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it has created much bad feeling that the two countrymen, which was appointed on seven members of the committee appointed January 27, 1859, has recommended the by this meeting, have been required by the election of vestries in every congregation, government to give an account of them- and a revision of the legislation of divorces. selves. One of the passages which are In Denmark the draft of a new constitumost obnoxious to the laity of both (Prot- tion has been submitted by the governestant and Roman) Churches, is the pro- ment to the diocesan conventions of the vision on mixed marriages, according to clergy. Public opinion in Denmark conwhich no Protestant pastor dare perform tinues to pronounce itself decidedly in the marriage cereniony where one of the favor of an entire separation of Church parties is a Roman Catholic, without a and State, and motions to this effect have direct license from the parish priest. In again been made in the diet. Tbe Free some towns, as Heidelberg and Manheim, Churches advance rapidly. The Baptists a large majority, even of the Roman Cath- in Sweden, in spite of the incessant perseolic population, have signed the petitions cution, have increased to more than three against the concordat. It is generally thousand. The Methodist Episcopal understood that not above six or eight Church in Norway and Denmark has sia members of the second chamber, and not congregations, with more than four hundmore than four of the first, will vote for the red members. In Norway also the Free Concordat, While this proves conclusively Apostolic Church, founded by Pastor that Rome has not yet regained a firm hold Lammers, is advancing; and in Denmark of the Roman Catholic population of Baden, the number of the Free Lutheran congrethe ADDRESSES OF SYMPATHY TO THE POPE gations increases. have been signed very numerously in Prussia, where, as is now generally con
The Roman Catholic Church.ceded, the attachment of the Roman Great Efforts are made by the Roman Catholic population to the Church is missionaries, especially in the province of stronger than in any other part of Ger- literature. Though their membership in many. The address of the diocese of all Scandinavia counts only a few thousand, Cologne has been signed by 155,000 men,
they have started, during the past year, that of Breslau by 106,000, and in the
their third periodical, a political weekly. other Prussian dioceses the signatures are
Recently, also, a history of the Roman equally numerous. The eight archbishops Church in Denmark, from 828 to 1536, and bishops of Prussia have also prayed has been published by a Roman Catholic the Prince Regent of Prussia, in a joint author, which attracts some attention, address, to protect the rights of the pope
because it is, as yet, the only historical as a legitimate sovereign. The union
work on this period in the Danish language. heretofore existing in the second chamber In Copenhagen a free school has been of the Prussian Parliament between the established, where poor children receive ministerial and the Roman Catholic parties not only free instruction, but also support, has been dissolved, and consequently the on which account it is visited also by leader of the latter party has not been re- many poor Protestant children. elected first vice-president of the chamber. The Catholic party in the second chamber
FRANCE. counts at present forty-two members. A The Protestant Church.-Tur considerable number of the Roman Catho- LANGUAGE OF THE LEADING FRENCH PERIlic members do not belong to it.
ODICALS on Protestant affairs is attracting
considerable attention. The Revue des SCANDINAVIA.
Deux Mondes, the most thorough of all The Protestant Churches.-The French papers, has brought out during the Parliaments of all the three Scandinavian last year several articles in which a grand kingdoms have been occupied with the future is prophesied to the Protestant discussion of questions partly changing Church. An article of Emile Montegut on the ECCLESIASTICAL LEGISLATION. In the works of Madame Gasparin remarks: Sweden a bill brought in by the govern- “Noble Church, which in the midst of ment, and proposing some mitigations of universal enfeeblement numbers yet so the intolerant old code, is likely to be many loyal and valiant souls! Courage ! adopted. It is, however, much less liberal In one way or another a grand future is than the propositions made to the diet by reserved for you !" Similar are the sentithe late King Oscar. In Norway a Church ments of Prevost Paradol, one of the assistcommittee, consisting of one bishop, two ant editors of the Journal des Debate. He provosts, two pastors, two lawyers, and has recently published a new edition of an older work on French Protestantism, into which the so-called Catholic party and added to it an introduction on “the of France is divided, the strict ultramonfuture of Protestantism in France,” in tanes (Univers) and the more moderate which he describes the prospects of Prot- school, (Montalembert, Falloux, Lacorestantism as very good. But while thus daire,) are in this question united against Protestantism is advancing, the STRIFE OF the emperor. Even some heirs of the old PARTIES continues within. Rationalism Gallican traditions have issued strong decis far from being extinct, and it is even larations in favor of the temporal power asserted by some that it is again spread- of the pope, among which no one has ing among the younger clergy. Several created greater surprise than that of Silnew ultra-rationalistic and deistic books
vestre de Sacy, the editor-in-chief of the have been published by pastors of the Journal des Debrits. On the other hand French Churches, and indorsed by many there are, however, also several priests others, and the views of men like the late who have dared to declare themselves for Monod, have been pronounced by a Re- the abolition of the temporal power. formed pastor of Paris as antichristian, Among them Abbé Michon, who some antihuman, and antidivine. The period- years ago proposed to the pope to take up icals of the erangelical party strongly ad- his residence in Jerusalem, is the most vocate the re-establishment of synods, from known. Great interest is also taken in which they hope some remedy of the the establishment of a new Anti-Roman existing evils. The minister of public periodical, called l'Union Chrctienne, of worship is favorable to this plan, but a which the first number was published majority of pastors is believed to be in November. The prospectus is signed by opposed to it. The evangelical party has Abbé Guettée, well known as the author recently suffered a great loss by the death of the best work on the history of the of Mr. Bonifas, a young, pious, and talented Gallican Church, and by a priest of one professor of theology in the faculty of of the Eastern Churches. The aim seems Montauban. His death will undoubtedly to be to unite all the episcopal Churches give rise to severe contests regarding the of the world on the basis of the æcumenappointment of a successor.
ical councils of the first centuries.
The Roman Catholic Church.
ITALY. The new year opens with GLOOMY PROS- The Roman Catholic Church.PECTS for the Roman Church. The AN ENCYCLICAL LETTER OF THE Pope, of pamphlet Le Pape et le Congres left no January 19, announces to his " venerablo doubt on the intentions of the emperor. brethren, the patriarchs, primates, archThe pope's reply, ignoring the author and bishops, bishops, and other ordinaries, stigmatizing the pamphlet itself as hypo- united by grace and the communion of critical; the emperor's categorical assump- the apostolic see,” that the Emperor of tion of the principles therein laid down; France has openly adhered to the doctrines and, lastly, the encyclica of the pope to of the pamphlet Le Pape et le Congres, notall the Roman bishops of the world, pro- withstanding these doctrines had previclaimed to the whole world that the pope ously been branded by the pope as hypohad completely fallen out with the most critical and extremely iniquitous; that he powerful protector of the Church among has advised the pope to give up the lega. the European princes. That the immense tions, and that the pope has replied that majority of the French bishops and priests the papal rights of sovereignty could not side with the pope cannot be doubted, be abdicated without violating the solemn for eighty-one out of eighty-three arch- oaths which bind the pope, and without bishops and bishops have come out pub- weakening the rights of all the princes of licly in defense of the temporal sovereignty the Christinn world. The eneyclical letof the pope, and only one, the Bishop of ter evidently regards the breach between Troyes, has indirectly censured the demon- Rome and the French government as comstrations in favor of it. The suppression plete, and anticipates serious troubles for of the Univers, the leading Roman Catholic the papacy. In the mean while the EcclkDaily of the world, is a proof that the SIASTICAL LEGISLATION in the states of emperor is not afraid to take up the Central Italy (Parma, Modena, Tuscany, gauntlet, and unless he finds it in his in- the legations,) continues to undergo thorterest to change again his policy, we may ough changes. Three decrees are prepared expect for the current year a struggle in Tuscany; first, a commission will be between Church and State of the highest appointed to draw up a report on the conconsequence. Both the great divisions, dition of the revenues of the various ecclosiastical corporations of Tuscany, prelim- until the government, as was believed, ininary to the introduction of a bill for a timidated by the archbishop, temporarily more just distribution of the wealth of the shut up the place of gathering. MazzaChurch, and the augmentation of the sti- rella then returned to Genoa, and Count pends of the rural clergy; secondly, an Guicciardini, whose Plymouthian views annual endowment of 40,000 lire (about are said to have injured the congre$6,000) will be created for the Jewish gation in the estimation of the governEstablishment; thirdly, the concordat ment, also left Florence. In January the concluded under the late Grandduke Leo- Plymouth party formally separated from pold will be abolished. Similar decrees the congregation, led by an ex-priest, are prepared in the other three states. Gualtieri, who is supported as an evan
gelist in Florence by a committee in Nice. The Protestant Churches.-The The congregation has found a new chief news on the PROGRESS OF PROTESTANTISM or evangelist in the person of a carpenter is highly important. In Lombardy ser- named Barsali, and the communicants, eral societies are in the field for the work who were two hundred a few weeks ago, of evangelization. The Bible Society of have now reached the number of three Elberfield supports six colporteurs ; the hundred. The agent of the British and Italian Evangelical Society of Geneva three Foreign Bible Society has removed his or four; the Vaudois one; the depot of headquarters from Genoa to Florence, and the British Bible Society at Genoa two. numerous colporteurs are now traversing An evangelist of the Italian Church of Dr. the country. Congregations have been de Sanctis, at Turin, is active at Milan, formed at Pisa and Leghorn. Colporteurs The new Waldensian congregation at Milan and Scripture readers are also proceeding not only supports the pastor, but also to Bologna, Parma, Modena, and throughenables him to send six colporteurs into out the whole of Tuscany. Lombardy. In Sardinia an edition of the Italian New Testament is in progress at
SPAIN. Turin. The Tract Society of Turin has The Protestant Church.-Senor been busy printing tracts during the sum- Escalante, the colporteur who for circu
A new Waldensian chapel has been lating the (Roman Catholic) Spanish veropened at Aosta, where a few years ago
sion of the Scriptures has been in prison not a Protestant was to be found. Now for eight months, has now been condemned one of the magistrates is a professed ad- by the court to nine years of imprisonherent. In Tuscany permission has been ment. A meeting at Edinburgh, Scotland, given for the introduction of the Bible held on January 23, has invoked the inthrough the custom-house, and a number terposition of the British government in of copies, after having been long impris- bis behalf. oned in the custom-house, have been liberated. The Waldensian congregation has The Roman Catholic Church.obtained permission to open a separate A new concordat was signed on Nov. place of worship, instead of conducting 25. According to Spanish papers the its services in the Swiss church, and a Pope consents in to the sale of the hall has been hired for the joint use of Church property, and the salaries of the the Scotch and Italian congregations. clergy are entered in the register of the Signor Mazzarella, from Genoa, preached public debt, to be paid by the state as infor several weeks to crowded audiences, terest.
ART. IX.-FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.
ing the great merits of Professor Tischen
dorf in behalf of the Greek text of the 1. Exegetical Literature.
New Testament. Nearly twenty years of Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Græce. his life have been devoted to the most Vol. i, pp. cclxxviii, 696 ; vol. ii, pp. thorough investigations for the purpose of 681, 8vo. Leipsic: A. Winter. 1859. re-establishing the original text in its There is no difference of opinion concern- purity. Numerous discoveries of great importance have rewarded his incessant The only work in the Roman Catholic zeal, and established his reputation as the theology worth noticing is a new manual highest living authority in all questions of introduction to the books of the Old relating to the purity of the sacred text. Testament, by Professor Reusch, of Bonn. The preface gives, among other matter, a (Lehrbuch der Einleitung. Freiburg, 1859.) survey of the manuscripts of the New The author, one of the ablest young theoTestament, the version and the patristic logians of the Roman Church, admits the works which Tischendorf has discovered superiority of Protestant literature by the and partially published, and of those which complaint that among the standard works he has compared again, in order to find to which he refers there are only so few new material for his edition; a treatise of Roman Catholic authors. on the order of the books of the New Testament; a review of the most import
2. Historic Theology. ant editions, and a survey of the whole Hefele, History of Councils. (Concilien material made use of by him. The text geschichte. Freiburg, vols. i-iii.) This itself is accompanied by critical notes, work is acknowledged everywhere as the giving the authorities for the readings of standard work, and in fact the only comthe common text, of the readings adopted plete work on the subject, as for a long by Tischendorf, and of the various read- time no other general history of councils ings in general. Since the publication had appeared. It contains the history of of the seventh edition of the New Testa- all important synods, all the decrees, and ment Professor Tischendorf has made a the important documents both in the new journey to the East, and discovered original and in a German translation ; also a new manuscript more important than any the references to the works of Harduin other heretofore known. We give a brief
and Mansi. A fourth volume is in press; account of it below under literary notices. it will be completed in five volumes. New volumes have been recently pub
Köppen, C. F. The Religion of Buddha, lished of the two great Bibleworks of
vol. ii, containing the Lamaic Hierarchy Bunsen and of Professor Lange in Bonn.
and Church. (Die Religion des Buddha. The latter work, (Theologische Homiletisches
Berlin, 8vo.) A History of Buddhism Biblewerk. Bielefield, 1859,) whose author
was a great desiderutum, because a number is a prominent member of the evangelical
of the most important documents have party and known by many other theolog
become known only during the last years. ical works, mects among the German
A survey of all the newly discovered clergy with a very favorable reception, as
sources was given a few years ago by it not only gives in condensed form all
Professor Weber, of Berlin, in his “Indische the results of modern exegetical theology,
Studien." These sources have been made but has also a very rich homiletic depart
use of by Koppen, and therefore the former ment. Ministers who can read German
works may be regarded, to some extent, will find the work in this latter respect
as being superseded by it. The first volume very useful and instructive.
was published in 1857, and well received
by all Orientalists. The preface of the The lectures of the late Professor Neand- second volume states that another work er on the two Epistles to the Corinthians on the history of Buddhism has been pubhave been published by Beyschlag, court lished in Russia by Wassiliew, and that a preacher at Carlsruhe. (N.’s Theologische new source of information has been opened Vorlesungen, vol. ii. Berlin.)
by the publication of the historic work of
the Tibetan priest, Varanutha. Professor Wiesler, of Goettingen, has published a new Commentary on the
On the history of the Protestant Church Epistle to the Galatians. (Commentar in Russia during the present and last uber den Brief au die Galuter. Goettingen,
centuries, treat Harnack, (Professor in 1859.) Professor Hupfeld, of Halle, the
Erlangen, strict Lutheran,) The Lutheran third volume of his Commentary on the
Church of Lironia and the Moraviane, (Die Psalms. (Die Psalmen. Gotha, 1860.)
Lutherische Kirche Lioland's Erlangen, The fourth volume, completing the work,
1859, pp. xiv, 400, 8vo,) and Hasselwill appear in 1861.
blatt, on the Present Position of the Moravians
in Lironia, (Zur Beurtheilung der gegenOf the exegetical manual on the apoc- wärtigen Stellung Herrnhuts in Livland. ryphal books, by Fritzsch and Grimm, Dorpat, 1859.) A little book on the (Ecegetisches Handbuch zu den Apocryphen. Brangelical Church in Austria : ils History, Leipsic,) the fifth volume has appeared. Constitution, and Statistics, by Hornyanski, the editor of the two Protestant papers in 1859.) Ehlers, On the Influence of Ancient Pesth, Hungary, (Die evangelische kirche Philosophy, especially the Platonic and in Oesterreich, Pesth, 1859,) is very sea- Stoic, on the Christian apologetic writers sonable, as the struggles of the Hungarian of the second century. (Goettingen, 1859.) Protestants for their rights attract just Noack, (Hegelian, author of a History of now general attention.
Christian Doctrines, and many other Several valuable new editions of church
works,) Schelling and the Philosophy of fathers have appeared, among which we
Romanticism, vol. ii, which completes the mention : Dressel, Clementinorum Epitome lian,) Science of the Logical Idea. Part II.
work. (Berlin, 1859.) Rosencranz, (Hegeduce. Leipsic, 1859. 8vo., pp. ix, 334.) The editor is already well known by an
Logics and Doctrines of Ideas. (Koenigs
berg, 1859.) Apelt, (adherent of the Phiedition of the Apostolic Fathers. Of the
losophy of Fries,) Philosophy of Religion, two epitome one appears in this edition in a greatly corrected form, while the
(Leipsic, 1860,) tries to show that German other is published for the first time entire.
theology, since Schleiermacher, has adopt
ed false philosophic views, which have Krabinger, S. Cypriani libri ad donatum,
underinined the foundation of all theology, de dominica Oratione, de mortalitate, ad Demetrianum, de opere et eleemosynis, de
the true conception of the idea of God. bono patientiæ et de zelo et livore (Tubingen,
5. Periodicals. 1859. 8vo., pp. viii, 320) gives an im
Professor Schenkel of Heidelberg, in proved text and critical notes. Laemmer,
union with Professors Baur of Giessen, Eusebii Pamphili historiæ ecclesiasticæ librix.
Jacobi of Halle, Heppe of Marburg, and (Schaffhausen, 1859. Vol. i, pp. xiv, 148, 8vo.) All the manuscripts of Gerneny gelical party, has established a new peri
other distinguished writers of the evanand Italy have been again compared, the Latin translation of Valesius corrected in
odical called, Allgemeine Kirchliche Zeit
schrift, (Elberfeld, 1860,) of which ten several places, and critical notes added.
numbers will be published during the year. The edition of the celebrated work of 9. Hippolytus, Refutationis omnium hæresium
The "Allgemeine Kirchenzeitung” of Darm
stadt, of which Professor Schenkel has librorum decem, by Duncker and Schneidewin,
been, until now, assistant editor, will be the first part of which appeared in 1856,
edited in future by Dr. Zimmerman, Dr. has now been completed. (Goettingen,
Palmer, and Dr. Lechler. In Austria the 1859. Pp. viii, 574, 8vo.)
Protestantische Jahrbucher fur Oestreich, by Of the comprehensive History of the Hornyanski, which were discontinued two Religion of Jesus Christ, commenced by years ago, have been revived. The KirchCount Stolberg, (Roman Catholic,) and liche Zeitschrift, of Rostock, one of the continued, though with less talent, by leading organs of the High Lutherans, Kerz, and, at present, by Brischar, Pro- changes its title into Theologische Zeitfessor at Vienna, the fifty-second volume schrift. It will in future be edited by has been issued, together with a complete Professor Dieckhoff of Goettingen, and Dr. index to vols. xvi-li. Other continua. Kliefoth of Schwerin, and six numbers tions of historic works are: Gfrorer, His will be published a year. It will contain tory of Pope Gregory VII., vol. iv, and three departments : I. Articles; II. ReHiemer, Introduction of Christianity into ligious Intelligence; III. Literary IntelliGermany, vol. v.
gence. 3. Dogmatic Theology.
6. General Literary Notices. Professor Schenkel's Manual of Christian The Nero Manuscript of the Bible from Doctrines (Die Christliche Dogmatik, Wies- Mount Sinai. The most valuable discovery baden, vol. ii,) is now complete. Of Pro- made by Professor Tischendorf, during his fessor Philippi'o (Professor at Rostock, and late journey in the East, is a new manuHigh Lutheran) System of Doctrines ( Glau. script of the Greek New Testament, more benslehre. Stuttgardt, 1859.) the third vol important for the establishment of the ume has been issued, containing the doc. original text of the New Testament than trines of sin, of Satan, and of death, any other manuscript of the Bible here
tofore known. For many reasons Pro1. Philosophical Literature.
fessor Tischendorf feels convinced that it F. Michelis, (R. C.,) the Philosophy of Plato was made in the first half of the fourth in its inner relation to revealed truth. century, and that it is therefore the oldest Part I., containing the introductions, the manuscript of the New Testament which dialectic and Socratic dialogues (Munster, is extant. Only the celebrated Vaticana