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CONCLUSION. There is great excitement in Dant But all he asks is to be led first to zic, for the noble clock, which has Marguerite's grave. There, in the been for ten years the marvel of presence of thousands, he prays for Germany,—the clock which was made strength; and then he desires them by cunningest artificers who fol to conduct him to the clock-tower. lowed Dumiger's model, has stopped. When he appears outside, the air No one can arrange it; the model is rent with shouts. “Dumiger, Duwas broken up as a jealous precau miger, the first of the citizens!' Oh, tion. There is but one who un popular feeling, at once base and derstands it—who can regulate the baseless! wondrous movement ; that is he who He seems to see the works again ; constructed it.
he climbs up and touches every Yes, the council will go to Dumi part of the wonderful constructionger. They seek his house; they re his hand has found the secret of the pent of the fearful crime they com movement, again it is in order, and mitted.
the pride of Dantzic is saved. • Dumiger, come forth!' they ex He stands still for some minutes. claim.
Forgive us our offence. A god could not have been more Greatest of citizens, all honours and worshipped, or a prophet looked rewards shall be heaped upon you, grander. Again his hand is on the Regulate this great work, prized movement-crash, crash,—the slight above all others in this city, for spring on which the whole machinery which we contended for five years depended is rent asunder by his own with Hamburgh. Stand forth in hand ; the clock falls to pieces, never glory and honour!'
to be repaired. At the same moment And a man, young in years, but there is a fall, a fearful groan, and decrepit and suffering, appears, sup Dumiger lies on the pavement a ported by two friends. The partner bleeding corpse. The clock and its of his hopes and fears is long since maker have ceased to exist. dead. The streets ring with applause Such is the legend, and from that as he appears, and many kneel to day there has been no clock in the kiss his hand-ay, some his feet. Dom of Dantzic.
THE DRAINAGE OF THE METROPOLIS.
TWO things, at least, the inhabit some of the worst contents of our
ants of the metropolis have made sewers are soluble in water. The up their minds that they will have, Thames beyond the reach of the a good supply of water, and an efficient tide, and above the site of any condrainage. As to the source from siderable town,
that is the true which the first is to be obtained, if source of water-supply for our large the general tone of conversation may and growing population. The right be taken as a test, the public mind mode of distribution is also pretty seems to have taken its line. There well settled in the public mind. is no confidence in artesian wells, and Cisterns and ball-cocks have had all eyes are turned to that liberal
their day, and the era of water at purveyor, Father Thames.
high pressure, pure, cool, constant everybody is sick and tired of drink and abundant, for drinking, cooking, ing diluted sewage, whether provided washing, street and garden-watering, by themselves or by some urban and fire-extinction, is at hand. We contributor higher up the stream. cannot suffer ourselves to be any There is a thirsty outcry for Nature's longer taunted by Nottingham and Entire, and a positive loathing of half-a-dozen other provincial towns, Cloacina's villanous Compound. We or laughed to scorn by our cousins no longer put any faith in settling in New York and Philadelphia, or ponds, and are growing somewhat put to shame by the recollection of sceptical as to filters, seeing that the unrivalled water-supply of ancient
Rome. A spirit of wise imitation of large subsidiary main-drains; in and generous rivalry is stirring within a word, of a system of arterial drainus. We, too, must have our aque age much more extensive than would ducts. Nor shall our poorer fellow be required for the effectual relief of citizens be forgotten. We will no the same extent of surface for agrilonger suffer them to be cheated of
cultural purposes. their time by water-butts in areas In the case of cities built on ground and basements, or half-inch pipes sloping upwards from the banks of dealing out a dribbling stream for rivers, this is the one great requiretwo or three hours on alternate days, ment; and the only error which an or dilapidated pumps sucking foul engineer of ordinary competency water from a soil impregnated with is in danger of committing is that of filth. The water - companies, too, making his main-drains too small to shall not lull us into a false security carry off the water during heavy by consenting to supply the poor falls of rain. But the engineer has a creatures every day. This stint of much more difficult task to perform one of the first necessaries of life, where the city which he is called with its contingent waste of time, upon to drain stands on a dead flat and perennial irritation of temper, is scarcely raised above the level of the unworthy of us and of our times. banks of the river, so that the streams Water must no longer be begged, which he would pour into it are stolen, or fought for. We have pil driven back at high water, and can ferings and quarrels enough without only escape at low tide. A great setting up unnecessary rallying-points part of the northern division of the in the shape of pumps and stand metropolis presents the easy conpipes. We must have water at ditions first pointed out; almost the high pressure in every street and on entire southern division, with the every floor of every house. Nothing districts on the north side lying to less will or ought to coutent us. the west and extreme east, offer the
One use of water we have not yet peculiar difficulties just contemplated. specified. We want it as a means The problem of an efficient drainto the important end of abolishing age of the metropolis would, therecesspools, and promoting the prompt fore, be by no means easy of solution, and complete removal of all offensive even if the water for which an exit refuse from our houses and streets. is to be found were the pure rain of For this purpose it must be dealt out heaven untainted by the manifold liberally and even lavishly. Ten impurities of a town-population. But gallons a-head will be required for in the instance of the metropolis, above household uses ; other ten gallons, in all other cities, two peculiar difficulall probability, for manufacturing ties present themselves :-on the one purposes ; and, perchance, a third ten hand, the water of the Thames must gallons for the watering of streets and be no longer polluted by the contents the flushing of sewers. In what we of the sewers ; on the other hand, are about to state on the subject of two millions' worth of the finest drainage, we shall assume such a manure in existence must not be supply of water to have been pro wasted. Such, at least, is the senvided.
tence pronounced by public opinion. In order to estimate fully the im We are determined, if possible, to be portance of efficient drainage to a neither poisoned nor starved. There large city situate on a river, we are some, at least, who do not regard should bear in mind that the upland the fear of either mode of death as waters which find their way to the altogether visionary. At any rate principal water-course, in the shape the question of the efficient drainage of tributary streams, are not only of London cannot be disentangled reinforced by the daily addition of from these two considerations. We refuse-water from houses and manu are bound to give to both of them factories, but apt to be suddenly due weight in discussing the best swollen into torrents by the rapid method of procedure. flow of rain-water from the roofs of Is the pollution of the Thames by houses and the pavements of streets. the sewage of London so detrimental Hence the necessity not merely of to health, or otherwise so objectionwide natural water-courses, but also able, as to require to be guarded
against in our plans for the drainage guarded against in our plans for the of the metropolis ? Is the sewage of drainage of the metropolis. In other London so valuable as manure, that words, we hold it to be perfectly its preservation for agricultural pur immaterial whether the sewage of poses ought to form a leading con London be discharged into the river sideration in those plans ? These as it flows past the city, or at some are the two questions to which an point nearer to the sea, provided we answer must be given before we can be not obliged to drink the water so pretend to decide on the merits of tainted,* or to inhale the foul gases rival schemes.
which are given off in consequence of 1. The great objection to the the present rude and careless mode blending of the contents of the sewers of discharging the contents of the with the water of the Thames arises sewers over the banks of the river. out of the distribution of this water, 2. The question, Whether the for culinary and domestic purposes, sewage of London is so valuable as by certain of the water-companies. manure that its preservation for agriThe force of this objection is about to cultural purposes ought to form a be diminished by the gradual removal leading consideration in our plans for of the sources of supply higher up the drainage of the metropolis ? is the river; and the objection itself not so easy of solution. Of the inwill be entirely obviated by the adop herent value of sewage-manure for tion of any of the several plans now agricultural purposes there cannot before the public for drawing a sup,
be a shadow of doubt; nor is there ply of water from some point still any reason to distrust the sober estinearer to its source. A second ob mate of scientific men, who set the jection to the existing state of things annual money value of the entire arises out of the discharge of the drainage of the metropolis at two contents of the sewers over the muddy millions and a quarter of money, being banks of the river at low water, to at the rate of ll. a-head for each the great offence of the nostrils and inhabitant. But the inherent value to the certain injury of health. The and the practical value of this, as of extension of the sewers to low-water other manures, are two very different mark, or (still better) the embank things. A load of the best solid ment of the river, would obviate this manure which London can afford objection; and as the one plan is very may be worth from five to ten shileasy of execution, and the other lings on the land of a market-garhighly expedient on sanitary and dener or farmer at Fulham or Isleæsthetic grounds, we may be allowed worth, and not fetch a shilling in to assume that ere long one or other, London. So great is the depreciation or both, will be carried into effect. occasioned by the heavy cost of There would then only remain, as an transport. In like manner a tun of objection of little moment, the ad unmixed house - drainage may be dition to the water of the Thames of worth eightpence when spread upon about one grain in the gallon of the land, and yet not pay for cartage offensive matter, - a homeopathic, a distance of a couple of miles. Even dose which even the most strenuous if we suppose this difficulty overcome advocate of sanitary reforms and im by the substitution of the steamprovements might be easily pre engine and iron-pipe for the more vailed on to permit. As an improved costly conveyance by cart, and the supply of water, on the one hand, expense of distribution reduced from and an extension of the outlets of the pounds to shillings, we have still to sewers, with or without an embank destroy venerable prejudices and sument of the river, on the other, may persede old habits before we can be looked upon as proximate reforms, prevail on our agriculturists to adopt we are of opinion that the pollution such a perfect revolution in their of the Thames does not require to be modes of culture. The transition from
* It is notorious that Thames water, after being allowed to remain at rest for some time, undergoes a sort of defecation which restores it to a state of purity, and renders it, for drinking and culinary purposes, equal to the very best river-water. This process of defecation is much more effectual than the best methods of filtration now in use.
the exclusive use of solid manure with fully support the character we have the occasional aid of water in times given of it. The details by which of drought, to the mixed employment we could justify this assertion are of solid and liquid manure which is better suited to an agricultural jourthe true perfection of culture, is a nal than to these pages. change which only time can bring But the value of the sewage of our about; though experience (as in the towns for agricultural purposes is by case of the market - gardeners of no means to be measured by its Fulham) has demonstrated its expe power of reproduction, considered diency. If we would hasten the merely as a manure. It is a manure, advent of this change among the cul and something more. It is the best tivators of the soil, we must give and most convenient water-supply them in as many places as possible for horticultural and farming pur. the means of obtaining the sewage. poses, and as such will hereafter be
It may be within the recollection held in the greatest consideration. of many of our readers that doubts We will explain ourselves. In the have been recently thrown upon the neighbourhood of large cities, and value of sewage manure by certain especially in the neighbourhood of eminent agriculturists, who allege London, manure is a mere drug. that liquid manure has failed in their The supply is so large in proportion hands. The error into which these to the demand, that it can always be parties have fallen is the very com had for an almost nominal price, and mon one of confounding two things often for the mere cost of conveyessentially different. They are in
But this is not all. The the habit of calling the water of market-gardeners and farmers in the sewers indifferently sewage and neighbourhood of London are unaliquid manure, and, with charac nimous in proclaiming the necessity teristic obtuseness of mind, have of common farmyard or stable maassumed that what might be af mure. They say that it not only firmed of liquid manure generally enriches, but that it also moistens, might equally be predicated of this lightens, and warms the land. If form of it. Accordingly, having they could dispense with its fertilapplied to their land with little or no izing properties they could not forego effect the weak washings of the its mechanical ones. It follows, farm-yard, to which the decaying therefore, that neither sewage manure straw imparts a deceptive toast in the form of liquid, nor solid mawater colouring, they at once jump nures precipitated from it by cheto the conclusion that all liquid mical agents, will be accepted as manure is useless, and that sewage substitutes for the old - fashioned manure, being a variety of liquid stable dung; and that if the sewermanure, is useless too. It is of the water is to come into use at all, it very first importance, not merely in will not be as a substitute for ordireference to the drainage of London, nary solid manure, but as a supplebut with a view to the economy of ment to it. From this general rule, the agricultural resources of every however, it is necessary to except town, village, and country mansion, grass lands, for which liquid manure that this serious error should be (and sewage as its best form) is as corrected. So far from allowing appropriate as solid manure is unsuitsewage manure to be depreciated by able.
Bearing this important excomparison with the drainage of un ception in mind, we have still to incovered farm-yards, exposed to the quire whether, for garden and arable action of every shower that falls, we culture, sewage manure possesses can assure our farming friends that properties which must sooner or later we speak from experience and actual force its acceptance upon the horticomparison of the one with the other culturist and farmer. We believe when we proclaim the marked supe that it does; and we do not doubt riority of house and town drainage that it will hereafter play a most over that of the farmstead. Nay, important part in the history of we have the same practical authority agriculture; not, be it remembered, for stating, that to whatever soil, or merely as a manure, but as a fertilizfor whatever purpose, they may ing water. And here we would call apply this manure, they will find it the attention of the cultivators of the
soil to a very remarkable oversight habit of making an exclusive use. which they are in the habit of com When applied to land already highly mitting. They have either not ob manured, it has been proved to be served, or they habitually forget (or, capable of hastening growth by three what is more probable still, they look or four weeks, and doubling, trebling, upon the circumstance as natural or even quadrupling, the amount of and inevitable), the heavy losses produce. We have, therefore, no which they sustain even in wet years hesitation in answering in the affirmby drought. They are not yet con ative the second question already scious how much they are in want of propounded. We believe that the an improved water-supply. If the sewage of London is so valuable as soil could speak for itself, it would manure (or as fertilizing water), that cry out as loudly for water as the its preservation for agricultural purinhabitants of London are now doing; poses ought to form a leading consiand every draining-tile that is put deration in our plans for the drainage into the ground will make the ne of the metropolis. When, however, cessity more felt. "Drought in Eng we affirm that it ought to form a land' will sound to the ears of leading consideration, we do not mean ninety-nine in a hundred of our to place it quite on the same level farmers like "Ice in Africa.' And with the prime objects of the Metroyet we affirm, that in the very years politan Sewers Commission, as set in which most rain falls there are forth by Sir John Burgoyne; namely, fatal periods of drought. The year "To rid the metropolis of the noxi1847, for instance, was
ous sewage matter, and of the drainwettest year within the memory of age waters, efficiently as regards man, and nevertheless we can affirm health and convenience,' and 'to it of our own knowledge, that within effect this object with the least possiten miles of London several acres of ble delay.' Nor are we disposed to peas were lost for want of rain at a withhold our assent to the proposition critical period of their growth. We that 'the Commissioners have nothing will even hazard the opinion that not to do with the application of the a year passes that we do not lose many matter to manure, except so far as it millions of pounds' worth of produce may be combined with saving of by short droughts occurring at cri expense to them in carrying out their tical periods. If this be so (and we primary object. We further believe, are convinced that it is), the sewage with Sir John Burgoyne, that the of our towns cannot be considered application of the sewage as manure otherwise than as a most important is an extraneous object' to · be taken aid to agriculture. In the diluted up by others,' to whom it would be form which it will assume under an the duty of the Commissioners to give ample water-supply, it will constitute every facility. This is the language an invaluable fertilizing liquid, capa of an honourable and disinterested ble of yielding a remunerative price public servant, determined to help to those who distribute and to those those who are striving to help themwho apply it. The Metropolitan selves, and to benefit the public; Sewage Manure Company have esta contrasting, we feel bound to say, blished its value, beyond the reach most favourably with the spirit and of doubt or cavil.
If they prove
temper which actuated the now deequally successful in overcoming the funct Commission, and under the stubborn resistance of parties who, inspiration of which, 700l. of public admitting their premises, still with money was spent in conveying the hold a practical assent to their con contents of the Northumberland clusions, they will establish a lasting sewer in barges a score or so of miles, claim to the gratitude of the British to repeat the very experiment already farmer.
successfully made some hundreds of For our present purposes it is suf times at Manchester, while at the ficient to show that the sewage of same time the only company armed London, in the dilute form which it by act of parliament with the nemust assume under an ample supply cessary powers to carry forward the of water to its inhabitants, is a valu. good work, without charge to the able subsidiary to the solid manure public, was submitted to all the torof which the farmer is now in the tures of hope deferred, and thwarted