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knowest thou not that I have power to f crucify thee, and have power to 8 release thee? 11 Jesus answered, " Thou sch. vil. 30. h couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: i therefore he that k delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin. 21 And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him : but the Jews cried out,

I read, release.
h render, wouldest.
k render, delivereth.
I better, Upon this.

8 read, crucify.

i render, for this cause. Some ancient authorities have delivered.

ch. xviii. 35, Pilate at once recoils from his power is from God (Rom. xiii. 1,2). 3) He better conscience into the state-pride of acknowledges that that power extended office. As Lampe remarks, this speech is even over Himself, since all concerning directly contrary to his previous expression Him was being done by divine decree (Acts of fear. This very boast was a self-con- iv. 28).” for this cause 7 viz. because viction of injustice. No just judge has any of what has just been asserted, Thou such power as this, to punish or to loose wouldest have no power fc.”

The (see 2 Cor. xiii. 8); but only patiently to connexion is somewhat difficult. I take it enquire and give sentence according to the to be this: God has given to thee power truth. unto me, emphatic: it perhaps over me ;- not insight into the character being implied, “Thou hast, I know, refused which I claim, that of being the Son of to reply to others before. That Pilate God—but simply power : that insight beshould put the releasing first, as it stands longed to others, viz. the Sanhedrim, and in the most ancient authorities, seems most their president, whose office it was to judge natural, as appealing most to the prisoner: that claim; they have judged against the the power of crucifying follows as the clearest evidence and rejected me, the Son alternative in case the other is rejected. of God; thy sin, that of blindly exercising

11.] This last testimony of our Lord thy power, sin though it be, is therefore before Pilate is a witness to the truth: less than theirs, who being God's own opening in a wonderful manner the secret people, and with God's word of prophecy of Pilate's vaunted power, of His own before them (and the High Priest, with his humble submission, and the sinfulness of own prophetic word before him,-see ch. His enemies. This saying, observes Meyer, xviii. 14), deliberately gave me over into breathes truth and grace. The great stress thy hand. It is important to this, which is on the term from above, on which Gro. I believe to be the only right understandtius strikingly says, thence, that is, from ing of the words, to remember that Pilate, whence I am sprung;" so that it furnishes from ver. 6, was making himnself simply a remarkable answer to the above. We their tool;—He was the sinful, but at the must not dream of any allusion to Rome, or same time the blind instrument of their the Sanhedrim, in this question “ Whence deliberate malice. he that delivereth art thou ?as the sources of Pilate's me unto thee] Beyond question, Caiaphas, power :-the word was not so meant, nor to whom the initiative on the Jewish side so understood : see ver. 12. The word belonged; by whose authority all was done. it does not refer to power against me, but At the same time the whole Sanhedrim are embraces in itself the whole delegation probably included under the guilt of their from above, power included: and the words chief. In this word sin is an implied “except it were given thee from above," reference to a higher Judge-nay, that are equivalent to except by appointment Judge Himself speaks. 12.] Upon this: from above. Lampe remarks: “Our Lord or from this time: but the words in the concedes to Pilate 1) Power. He acknow. original hardly bear so much as this latter ledged the authority of a human court, meaning. See ch. vi. 66, where the same because His kingdom was not earthly, de correction has been made. Pilate himstroying human magistrates : nor did He self was deeply struck by these words of dispute the authority of Pilate and the majesty and mildness, and almost symRomans over the Jews. 2) He even am pathy for his own weakness; and he made plifies that power, as given from above. a last, and, as this verse seems to imply, a For this is the Christian doctrine, that all somewhat longer attempt than before, to

8 Luke xxiii. saying, & If thou let this man go, thou art not Cæsar's b Äets xvii. 7. friend : hm whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh

against Cæsar. 13 When Pilate therefore heard a that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. 14 0 And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto

the Jews, Behold your King! 15 But they cried out, m better, every one that.

n read, these words. o read, Now it was the preparation of the passover. It was about the sixth hour. deliver Him. Cæsar's friend] There cially when connected with ch. xvii. 28. does not seem to be any allusion to this See on the whole matter the notes above name being bestowed as a title of honour referred to

about the sixth hour] (indeed, a good deal of fancy has been There is an insuperable difficulty, as the employed in making out the fact of such a text now stands. For St. Mark relates, cb. title having been in use) any further than Xv. 25, that the crucifixion took place at that the appellation would naturally arise the third hour: and that it certainly and be accounted honourable. The mean. was so, the whole arrangement of the ing is, 'well affected to Cæsar. This day testifies. For on the one hand, the was a terrible saying, especially under judgment could hardly have taken the Tiberius, with whom, as Tacitus assures us, whole day till noon: and on the other, the undefined charge of disaffection to the there will not thus be time left for the person of the emperor was used to fill up rest of the events of the day, before the all other accusations, every one that sabbath began. We must certainly supmaketh himself a king7 This was true: pose, as did Eusebius, Theophylact, and their application of it to Christ, a lie. But Severus, that there has been some very words, not facts, are taken into account early erratum in our copies; whether the by tyrants, and this Pilate knew.

interchange of 3 and 6, which when ex13.7 these words-viz. these two last re- pressed in Greek numeral letters, are not marks. “In such a perplexity, a man like unlike one another (r and s), or some other, Pilate could not long hesitate. As Caiaplas cannot now be determined. We cerhad before said, it were better that one tainly may bring the two accounts nearer even innocent man should die, than that together by recollecting that, as the all should perish : so now in like case crucifixion itself certainly did not (see in Pilate decided rather to sacrifice Jesus Mark) take place exactly at the third hour, though innocent, than to expose himself to and as here it is about the sixth hour, some so great danger.” Friedlieb. forth: intermediate time may be described by both see on ch. xviii. 33. The judgment Evangelists. But this is not satisfactory: seat, or bema, was in front of the præto. see note on Mark xv. 25. The solution rium, on an elevated platform called Gab. given by Dr. Wordsworth, after Townson batha, which was paved with a tessellated and others, that St. John's reckoning of pavement. Such a pavement, Suetonius the hours is different, and like our own, so informs us, Julius Cæsar carried about on that the sixth hour would be 6 A.M., besides his expeditions. 14. the preparation being unsupported by any authority (see ch. of the passover] The signification, Friday i. 39; iv. 6, 52; xi. 9, and notes), would in the Passover week,' has found many, and leave here the difficulty that there must some recent, defenders. But this is not the thus elapse three hours between the bearnatural meaning of the words, nor would ing before Pilate and the Crucifixion. Beit ever have been thought of in this place, sides which, we may ask, is it possible to but for the difficulty arising from the whole imagine St. John, with the other gospels Passover question, which I have discussed before him as these expositors believe him on Matt. xxvi. 17--19, and on ch. xviii. 28. to have had, adopting without notice an

This preparation day is the vigil independent reckoning of his own which of the Passover,' i.e. the day preceding would introduce utter confusion into that the evening when the passover was killed history which (again on their hypothesis) And so it must be understood here, espe- he wrote his gospel to complete and clear

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v an

Heb. xiii. 1.

Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King ? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Cæsar. 16 Then 1 Gen. xlix. 10. delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified.

And they took Jesus [, P and led him away). 17 And he bearing his cross k went forth into 9 a place called the k Num. IV. 59. place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha : 18 where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst. 19 r And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS. 20 This title then read many of the Jews : for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city : and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin. 21 8 Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews. 22 Pilate answered, What I have written I have written. 23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was withP omitted by some ancient authorities.

q render, the. r render, Moreover.

S render, Therefore.

up? The words Behold your King 20_47. Luke xxiii. 26-56. Compare seem to have been spoken in irony to the the notes on the Four throughout they Jews-in the same spirit in which after took Jesus) viz. the chief priests. wards the title was written over the cross: 17–22.] His Crucifixion. 17.] See --partly perhaps also, as in that case, in on Matt. ver. 33. 19.) Matt. ver. 37. consequence of the saying in ver. 12,—to

20—22.] The same spirit of mocksever himself altogether from the suspicion ery of the Jews shewed itself in the title, there cast on him. 15.] We have as before, ver. 14. They had prevailed on no king but Cæsar, was a degrading con- Pilate by urging this point, that Jesus had fession from the chief priests of that people set Himself up for a king; and Pilate is of whom it was said, “The Lord your God willing to remind them of it by these is your King.' 1 Sam. xii. 12. “ They taunts. Hence their complaint, and his were so earnest in repudiating Jesus,” says answer. The Latin was the official Bengel, “that they repudiate their Messiah language, the Greek that usually spoken, altogether.” However, the cry furthered the Hebrew (i. e. Aramaic) that of the the present purpose, and to this all was common people. What I have written sacrificed, including truth itself; for the I have written] The first perfect denotes confession was not only degrading, but false the past action; the second that it was in their mouths. Some of those who now complete and unalterable. 23–30.] cried this, died miserably in rebellion against His death. 23, 24.] There were Cæsar forty years afterwards. 16.] four soldiers, a quaternion, Acts xii. 4, and Here the scourging seems (Matthew, Mark) perhaps a centurion, for we read elsewhere to have taken place, or perhaps to have of a centurion sent to see punishment been renewed, since the former one was inflicted. The garments of the exenot that customary before execution, but cuted were by law the perquisite of the conceded by Pilate to the mob in hope of soldiers on duty. The coat was the satisfying tbem.

tunic. It reached from the neck to the 17—42.] Jesus surrenders himself to feet, and was fastened round the throat death. Matt. xxvii. 31–61. Mark xv. with a clasp. It was properly a priest's

out seam, woven from the top throughout. 24 They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast

lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be 1 Psa. xvii. 18. fulfilled, which saith, "They parted my traiment among

them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did. 25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary

the [wife] of > Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. 26 y When m ch. xiii. 23; Jesus therefore saw his mother, and m the disciple standing nch21. 4. by, whom he loved, [2 he] saith unto his mother, Woman,

behold thy son! 27 Then saith he to the disciple, Behold

thy mother! And from that hour a that disciple took her ochilg!: unto his own home. 28 After this, Jesus knowing that t render, garments.

o not expressed in the original.
* this should be Clopas, as in the original.
y render, Jesus therefore seeing.

z omit.
a render, the, as above.

XX. 2: xxi. 7,

20, 24. nch. ii. 4.

xvi. 82.

garment, and was woven of linen, or per- of her, especially indeed to the beloved haps of wool. The citation is verbatim disciple, but in him to the whole cycle from the LXX. 25.] In Matt. xxvii. of disciples, among whom we find her, 55, 56, and the parallel places, we learn Acts i. 14. No certain conclusion that two of these were looking on afar off, can be drawn from this commendation, after Jesus had expired, with Salome. as to the brethren of the Lord' be. Considering then that St. John's habit of lieving on Him or not at this time. not naming himself might extend to his The reasons which influenced Him in his mother (he names his father, ch. xxi. 2), selection must ever be far beyond our we may well believe that his mother's penetration :-and whatever relations to sister here represents Salome, and that Him we suppose those brethren to have four women are designated by this descrip- been, it will remain equally mysterious why tion. So Wieseler and Meyer, Luthardt He passed them over, who were so closely opposing them. So also Ewald : and, which connected with His mother. Still the preis no mean evidence, the ancient Syriac sumption, that they did not then believe version, inserting and between, the on Him, is one of which it is not easy to mother's sister, and Mary ....

divest one's self; and at least may enter This Mary was wife of Klopas (Alphæus, as an element into the consideration of see Matt. X. 3, and Introd. to Ep. of James, the whole subject, beset as it is with un. § i. 4), the mother of James the Less certainty. from that hour is probably and Joses ; Matt., Mark. 26. behold to be taken literally,- from that time; thy son] The relationship in the flesh so that she was spared the pangs of witbetween the Lord and His mother was nessing what was to follow. If so, John about to close; hence He commends her returned again to the Cross, ver. 35. to another son who should care for and The words, he took her to his own home, protect her. Thus,-as at the marriage need not imply that John had a house in in Cana, when His official independence of Jerusalem. The name would equally apply her was to be testified, so now,-He ad. to his lodging during the feast; only dresses her as Woman. 27.7 The so- meaning, that henceforth, wherever he lemn and affecting commendation of her to was, she was an inmate with him; and St. John is doubly made,--and thus bound certainly that his usual habitation was by the strongest injunctions on both. The fixed, and was his own. Ewald remarks, Romanist idea, that the Lord commended “It was for the Apostle in his later years a all his disciples, as represented by the sweet reward to recall vividly every such beloved one, to the patronage of His minute detail,—and for his readers å sign mother, is simply absurd. The converse is that he alone could have written all this." true : He did solemnly commend the care

28.] After this is generally, but

all things were now b accomplished, p that the scripture p Poa. Ixix. 21.
might be o fulfilled, saith, I thirst. 29 [a Now] there was
set a vessel full of vinegar: eand they filled a spunge
with vinegar, and f put it upon hyssop, and put it to his
mouth. 30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar,
he said, " It is finished : and he bowed his head, and 8 gave a ch. xvii. 4.
up the ghost. 31 The Jews h therefore, because it was the r ver. 42.
preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the s Deut. xxi. 23.
cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an
high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken,

b render, finished. It is the same word as in ver. 30.
C render, accomplished.

domit.
e read and render, so they filled a spunge with the vinegar.
I render, for perspicuity, fixed it upon a stalk of hyssop.
8 render, yielded up his spirit.

h better, then. not necessarily, immediate. Here we must 11 foot long, which would in this case be suppose the “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani” long enough, the feet of the crucified to have been said meantime, and the three person not being ordinarily raised above hours' darkness to have taken place. Per. that distance from the ground. It was haps during some of this time John was much used for sprinkling, Exod. xii. 22; absent: see above that the scripture Levit. xiv. 4 &c.; Ps. li. 7. 30.] It is might be accomplished] Various needless finished expresses the fulfilling of that apobjections have been raised to the appli- pointed course of humiliation, obedience, cation of these words to the saying of the and suffering, which the Lord Jesus had Lord which follows, and attempts have undertaken. That was now over,—the been made-having it in view to leave no redemption of man accomplished, -and pre-appointed particular of the circum- from this time the joy that was set before stances of his suffering unfulfilled, thus: Him’ begins. It is beyond the purpose of that all things were now finished, that the a note to bring out the many meanings of Scripture might be accomplished : i.e. that this most important and glorious word. all was now done in order to the accom

he bowed his head] We have the plishment of Scripture. But it is much minuteness of an eye-witness, on whom more natural to connect them with what every particular of this solemn moment follows, and to understand, that Jesus, made an indelible impression. yielded speaking doubtless also in intense present up his spirit] viz. in the words given by agony of thirst, but only speaking because St. Luke, Father, into thy hands I comHe so willed it, and because it was an mend my spirit—which was also the “loud ordained part of the course which He had voicementioned by St. Matthew and taken upon Him, said this word, I thirst. St. Mark. This yielding up His spirit“He would not have sought this alle was strictly a voluntary and determinate viation of His sufferings, had He not act-no coming on of death, which had known that this also pertained to the dis no power over Him,-see ch. x. 18, and tinguishing signs of the Messiah as given note on Luke xxiii. 46. 31–42.7 in the Prophets. Whence this second Jesus in Death: and herein, 31-37.7 motive is stated in addition: that the Proof of His Death. 31.] On the Scripture might be accomplished.Lampe. Jewish custom, see note, Matt. xxvii. 57. Notice, it is not, fulfilled, which is always that sabbath day was an high day, otherwise expressed in the original, but being as it was (see note on ch. xvi. 28, accomplished. 29.] The vinegar was and Matt. xxvi. 17) a double sabbath : the the sour wine, or vinegar and water, the coincidence of the first day of unleavened common drink of the Roman soldiers. bread (Ex. xii. 16) with an ordinary saba stalk of hyssop] An aromatic plant bath. that their legs might be broken] growing on walls, common in the south of The breaking of the legs was sometimes England and on the Continent, with blue appended to the punishment of crucifixion, or white flowers, and having stalks about but does not appear to have been inflicted

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