtained new insight into ther or not it is the same with that hinted His power :-not yet reflectively, so as to at in Luke iv. 23 : so that no chronological infer what all this implied, but so as to inferences can be built on the hypothesis increase their faith and trust in Him. with any security. On his brethren Again and again they believed :' new de see Matt. xii. 55 and note. Notice grees of faith being attained ; just as this the transition from His private to His has since been the case, and will continue public life. His mother and brethren are to be, in the Church, in the continual pro. still with Him, attached merely by natura: vidential development of the Christian His disciples, newly attached by faith. In spirit,--the leavening of the whole lump the next verse He has cast off His mere by degrees. This important miracle, earthly ties for His work. Also in the not standing as it does at the very entrance of many days notice less a mere chronolothe official life of Christ, has been the sub. gical design, than one to shew that He ject of many doubts, and attempts to get lost no time after His first miracle, in rid of, or explain away, the power which publicly manifesting Himself as the Son was here manifested. But never did a nar. of God. rative present a more stubborn inflexibility 13-22.] The first official visit to Jeru

b Matt. Ixl.18. Mark xi. 16. Luke xix. 45.

went up to Jerusalem, 14 h and found in the temple those b Matt 21.10. that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting: 15 and when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove [i them] all out of the temple, kand the sheep, and the oxen ; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables ; 16 and said unto them that sold i doves, Take these things hence; make not imy Father's house an house of merchan-1 Luke 11.10. dise. 17 And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house mhath eaten me up. & Psa. lxix. 0.

i omit.
1 render, the doves.

render, both.
m read, shall eat.

salem, at a Passover : and cleansing of original, should be rendered as in margin, the Temple. 13.] No data are given “He drove all out of the temple, both the to determine whether the reason of the sheep and the oxen.” It has been imagined, short stay at Capernaum was the near that He dealt more mildly with those who approach of the Passover. Nothing sold the doves, which were for the otferings is said of those who accompanied Jesus: of the poor. But this was not so; He but at all events, His already called dis. dealt alike with all. No other way was ciples would be with Him (see ver. 22, open with regard to them, than to order and ch. iii. 22), and among them in all them to take their birds away. This probability thé Evangelist himself;- but cleansing of the temple was in the direct not the rest of the Twelve, who were not course of His manifestation as the Messiah. yet called. Of this visit, the narrative of Immediately after the prophetic announcethe three other Evangelists records nothing. ment of the Forerunner, Mal. iii. 1, is that

14.] On the distinctness of this of the Lord's coming suddenly to His cleansing from that related in Matt. xxi. temple and purifying it. This act also 12 ff., see note there in the temple answers (but like the fulfilment last menIn the court of the Gentiles, the outer tioned, only in an imperfect and still protemple, as distinguished from the sanc. phetic sense) to the declaration of the tuary, or the inner temple. This market Baptist “ Wbose fan is in His hand,” &c., appears to have sprung up since the Matt. iii. 12. His proceeding was not captivity, with a view to the convenience altogether unexampled nor unauthorized, of those Jews who came from a distance, even in an uncommissioned person : for all to provide them with the beasts for offering, had the right to reform an abuse of this and to change their foreign money into sort, and the zealots put this right in the sacred shekel, which alone was allowed practice. The disciples by their allusion to be paid in for the temple capitation in ver. 17 seem to refer the action to this tax (Matt. xvii. 24 ff). This tax was latter class. 16. my Father's house] sometimes, as in Matthew, 1. c., paid else. The coincidence with Luke ii. 49 is rewhere than in Jerusalem ; but generally markable. By this expression thus pubthere, and in the temple. The very fact of licly used, our Lord openly announces His the market being held there would produce Messiahship. Nathanael had named Him an unseemly mixture of sacred and profane “the Son of God' with this meaning-seo transactions, even setting aside the abuses on ch. i. 50,--and these words, coupled which would be certain to be mingled with with the expectation which the confession the traffic. It is to the former of these of John the Baptist would arouse, could evils that our Lord makes reference in this leave no doubt on the minds of the Jews first cleansing ; in the second, to the latter as to their import: see on ch. iii. 2.

15.] The small cords were probably an house of merchandise] not yet as at the rushes which were littered down for the end of His ministry ; see above on the cattle to lie on. That our Lord used ver. 14. 17.] his disciples rememthe scourge on the beasts only, not on the bered, at the time, not afterwards, which sellers of them, is almost necessarily con- would have been expressed, as in ver. 22. tained in the form of the sentence here : But the very remembrance itself was prowhich, according to the grammar of the phetic. The “eating up” spoken of in

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