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Mesopotamia, and in Judæa, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, 10 Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and i strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes, 11 j Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them k speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God. 12 And they were all amazed, and were in doubt, saying
one to another, What meaneth this ? 13 Others mocking i render, Romans, who are sojourning here. j render, Cretans.
k render, speaking
W. of Parthia and Hyrcania, S. of the tection, but subsequently became a proCaspian sea, E. of Armenia, N. of Persia. vince under Nero. Asia) i. e. here
Elamites) in pure Greek, Elymæans, Asia proper, or rather the W. division of inhabitants of Elam or Elymais, a Semitic it, as described by Pliny, as bounded on people (Gen. x. 22). Elam is mentioned the E. by Phrygia and Lycaonia, on the in connexion with Babylon, Gen. xiv. 1; w. by the Agean, on the S. by the with Media, Isa. xxi. 2; Jer. xxv. 25; Egyptian sea, on the N. by Paphlagonia. with, or as part of, Assyria, Ezek. xxxii. Ephesus was its chief city. See ch. xvi. 6, 24; Isa. xxii, 6; as a province of Persia, where the same appears to be intended. Ezra iv. 9; as the province in which Susan
10. Phrygia] It was at this time was situated, Dan. viii. 2. According to part of the Roman province of Asia. Josephus, the Elamæans were the pro. Pamphylia] a small district, extending genitors of the Persians. We find scattered along the coast from Olbia, or Pbaselis, to hordes under this name far to the north, Ptolemais. It was a separate tributary and even on the Orontes near the Caspian. district: we find it at one time classed
Mesopotamia] the well-known dis. with Galatia, and ruled by the same person. trict between the Euphrates and Tigris, so
Egypt] Having enumerated the called merely as distinguishing its geo. principal districts of Asia Minor, the catagraphical position, between the rivers (so logue passes (see above on the arrangement, the word imports in Greek): it never formed ver. 9) to Egypt, a well-known habitation a state. The name does not appear to be of Jews. Two-fifths of the population of older than the Macedonian conquests. The Alexandria consisted of them, and they had word is used by the LXX and A. V. in an Ethnarch, or governor, of their own. Gen. xxiv. 10° to express the Hebrew
the parts of Libya about Cyrene] “ Aram Naharaim," Aram of the two By this expression is probably meant Penrivers. Judæa] I can see no difficulty tapolis, where Josephus, quoting from in Judæa being here mentioned. The Strabo, testifies to the existence of very catalogue does not proceed by languages, many Jews,-amounting in Cyrene to a but by territorial division; and Judæa lies fourth part of the whole population. The immediately S. of its path from Mesopo. Cyrenian Jews were so numerous in Jerutamia to Cappadocia. It is not Jews by salem, that they had a special synagogue birth and domicile, but devout men who are (see ch. vi. 9). Several were Christian spoken of; the dwellers in Judæa settled converts : see ch. xi. 20; xiii. 1. in Judæa. And even if born Jews were Roman sojourners (80 literally)] The meant, doubtless they also would find a Roman Jews dwelling (or then being) in place among those who heard in their mo. Jerusalem. Jews and proselytes ther tongue the wonderful works of God. This refers more naturally to the whole of
Cappadocia] At this time (since the the past catalogue, than merely to the year of Rome 770) a Roman province em- Roman Jews. It does not take up a new bracing Cappadocia proper and Armenia designation, but expresses the classes or minor. Pontus] the former kingdom divisions of those which have gone before. of Mithridates, lying along the S. coast of 11. Cretans and Arabians) These the Euxine (whence its name, from the words would seem as if they should precede Pontus Euxinus, the Euxine Sea) from the the last. 13. Others] Probably native river Halys to Colchis and Armenia, and Jews, who did not understand the foreign separated by mountains from Cappadocia languages. Meyer supposes,-persons preon the S. It was at this time divided into viously hostile to Jesus and his disciples, petty principalities under Roman pro- and thus judging as in Luke vii. 34 they
Isa. Iliv. 3.
I said, These men are full of m new wine. 14 But Peter,
I literally, said that they were.
n not expressed in the original.
Zech, xii. 10.
John vii. 38. ich. X. 45. k ch. Axi. 9.
judged of Himself. sweet wine] Spirit has been shed forth by Jesus, whom Sweet wine, not necessarily new wine: you crucified, but whom God hath exalted perhaps made of a remarkably sweet to be Lord and Christ. 14. with the small grape, which is understood by the eleven] Peter and the eleven come forward Jewish expositors to be meant in Gen. from the great body of believers. And he xlix. 11; İsa. v. 2; Jer. ii. 21,--and is distinguishes (by the word “these” in still found in Syria and Arabia. Suidas ver. 15) not himself from the eleven, but interprets it “ that which oozes out of the himself and the eleven from the rest. De grapes before they are pressed.”
Wette concludes from this, that the Apostles 14–36.] THE SPEECH OF Peter. “St. had not themselves spoken with tongues, Luke gives us here the first sample of the as being an inferior gift (1 Cor. xiv. 18 ff.); preaching of the Gospel by the Apostles, with perhaps too rashly, for this view hardly which the foundation of Christian preach accords with the word all which is the ing, as well as of the Church itself, appears subject of the whole of ver. 4. men of to be closely connected. We discover Judæa] the Jews, properly so called : native already, in this first sermon, all the pecu- dwellers in Jerusalem. all ye that dwell liarities of apostolic preaching. It contains at Jerusalem] the sojourners (ver. 5) from no reflections nor deductions concerning the other parts. 15.] these, see above. doctrine of Christ,—no proposition of new
the third hour of the day] the first and unknown doctrines, but simply and en- hour of prayer : before which no pious tirely consists of the proclamation of histo. Jew might eat or drink.- But perbaps we rical facts. The Apostles appear here as need not look further than the ordinary the witnesses of that which they had seen: intent of such a defence—the improbability the Resurrection of Jesus forming the cen- of intoxication at that hour of the morntral point of their testimony. It is true, ing. See Eccl. x. 16; Isa. v. 11; 1 Thess. that in the after-development of the Church v. 7. 16.] This prophecy is from the it was impossible to contine preaching to LXX, with very slight variations. this historical announcement only: it gra- this is, i. e. this is the fact, at which dually became invested with the additional those words pointed. See a somewhat office of building up believers in knowledge. similar expression, Luke xxiv. 44. But nevertheless, the simple testimony to 17.) in the last days is an exposition of the great works of God, as Peter here the words “after these things” in the delivers it, should never be wanting in LXX and Hebrew, referring it to the days preaching to those whose hearts are not of the Messiah, as Isa. ii. 2; Micah iv. 1, yet penetrated by the Word of Truth.” al. See also 2 Tim. ii. 1; Heb. i. 1. Olshausen. The discourse divides itself into saith God does not occur in the verse of two parts: 1. (vv. 14–21) · This which Joel, but at the beginning of the whole you hear is not the effect of drunkenness, passage, ver. 12, and is supplied by Peter but is the promised outpouring of the here. 18.] The Hebrew does not express Spirit on all flesh,'--2. (vv. 22—36) which the word my either time, but has, as in
xiv. 1, &c.
ch. x. 38. Heb. ii. 4.
Ich. xvi. 4. those days of my Spirit; land they shall prophesy : ix. 10. 1 Cor. 21: xii. 10,28;
19 m and I will shew wonders in heaven above, and signs m Joel ii. So,
" P in the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and vapour of n Matt. xxiv. smoke: 20 n the sun shall be turned into darkness, and the n Matt. xxiv. 29. Mark Lüketisi, 25. moon into blood, before that great and notable day of the
Luke xxl. 25. no o Rom. I. 13. Lord come : 21 and it shall come to pass, that whosoever
shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved. 22 Ye p John iii. 2:
i men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of Nazareth, a man q Matt. xxvi. approved of God among you P by miracles and wonders and 24. Luke *x 2 signs, which God did by him in the midst of you, as ye iv23:18: yourselves also know : 23 him, 9 being delivered 4 by the iv. 28. P render, on.
I render, according to. our English text, 'the servants and hand. pressly aserted of Jew and Gentile, Rom. enaids. The words and they shall pro. i. 17, where see note. 22. Ye men of phesy are not in the LXX nor in the Israel] This address binds all the hearers Hebrew text. 19.] The words above, in one term, and that one reminds them of sigos, and beneath are not in the LXX, their covenant relation with God: comp. nor in the Hebrew text. blood, and “all the house of Israel,” ver. 36. fire, ....) Not, bloodshed and wasting by of Nazareth] This title does not here seem fire,'as commonly interpreted:-not devas. to be emphatically used by way of contrast tations, but prodigies, are foretold :- to what follows, as some have thought, bloody and fiery appearances :-pillars of but only as the ordinary appellation of smoke, as in the Hebrew. 20.) See Jesus by the Jews, see John xviii. 5, 7; Matt. xxiv. 29. the ... day of the ch. xxii. 8; xxvi. 9. The words of Lord] Not the first coming of Christ,- (by) God, belong to approved, and denote which interpretation would run counter to the source whence the proof came. the whole tenor of the Apostle's application approved must be taken in its fuller and of the prophecy :- but clearly, His second stricter meaning: viz. as importing,coming : regarded in prophetic language as shewn to be that which He claimed to be. following close upon the outpouring of the The connexion of the passage is, that the Spirit, because it is the next great event in Man Jesus of Nazareth was by God dethe divine arrangements. — The Apostles monstrated, by God wrought in among probably expected this coming very soon you, by God's counsel delivered to death, (see note on Rom. xii. 11); but this did by God raised up (which raising up is not at all affect the accuracy of their ex- argued on till ver. 32, then taken up pressions respecting it. Their days wit again), by God (ver. 36), finally, made nessed the Pentecostal effusion, which was Lord and Christ. This was the process of the beginning of the signs of the end : then argument then with the Jews,-proceeding follows the period, KNOWN TO THE FATHER on the identity of a man whom they had ONLY, of waiting--the Church for her Lord, seen and known, — and then mounting - the Lord Himself till all things shall up from His works and His death and have been put under His feet, -and thon His resurrection, to His glorification,the signs shall be renewed, and the day of all THE PURPOSE AND DOING OF GOD. the Lord shall come. Meantime, and in
which God did by him] This is the midst of these signs, the covenant of not, as De Wette characterizes it, a loro the spiritual dispensation is, ver. 21 - view of the miracles torought by Jesus, nor • Whosoever shall call on the name of the is it inconsistent with John ii. 11; but it Lord, shall be saved.' The gates of God's is in strict accordance with the progress of mercy are thrown open in Christ to all our Lord through humiliation to glory, people :- no barrier is placed,--no union and with His own words in that very with any external association or succession Gospel (v. 19), which is devoted to the required : the promise is to individuals, as great subject, the manifestation, by the individuals: whosoever: which individual Father, of the glory of the Son. This universality, though here, by the nature of side of the subject is here especially dwelt the circumstances, spoken within the limits on in argument with these Jews, to exhibit of the outward Israel, is afterwards as ex. (see above) the whole course of Jesus of
determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, 'r ye have r ch. v. 80. taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain : 24 8 whom 5 ver. 82. God [8 hath] raised up, having loosed the pains of death : because it was not possible that he should be holden t of it. 25 For David speaketh concerning him, • I foresaw the t Psa. Ivi. 8. Lord always before my face, for he is on my right hand, that I u should not be moved : 26 therefore did my heart rejoice, and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh
I read and render, ye by the hand of lawless men nailed up and slew. & omit. ti.e. by it.
u render, may. Nazareth, as the ordinance and doing of be true in its highest and proper meaning THE GOD OF ISRAEL. 23. delivered ] by of any one, it must be of Him. We are met whom, is not said, but was supplied by the at every turn by the shallow objections of hearers. The counsel and foreknowledge the Rationalists, who seem incapable of of God are not to be joined as in the A. V. comprehending the principle on which the to "delivered,” with “by," as if they were sayings of David respecting himself are the agents ---the connexion in the original referred to Christ. To say, with De Wette, is that of accordance and appointment, not that Peter's proof lies not in any historical of agency. The same connexion is ex. but only in an ideal meaning of the Psalm, pressed in ch. xv. by “after the manner of is entirely beside the subject. To interpret Moses." See 2 Pet. i. 21 and note. the sayings of David (or indeed those of by the hand of lawless men) viz. of the any one else) historically,' i. e, solely as Roman soldiers. The same word is used referring to the occasion which gave rise to by St. Paul to express those without law, them, and having no wider reference, would to whom he became as without law, 1 Cor. be to establish a canon of interpretation ix. 21.
The counsel and fore. wholly counter to the common sense of knowledge of God are not the same : the mankind. Every one, placed in any given former designates His Eternal Plan, by position, when speaking of himself as in which He has arranged all things (hence the that position, speaks what will refer to determinate counsel)- the latter, the omni. others similarly situated, and most point. science, by which every part of this plan is edly to any one who shall in any especial foreseen and unforgotten by Him.
and pre-eminent way stand in that position. nailed up] The harshness and unworthiness Applying even this common rule to David's of the deed are strongly set forth by a sayings, the applicability of them to Christ word expressing the mechanical act merely, will be legitimized :—but how much more, nailed up, as in contrast with the former when we take into account the whole cir. clause, in which the dignity and divine cumstances of David's theocratic position, mission of Jesus are set forth.- Peter lays as the prophetic representative and type of the charge on the multitude, because they Christ. Whether the Messiah were present abetted their rulers,—see ch. iii. 17, where or not to the mind of the Psalmist, is of this is fully expressed : not for the far very little import: in some cases He plainly fetched reason given by Olshausen, that was : in others, as here, David's words,
all mankind were in fact guilty of the spoken of himself and his circumstances, death of Jesus :' in which case, as Meyer could only be in their highest and literal well observes, Peter must have said .we,' sense true of the great Son of David who not you. 24.] On the difficulty, and was to come. David often spoke concerning probable account to be given of the ex- himself : but THE SPIRIT WHO SPOKE IN pression having loosed the pains of death, David, concerning Christ. The citation see note in my Greek Test. They cannot is almost word for word according to the well be explained to the English reader. LXX version, differing from the Hebrew
The assertion, it was not possible original as noticed below. that I may that he should be holden of it, depends not be moved] In the Hebrew, and English for its proof on the “ For” which follows. Bible, this is, I shall not be moved.'
25.] The xvith Psalm was not by 26. my tongue] In the Hebrew, and the Rabbis applied to the Messiah : but English Bible, .my glory :' so in Ps. cviii. Peter here proves to them that, if it is to 1, where our prayer-book version renders
u 1 Kings ii.
10. ch. xiii.
shall rest in hope : 27 because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. 28 Thou hast made known to me the ways of life; thou shalt make me full of joy with thy countenance. 29 > Men and brethren, let me freely speak unto you" of the patriarch David, that he y is both dead and buried, and his
sepulchre is with us unto this day. 30 Therefore being a x ? Sam. vii. prophet, * and knowing that God had sworn with an oath culmi: 11. to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh,
Tiin. z he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne ; 31 he seeing y Ps. xvi. 10. this before spake of the resurrection of Christ, y that a his
soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corrup
tion. 32 z This Jesus [b hath] God raised up, a c whereof we Phil... all are witnesses. 33 Therefore o being by the right hand
12, 13. Ps.
Luke i. 32, 69. Rom. i. 3. 2 Tim. ii. 8.
s ver. 24.
Phil. ii. 9.
“I will give praise with the best member down. Jerome mentions that the tomb of that I have.”. Compare also Ps. lvii. 8. David was visited in his tiine; i.e. at the
28.] Thou hast made known: in end of the fourth century. 30.] & the Hebrew, and English Bible, • Thou wilt prophet, in the stricter sense, a foreteller make known. thou shalt make me of future events by the inspiration of the full of joy with thy countenance is in the Holy Spirit. knowing that God had Hebrew, and English Bible, “ In (Heb. sworn See 2 Sam. vii. 12. The words in with) thy presence is fulness of joy." These this case are not cited from the LXX, but two last clauses refer to the Resurrection rendered from the Hebrew. 31.) The and the Ascension respectively. 29. term seeing this before distinctly asserts Brethren (literally “Men, brethren")] He the prophetic consciousness of David in implies, “I am your brother, an Israelite, the composition of this Psalm. But of and therefore would not speak with dis. what sort that prophetic consciousness was, respect of David.' He prepares the way may be gathered from this same Apostle, for the apologetic sentence which follows. 1 Pet. i. 10–12: that it was not a distinct
The title Patriarch' is only here knowledge of the events which the proapplied to David as the progenitor of the pbets foretold, but only a conscious referkingly race:- Abrahain and the sons of ence in their minds to the great promises Jacob are so called in ch. vii. 8, 9, and in of the covenant, in the expression of which Heb. vii. 4. In the LXX, the word is they were guided by the Holy Spirit of used of chief men, and heads of families, prophecy to say things pregnant with with the exception of 2 Chron. xxiii. 20, meaning not patent to themselves but to where it represents “captains of hundreds.” us. 32.] From ver. 25, the Apostle We learn from 1 Kings ii. 10, and Neh. iii. has been employed in substantiating the 16, that David was buried at Jerusalem, Resurrection as the act of God announced in the city of David, i.e. the stronghold of by prophecy in old time : now the histo. Zion, 2 Sam. v. 7.-Josephus gives an rical fact of its accomplishment is affirmed, account of the high priest Hyrcanus, when and the vouchers for it produced. besieged by Antiochus Eusebes,--and after. The word rendered “whereof” may also wards King Herod, opening the tomb and mean of whom: and this latter is the taking treasure from it. Dio Cassius more probable ; see ch. i. 8. It includes mentions, among the prodigies which pre- the other rendering. We are His witceded Hadrian's war, that the tomb of nesses,' implies, "We testify to this His Solomon (the same with that of David) fell work,' which work implied the Resurrec.