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putteth a piece of 1 new cloth unto an old garment, for that which is put in to fill it up taketh from the garment, and m the rent is made worse. 17 Neither do men put new wine into old bottles: else the bottles break, and the wine runneth out, and the bottles perish: but they put new wine into new bottles, and both are preserved.

18 While he spake these things unto them, behold, there I literally, un-fulled.

m render, a worse rent is made. of the absence of the Bridegroom in the holy days, all are passed away: behold soul,—not the forced and stated fasts of all things are become new. & worse the old covenant, now passed away. It is rent is made a worse rent, because the an instructive circumstance that in the old, original rent was included within the Reformed Churches, while those stated circumference of the patch, whereas this fasts which were retained at their first is outside it. 17.] This parable is emergence from Popery are in practice not a repetition of the previous one, but a universally disregarded even by their best stronger and more exact setting forth of and holiest sons,—nothing can be more the truth in hand. As is frequently our affecting and genuine than the universal Lord's practice in His parables, He adand solemn observance of any real occa- vances from the immediate subject to sion of fasting placed before them by God's something more spiritual and higher, and Providence. It is also remarkable how takes occasion from answering a cavil, uniformly a strict attention to artificial to preach the sublimest truths. The garand prescribed fasts accompanies a hanker- ment was something outward ; this wine ing after the hybrid ceremonial system of is poured in, is something inward, the Rome.

Meyer remarks well that spirit of the system. The former parable then refers to a definite point of time, not respected the outward freedom and simple to the whole subsequent period.

truthfulness of the New Covenant; this 16.] Our Lord in these two parables con regards its inner spirit, its pervading printrasts the old and the new, the legal and ciple. And admirably does the parable evangelic dispensations, with regard to describe the vanity of the attempt to keep the point on which He was questioned. the new wine in the old skin, the old cereThe idea of the wedding seems to run monial man, unrenewed in the spirit of his through them; the preparation of the mind : the skins are broken : the new wine robe, the pouring of the new wine, are is something too living and strong for so connected by this as their leading idea to weak a moral frame; it shatters the fair one another and to the preceding verses. outside of ceremonial seeming; and the

The old system of prescribed fasts wine runneth out, the spirit is lost; the for fasting's sake must not be patched man is neither a blameless Jew nor a with the new and sound piece ; the com- faithful Christian ; both are spoiled. And plete and beautiful whole of Gospel light then the result : not merely the damaging, and liberty must not be engrafted as a but the utter destruction of the vessel, mere addition on the worn-out system of the skins perish. According to some exceremonies. For the filling it up, the positors, the new patch and new wine completeness of it, the new patch, by its denote the fasting; the old garment and weight and its strength pulls away the old bottles, the disciples. This view neighbouring weak and loose threads by is stated and defended at some length by which it holds to the old garment, and a Neander; but I own seems to me, as to worse rent is made. Stier notices the De Wette, far-fetched. For how can fastprophetic import of this parable: in how ing be called a patch of new (unfulled) sad a degree the Lord's saying has been cloth, or how compared to new wine fulfilled in the History of the Church, by And Neander himself, when he comes to the attempts to patch the new, the Evan- explain the important addition in Luke gelic state, upon the old worn-out cere. (on which see Luke v. 39, and note), is monial system. Would,' he adds, 'that obliged to change the meaning, and unwe could say in the interpretation, as in derstand the new wine of the spirit of the the parable, No man doeth this!' The Gospel. It was and is the custom in the robe must be all new, all consistent: old East to carry their wine on a journey in things, old types, old ceremonies, old leather bottles, generally of goats' skin, burdens, sacrifices, priests, sabbaths, and sometimes of asses' or camels' skin.

came a certain ruler, and worshipped him, saying, My daughter is even now dead: but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live. 19 And Jesus arose, and followed him, and so did his disciples. 20 And, behold, a woman, which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years, came behind him, and touched the hem of his garment: A for she said within herself, If I may but touch his garment, I shall be whole. 22 But Jesus turned him about, and when he saw her, he said, Daughter, be of good comfort; a thy faith hath made thee whole. And the a Luke til!: 50: woman was made whole from that hour. 23 And when Jesus came into the ruler's house, and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise, 24 he said unto them, Give place: for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed him to scorn. 25 But when the people were put forth, he went in, and took her by the hand, and the maid arose. 26 And the fame hereof went abroad into all that land.

xvii. 19: xviii. 42.

18--26.) RAISING OF JAETRUS's designates the particular tassel which was DAUGHTER, AND HEALING OF A WOMAN touched. 22.] The cure was effe ted WITH AN ISSUE OF BLOOD. Mark v. on her touching our Lord's garment, Mark 21-43: Luke viii. 41–56. In Luke and v. 27-29: Luke viii. 44. And our Lord Mark this miracle follows immediately enquired who touched Him (Mark, L ike), after the casting out of the devils at for He perceived that virtue had gone out Gadara, and our Lord's recrossing the of Him (Luke). She, knowing what had lake to Capernaum ; but without any pre- been done to her, came fearing and tremcise note of time as here. He may well bling, and told Him all. 24.] No have been by the sea (as seems implied by inference can be drawn from these words Mark and Luke), when the foregoing con- as to the fact of the maiden's actual versation with the disciples of John and death; for our Lord uses equivalent words the Pharisees took place. The account in respecting Lazarus (John xi. 11). And if the text is the most concise of the three; it be answered that there He explains the both Mark and Luke, but especially the sleep to mean death, we answer, that this latter, giving many additional particulars. explanation is only in consequence of the The miracle forms a very instructive point disciples misunderstanding his words. In of comparison between the three Gospels. both cases the words are most probably

18. a certain ruler] A ruler of the used with reference to the speedy awaken. synagogue, named Jaeirus. In all except ing which was to follow; “Think not the the connecting words, while he spake damsel dead, but sleeping; for she shall these things unto them," the account in the soon return to life.” Luke appends, after text is summary, and deficient in particu they laughed him to scorn," --knowing larity. I have therefore reserved full an- that she was dead,in which words there, notation for the account in Luke, which is at least no recognition by the Evansee throughout is even now dead] gelist of a mere apparent death. She was not dead, but dying ; at the last 25.] took her by the hand is common to extremity. St. Matthew, omitting the the three Evangelists. From Luke we message from the ruler's house (Mark v. learn that our Lord said “ Maid, arise :" 35: Luke viii. 49), gives the matter sum- from Mark we have the words He actually inarily in these words. 20.] The uttered, Talitha Cum : from both we learn “hem,” see ref. Num., was the fringe or that our Lord only took with him Peter, tassel which the Jews were commanded to James, and John, and the father and wear on each corner of their outer gar mother of the maiden,-that she was ment, as a sign that they were to be holy twelve years old, and that our Lord comunto God. The article, as in ch. xiv. 36, manded that something should be given

bch. xv. 22:

XX, 30, 31 : and paral. lels: also xii. 22.

27 And when Jesus departed thence, two blind men followed, crying, and saying, Thou son of David, have mercy on us. 28 And when he was come into the house, the blind men came to him: and Jesus saith unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? They said unto him, Yea, Lord. 29 Then touched he their eyes, saying, According to your faith be it unto you. 30 And their eyes

were opened; and Jesus straitly charged them, saying, ceh: vili. Aiii. See that no man know it. 31 But they, when they were rk vii. departed, spread abroad his fame in all that country.

32 As they went out, behold, they brought to him a dumb man possessed with a devil. 33 And when the devil

ma

ere

xii. 16: xvii.
9. Mark vii.
30.

her to eat. She was an only daughter, our Lord's earnestness appears to have Luke viii. 42.

been twofold : (1) that He might not be 27–31.) HEALING OF TWO BLIND 80 occupied and overpressed with applicaMEN. Peculiar to Matthew. 27.] de- tions as to have neither tiine nor strength parted thence is too vague to be taken as a for the preaching of the Gospel : (2) to fixed note of sequence ; for thence” may prevent the already-excited people from mean the house of Jaeirus, or the town taking some public measure of recognition, itself, or even that part of the country, and thus arousing the malice of the Pbarias ver. 26 has generalized the locality, and sees before His hour was come. No implied some pause of time. son of doubt the two men were guilty of an act David) a title of honour, and of recog. of disobedience in thus breaking the Lord's nition as the Messiah. It is remark. solemn injunction : for obedience is better able that, in all the three narratives of than sacrifice; the humble observance of giving sight to the blind in this Gospel, the word of the Lord, than the most labo. the title Son of David appears.

rious and wide-spread will-worship after 28. the house] perhaps, as Euthymius, man's own mind and invention. Trench the house of some disciple. Or, the house (Miracles, p.197) well remarks, that the fact which our Lord inhabited at Capernaum; of almost all the Romish interpreters having or perhaps the expression need not mean applauded this act, “is very characteristic, any particular house, merely, as we some and rests on very deep differences.” times use the expression, the house, as 32-34.] HEALING OF A DUMB DEopposed to the open air. to do this] MONIAC. Peculiar to Matthew. The i. e. the healing, implied in have mercy word as they went out places this miracle on us.” 29.7 Touching, or anoint in direct connexion with the foregoing. ing the eyes, was the ordinary method This narration has a singular affinity with which our Lord took of impressing on the that in ch. xii. 22, or still more with its blind the action of the divine power which parallel in Luke xi. 14. In both, the same healed them. Ch. xx. 34: Mark viii. 25: expression of wonder follows; the same John ix. 6. In this miracle however we calumny of the Pharisees; only that in ch. have this peculiar feature, that no direct xii. the dæmoniac is said (not in Luke xi.) word of power passes from our Lord, but to have been likewise blind. These cira relative concession, making that which cumstances, coupled with the immediate was done a measure of the faith of the connexion of this miracle with the cure of blind men: and from the result the degree the blind men, and the mention of the of their faith appears. Stier remarks, Son of David' in both, have led some to “ We may already notice, in the history of suppose that the account in ch. xii. is a this first period of our Lord's ministry, repetition, or slightly differing version of that, from having at first yielded imme. the account in our text, interiningled also diately to the request for healing, He with the preceding healing of the blind. begins, by degrees, to prove and exercise But the supposition seems unnecessary, the faith of the applicants.” 30. as, the habit of the Pharisees once being straitly charged] The word is said to to ascribe our Lord's expulsion of devils mean “to command with threatening," to Beelzebub, the repetition of the reto enjoin austerely.The purpose of mark would be natural :- and the other

Luke xiii. 22.

5. Zech. x.

was cast out, the dumb spake: and the multitudes marvelled, saying, It was never so seen in Israel. 34 But the Pharisees said, . He casteth out devils through the prince d ch. xii. 24. of the devils. 35 And e Jesus went about all the cities and esce ch. iv, 23. villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every sickness and every disease [n among the people]. 36 But when he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion on them, Mark vi. 84. because they fainted, and were scattered abroad, 8 as sheep & Num. Kivii.

17. 1 Kings having no shepherd. 37 Then saith he unto his disciples,

Ezek. xxxiv.

e h The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few; 2.

w " >h Luke x. 2. 38 pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will John iv.85. send forth labourers into his harvest.

X. 1 And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all man, n omit.

o read, were harassed. coincidences, though considerable, are not ritually, with the tyranny of the Scribes exact enough to warrant it. This was a and Pharisees, their heavy burdens, ch. dumbness caused by dæmoniacal posses- xxiii. 4. scattered abroad] neglected, sion: for the difference between this and cast hither and thither, as sheep would be the natural infirmity of a deaf and dumb who had wandered from their pasture. man, see Mark vii. 31-37. 33. 80 The context shews that our Lord's comseen viz. the casting out of devils :-- passion was excited by their being without "nerer was seen to be followed by such competent spiritual leaders and teachers. results as those now manifested. See

37.] The harvest was primarily above.

that of the Jewish people, the multitudes 35-38.] Our Lord's COMPASSION FOR of whom before Him excited the Lord's THE MULTITUDE. Peculiar to Matthew. compassion. Chrysostom remarks that we In the same way as ch. iv. 23-25 intro- see not only our Lord's freedom from vain. duces the Sermon on the Mount, so do glory, in sending out his disciples rather these verses the calling and commission than drawing all notice to Himself, but ing of the Twelve. These general de. His wisdom, in giving them this prelimiscriptions of our Lord's going about and nary practice for their future work: teaching at once remove all exactness of making, as he expresses it, Palæstine a date from the occurrence which follows palæstra for the world. The Lord, as taking place at some time during the says Chrysostom, having given this comcircuit and teaching just described. Both mand, does not join them in such a prayer, the Sermon on the Mount and this dis- but Himself sends them out as labourers course are introduced and closed with shewing plainly that He Himself is the these marks of indefiniteness as to time. Lord of the harvest, and recalling to them This being the case, we must have re- the Baptist's image of the threshing-floor, course to the other Evangelists, by whose and One who shall purge it. account it appears (as indeed may be im. X. 1-XI, 1.7 MISSION OF THE TWELVE plied in ch. x. 1), that the Apostles had APOSTLES. Mark vi. 7–13: Luke ix. 1been called to their distinct office some 6,- for the sending out of the Apostles : time before this. (See Mark ii. 16: Luke Mark ü. 13–19: Luke vi. 13–16,- for vi. 13.) After their calling, and selection, their names. On the characteristic differthey probably remained with our Lord forences between this discourse and that desome time before they were sent out upon livered to the Seventy (Luke x. 1 ff.) see their mission. 36. the multitudes notes there. Notice, that this is not Wherever He went, in all the cities. the choosing, but merely the mission of

harassed] plagued,-viz, literally, the twelve. The choosing had taken place with weariness in following Him; or spi. some time before, but is not any where dis

VOL. I.

ner of disease. 2 Now the names of the twelve apostles are i John i. 42. these; The first, Simon, 'who is called Peter, and Andrew

tinctly detailed by the Evangelists.
2.] We bave in the N. T. four catalogues
of the Apostles : the present one,-and
those at Mark iii. 16,—Luke vi. 14,-Acts

i. 13. All seem to follow one common outline, but fill it up very differently. The following table will shew the agreements and differences :

lomas

| Matthew x. 2. Mark iii. 16. 1 Luke vi. 14. Acts i. 13. 1

Simon Peter 2 | Andrew

| James
| Andrew

| John
3 James
| John
| James

| James 4 John

| Andrew
| John

| Andrew
Philip

Bartholomew 7 | Thomas

Matthew

| Bartholomew 8 | Matthew

Thomas

| Matthew James (the son) of Alphæus. 10 | Lebbæus

Thaddæus

Simon called Simon Zelotes

Zelotes
Simon the Cananæan

Judas (the bro.) of James. 12 Judas Iscariotes

Judas Iscarioth

| Vacant

11 |

From this it appears (1), that in all four the identity of Lebbæus with Thaddæus, three classes are enumerated, and that and with Judas (the brother?) of James, and each class contains (assuming at present of Simon the Cananæan with Simon Zelotes. the identity of Lebbæus with Thaddæus, These will be discussed under the names. and of Thaddæus with Judas (the brother The first] Not only as regards arof James), the same persons in all four, but rangement, or mere priority of calling, but in different order, with the following ex- as first in rank among equals. This is clearly ceptions :—that (2) Peter, Philip, James shewn from James and John and Andrew (the son ?) of Alphæus, and Judas Iscariot being set next, and Judas Iscariot the hold the same places in all four. (3) That last, in all the catalogues. We find Simon in the first class the two arrangements are Peter, not only in the lists of the Apostles, (a) that of Matt. and Luke (Gospel), but also in their history, prominent on Peter and Andrew, brothers; James and various occasions before the rest. SomeJohn, brothers ;-i.e. according to their times he speaks in their name (Matt. xix. order of calling and connexion, and with 27 : Luke xii. 41); sometimes answers reference to their being sent out in couples, when all are addressed (Matt. xvi. 16 1); Mark vi. 7: (6) Mark and Luke (Acts), sometimes our Lord addresses him as

-Peter, James, John, (the three princi. principal, even among the three favoured pal,) and Andrew ;---i.e. according to their ones (Matt. xxvi. 40: Luke xxii. 31); personal pre-eminence. In the second sometimes he is addressed by others as class (c), that of Matt., Mark, and Luke representing the whole (Matt. xvii. 24; (Gospel),Philip and Bartholomew, Mat. Acts ji. 37). He appears as the organ thew and Thomas,-i.e. in couples : (d) of the Apostles after our Lord's ascenLuke (Acts),- Philip, Thomas, Barth. sion (Acts i. 15; ii. 14; iv. 8; v. 29): the Matthew (reason uncertain). In the third first speech, and apparently that which class (e), Matt. and Mark,- James (the decided the Council, is spoken by him, son?) of Alphæus and (Lebb.) Thaddæus, Acts xv. 7. All this accords well with the Simon the Cananæan and Judas Iscariot ; bold and energetic character of Peter, and i. e. in couples : (f) Luke (Gosp. and Acts) originated in the unerring discernment James (the son ?) of Alpheus, Simon Zelo. and appointment of our Lord Himself, tes, Judas (the brother?) of James and Judas who saw in him a person adapted to take Iscariot (uncertain). (9) Thus in all four, precedence of the rest in the founding of the leaders of the three classes are the His Church, and shutting (Acts v. 3, 9) same, viz. Peter, Philip, and James (the and opening (Acts ii. 14, 41; x. 5, 46) thé son ?) of Alphæus ; and the traitor is doors of the kingdom of Heaveu. That always last. (4) It would appear then however no such idea was current among that the only difficulties are these two: the Apostles as that he was destined to be

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