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ziren; but when the little clerk found forest, he was brought to a sudden that the reverend incumbent evi halt, his suspicions confirmed, aud skently knew the stranger, and evinced sympathies all excited, on hearing Reference and attention towards him, Damian's voice at rather a high i misgivings vanished, and Johnny pitch exclaiming, Decided that his guest was merely an • Most beautiful Linné! here, esscentric individual ; 'perhaps a leetle where nothing is heard save the 'scere than that, but perfectly safe rustling of the trees and the song of end harmless.' • Poor gentleman,' the birds, I apostrophize thee! What soliloquized Johnny, 'I am sure he are the haughty flowers of the land linas known great trouble; and when in comparison with thee? Thou re

put this, and when I put that, toge fusest to exchange the silent glen cher, I think I can fathom his his and the melancholy wood for the tory. First, there are his lone ram gay parterres of civilization; the dies in the forest, and sure he isn't mossy turf and the shady solitude is always a botanizing, 'cause don't I thy eternal bed; a fairy link and byear him apostrophizing of some memento thou art of past happiness.' thing continually ? Secondly, don't Here Johnny could not resist I see him in that shady corner be peeping through the intervening Treath the yew-tree, when he thinks boughs and leaves, and he felt quite ao one sees him, bending over that awe-struck on beholding Damian grave which has only the name of kneeling beside

mossy knoll, Linette' on its headstone, dated whereon grew a delicate white flower. utwentyfive years ago ? and didn't Surely it could not be that he was te ask me when the rose-trees had speaking to, yet he plucked a blosdried which used to grow all over it? som, at the same time continuing, mad hasn't he planted more, and told • Fair little lady, sweet woodland

to attend carefully to them ? Linné, I feel absolute compunction and didn't he know where to find in plucking thee, for thou wilt pine St. Hubert's well? So I put these and die in my hands. It is truly & ekings together, and come to the con selfish and transitory gratification, «lusion that he knew this place when for the tenderest care will not save Exe was a youngster, and long afore I thee when transplanted, and cultivadud; that his sweetheart is buried tion is thy death.' here, and that he hasn't been quite • Is it the flower or a spirit he is sight ever since.'

speaking to ?' pondered JohannelJohnny's sage deductions seemed linus. I declare it is as sugar sweet wot altogether unwarrantable. Da to hear him as it is to hear my wian, as the stranger gave

his name, flageolet, and 'most makes me cry.' kas an indefatigable labourer, pa So saying, he took it from his dient in research day by day, gather- pocket, breathing a wailing sym, ving, botanical treasures, classifying phony, which caused the startled 2nd arranging them each evening, botanist to look hurriedly round, ud seldom ceasing to pursue most ar and to move quickly on; but not dently his occupation, so that Johnny ere he had caught a glimpse of aften felt uncertain if the pre-occu the inopportune musician peering pied enthusiast gave any heed to his through the leaves. Sumble talk, for he had no secrets ; It might be this slight incident had and to speak of his hopes and wishes ruffled or offended the stranger, but for the orphan boy was so natural shortly after Damian took his leave and pleasant, for it must be con of Laurisheim, disappearing as quietly Eessed that Johnny liked a bit of and mysteriously as he came ; but gossip' now and then; so he also previous to his departure he signicortided his ambitious wishes re fied his wishes to the worthy sexton, specting the church music, as leader respecting the peculiar attention he 9the choir on his flageolet, lament desired should be bestowed on the ang at the same time the ruinous rose-trees replanted on the grave sondition of the sacred edifice.

whose only memorial was the Christa Ah, poor fellow,' thought Johan ian name of a female. He backed zellinus, “I have heard that unhap- this request by a munificent guerdon, piness finds rest and relief in study;' saying that a similar one would be bad one evening, as he turned home forthcoming yearly, provided his wards from a distant part of the wishes were well attended to; adding

with a smile, that it would help eccentric nobleman, and had not Johnny to pay for his nephew's long returned to his native land, schooling.

after many years' absence. He was The little clerk did indeed venture unmarried, led a hermit's life, and to question the clergyman concern was signalized by abstruse botanical ing the departed guest, but he discoveries. It was whispered that checked him so authoritatively, that an early tragical story, attending Johnny never presumed to take such some lost love, had once blighted a liberty again.

reason ; but nothing was known on More than a year had passed that score with certainty. away, the roses were blooming in But of this I can speak posiprofusion on Linette's grave, the tively,' continued the narrator, that promised stipend had been duly con it was at St. Hubert's particular veyed to Johannellinus through an request your flageolet, "Johnny, unknown channel, and the orphan usurped the place of a small organ boy had been placed at a superior once in contemplation for the old school, when a new incumbent suc church ; its repairs also were acceceeded to the living of Laurisheim, lerated through the same instruaided in the performance of his mentality. With regard to the duties by a curate. This latter per

forest - scene you accidentally wit. sonage was affable and communi. nessed, when Damian addressed the cative, and pleasantly consulted with wild flower, perhaps you are not Johnny respecting the details of re aware that Linné is the name of a paration and renovation in progress beautiful weed, originally selected by at the old church; he also was the a great botanist to bear his appellabearer of the now unasked per tion, and that it is also the endearing mission of Johnny's flageolet leading abbreviation for Linette. All atthe choir. It may readily be ima tempts to transplant this delicate gined that Johnny's heart warmed flower from its woodland solitude towards his new friend ; never had have proved failures, it dies immehe felt himself of such importance diately; and I have heard that enbefore, never had his cottage been so thusiastic botanists seek the shady honoured by a guest since Damian forest depths for weeks together, had sojourned there. Often he where alone they can examine the would exclaim, in the fulness of his shrinking beauty in its full perheart,-

fection of growth and maturity. • What a lucky fellow I am! how Now, friend Johnny, your clever grateful I ought to be! Here I had brain may not find much difficulty three wishes, and all are gratified : in solving the problem of Damian's my boy is becoming a great scholar, visit to your cottage. Perhaps, also, my flageolet leads the choir, and the he entertained private recollections dear old church is beautified. I do attached to the spot, which peculiarly declare that if I was asked to wish endeared it to his memory, assofor something else, I don't know ciating the fair lady of the woods what it could be; except, indeed,' he with one who had borne its name in added thoughtfully, that I knew the days of his early and happy who my benefactor was.'

youth.' But now he had found one to That evening, far down the peacewhom he might speak, and it was ful valley, were heard the strains of not long ere he disburdened his the flageolet, and the prolonged mind, and related all he knew con echoes were slow and solemn, so that cerning Damian. The reverend folks said one to another, gentleman could afford no definite • Johannellinus is practising for information; but when they had the Sabbath-won't it be grand to often conversed together on the have such fine church music?' subject, a new light seemed to spring The roses still continued to bloom up in the latter's mind, and by de on the grave, whose headstone regrees he unfolded the following facts corded the name of Linette,' years to the wondering Johnny, leaving after Johnny the Diminutive had him to draw his own inference. found a last resting-place close at

The lord of St. Hubert's Priory hand-years after Johnny's orphan held the living of Laurisheim in his nephew had become a good, a wise, own gift; he was known to be an and a great man.




TE have two books before us By a matter of fact, I understand any-

worthy of consideration, and thing of which we obtain a conviction deserving of elaborate notice, but from our internal consciousness or any difficult to deal with in such compass

individual event or phenomenon which is as the pages of a monthly magazine

the object of sensation. It is true that afford. We consequently pretend to

even the simplest sensations involve do little more than draw attention to

some judgment: when a witness reports these works, and offer some sugges

he saw an object of a certain shape and

size, or at a certain distance, he describes tions with regard to them which may more than a mere impression of his sense haply induce the lover of truth, and of sight, and his statement implies a the student of the means and ap theory and explanation of the bare phepliances whereby it may be best and

When, however, this judg most easily arrived at, to search them ment is of so simple a kind as to become thoroughly. They will reward his wholly unconscious, and the interpretation trouble. The first is An Essay on

of the appearances is a matter of general the Influence of Authority in Matters

agreement, the object of sensation may, of Opinion, by George Cornewall

for our present purpose, be considered a

fact. A fact, as so defined, must be Lewis,* a gentleman who has of yore

limited to individual sensible objects, and translated more than one work on

not extended to general expressions or, political science, who has written

formulas, descriptive of classes of facts, several original books, and filled

or sequences of phenomena, such as, the several official situations of trust, and blood circulates, the sun attracts the is now, we believe, an Under Secre planets, and the like. tary of State for the Home Depart Propositions of this sort, though dement.

scriptive of realities, and, therefore, in The essay now before us is simply, one sense, of matters of fact, relate to gracefully, and candidly written, as

large classes of phenomena, which cannot befits a solemn subject, and bears

be grasped by a single sensation, which

can only be determined by a long series evidence on every page that it is the

of observations, and are established by a production of an accomplished scholar

long series of intricate reasoning. Taken and a sincere and careful thinker.

in this sense, matters of fact are decided It displays especial mark, too, of by an appeal to our own consciousness or being the work of one who has been sensation, or to the testimony, direct or bred to a public career, and from his indirect, of the original and percipient youth upward aspired to become a witnesses. Doubts, indeed, frequently statesman. As to its purpose, it is

arise as to the existence of a matter of to add a new link to the chain of fact, in consequence of the diversity of effusions touching the fundamental

the reports made by the original witnesses, processes of thought connected with

or the suspiciousness of their testimony.

A matter of fact may again be doubtreasoning which have been drawn down from the Novum Organum of

ful, in consequence of the different con

structions which may be put upon adLord Bacon to the present hour, and mitted facts and appearances, in a case notably by the labours of Archbishop of proof by (what is termed) circumWhately, Dr. Whewell, and Mr. stantial evidence. Whenever such doubts John Mill.

exist, they cannot be settled by a direct The first chapter is on the nature appeal to testimony, and can only be of authority in matters of opinion ; resolved by reasoning; instances of which and Mr. Lewis commences by laying

are afforded by the pleadings of lawyers down what portion of the subjects of

and the disquisitions of historians upon belief is understood to be included

contested facts. When an individual fact

is doubted upon reasonable grounds, its under this appellation of matters of

existence becomes a matter of opinion. opinion, and what is the meaning of

The existence of such a fact, however, is the generally-received distinction be

not a general or scientific truth, but a tween matters of opinion and matters question to be decided by a consideration of fact. He says accordingly, of the testimony of witnesses. Matters

* London : John W. Parker, West Strand. 1849.

of opinion not being disputed questions portion of the general opinions of of fact, are general propositions or theo human kind are derived from mere rems relating to laws of nature or mind,

authority, particularly in childhood principles and rules of human conduct,

and early youth; and thus, in Wordsfuture probabilities, deductions from hy.

worth's phrase, the boy is father to potheses, and the like, about which a

the man.' We derive our first opidoubt may reasonably exist. All doubt. ful questions, whether of speculation or

nion from our parents or guardians, practice, are matters of opinion. With

and our associates in the nursery and regard to these, the ultimate source of the play-ground - from their preour belief is always a process of reason cepts, practice, and habitudes ; and ing.

these, perhaps, for their enduring Having set forth this statement, potency, are the leading opinions of he then proceeds to declare that he our lives for good or evil, whether in proposes to inquire how far our the form of true guides and impulses opinions may be properly influenced of action, or as prejudices of this our by the mere authority of others, in first rudimental education; Tamen dependently of our own conviction usque recurrunt, to whatever succesfounded upon appropriate reasoning.' sive processes of mental culture But before we follow him further, it we may be subsequently subjected, is necessary to observe in what sense and through whatever scenes of he uses the word authority. It is in varied and many-coloured existence accordance with its sense in classical we may in after days pass. The boy writers. He observes, —

who in childhood is imbued with unOne of the meanings of auctoritas is generous, mean, or sordid feelings, explained by Facciolati as follows:- Item never will expand into a gentleman. pro pondere ac momento quod habent Lacquer the image as you may, sooner res legitime, sapienter, ac prudenter con or later the yellow clay will break stitutæ ut sunt leges, decreta senatus, out surely. Moreover, in questions dicta prudentum, res præclare gesta, of a practical nature throughout life sententiæ clarorum virorum. (See Cic.

we are all compelled, however well Top. c. 19.) An auctor meant the ori.

informed generally, to lean upon the ginator or creator of anything. Hence Virgil speaks of the deitied Augustus as

advice of professional and other Auctorem frugum tempestatumque po

skilled persons, who have devoted tentem (Georg. i. 27); and Sallust

themselves to the details as well as

says that unequal glory attends scriptorem et the principles of some one pursuit. auctorem rerum. (Cat. c. 11.) Hence any If you fall sick, albeit well aware person who determines our belief even as of the nature of your disease, and a witness, is called an auctor. Thus of tbe character of the remedies Tacitus, in quoting Julius Cæsar as which should be applied to it, you witness with respect to the former state

betake yourself to the physician for of the Gauls, call him summus auctorum

the nice and particular management (Germ. c. 28); i.e. the highest of authorities. As writers, particularly of his

thereof, and yield a plenary_obetory, were the authorities for facts, auctor

dience to his prescriptions: if Jones came to mean a writer. Hence Juvenal

or Brown, or some other vile cabspeaks of a preceptor of the Roman youth

bager some sartor putidus sues being required ut legat historias, auctores you for some trifle wrongfully, you noverit omnes, tanquam ungues digi

turn aside and set your attorney at tosque suo8 (viji. 231).*

the reptile--a thief to phlebotomize It is well, moreover, to know preli a thief!

In either case you are minarily, that whenever in the course under the authority of the individual of the essay Mr. Lewis speaks of the you employ, so far forth as you principle of anthority, he wishes to be accord your belief to his opinions, understood as meaning the principle whereof you have no accurate power of adopting the belief of others on a of verification ; and if these opinions matter of opinion without reference be erroneous, you, too, are led into to the particular grounds on which error: so that all you can reasonably that belief may rest. Of course a large hope for, when you have thus to im


* It is odd he should have here omitted as an illustration of his sense of the word, the familiar

Sive neglectum genus et nepotes

Respicis Auctor.

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pose your faith and trust, is to be one generation to another in a lump able to choose the guide who is the (like the succession of property per unileast likely to lead you astray. To

versitatem, according to the expression of forward the probability of this result the Roman lawyers), which results from is one of the main objects of Mr.

family influences and the authority exerLewis's essay. And most important

cised by the parent and the senior upon it is, though generally speaking many

the mind of the child and the junior,

doubtless contains a considerable alloy of our opinions formed in youth on

of evil, inasmuch as it perpetuates error matters of the greatest moment are in combination with truth, and affords little susceptible of subsequent or no test for their discrimination. But it ganic change, or even considerable is mainly this process which in each modification. Most men stick to the community connects the present with the religion and politics in which they past, and creates a unity and continuity were born and bred; and even the of national character and feeling. It is most constitutionally impressible, and

the insensible and incessant propagation the most unstable characters, see rea

of opinions from the old to the young son good for this fidelity, and shrink

within the circle of every family, and the very nervously from a breach of it.

uninquiring adoption by the growing

generation of the moral and intellectual The sanction of public opinion bears

ideas of their immediate predecessors, against it with a force which few

which give to each nation its distinctive care to brave, and still fewer can

attributes—which enable it to maintain endure. Lord Byron, whose own its characteristic peculiarities, and which humour in all operations of reason prevent the general level of civilization and flights of fancy was most ver throughout the country from receding or satile, and whose own ‘mobility '* becoming irregular. The traditions of of feeling and conduct was excessive,

civilization, if we may use the expression, has recorded in one of his MSS. how are to a great extent perpetuated by the sagacious he was of the ungrateful implicit faith of children in the authority

of their parents. peril of change in these cardinal matters. He remarks :

What degree of modification in The world visits change of politics or

after-life these opinions may receive change of religion with a more severe

depends partly on circumstances, censure than a mere difference of opinion pa on the man's natural dispowould appear to me to deserve. But

sition. If the latter be dull and there must be some reason for this feel sluggish, and the former act but ing; and I think it is that these depar rarely or seebly upon it, little or no tures from the earliest instilled ideas of modification will take place. Cirour childhood, and from the line of con cumstances may apparently make or duct chosen by us when we enter into

mar men, but it is not really so. No public life, have been seen to have more doubt in the world, as amongst mischievous results for society, and to

gamblers, false dicers, and such-like prove more weakness of mind, than other actions in themselves more immoral.

cattle, there is a good deal of what

they facetiously term 'ready-made This is so, but furthermore we luck,' such

illustrious birth, shall find that all men's fancies and ample fortune, stalwart frame, feelings, with respect to government, comely and intellectual features, the history, nationality, climate, scenery, divinely informed and perfectly orand the relations generally of ex ganized microcosm, so that there ternal nature, are for ever deeply may be the mens sana in corpore sano. tinged with the notions and visions But if the last only be, and be inof their boyhood. It is well ob spired with fiery energy, though served too by our author, that without any one other of the advenThis transmission of opinions from titious gifts of Lady Fortune, quam * This is Byron's own phrase. He says of the Lady Adeline :

• So well she acted all and every part

By turns,—with that vivacious versatility,
Which many people take for want of heart.

They err—'tis merely what is called mobility,
A thing of temperament and not of art,

Though seeming so from its supposed facility,
And false – though true, for surely they're sincerest
Who are strongly acted on by what is nearest.- Don Juan.


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